Download Wright Jaron - Computer Animation PDF

TitleWright Jaron - Computer Animation
Tags 3 D Modeling Auto Cad 3 D Computer Graphics Computer Animation
File Size23.4 MB
Total Pages252
Table of Contents
                            COMPUTER ANIMATION
CONTENTS
PREFACE
COMPUTER ANIMATION APPLIED
TO THE RECOVERY OF PREINDUSTRIAL HERITAGE:
A NEW APPROACH
	Abstract
	Introduction
	The Windmill
		Architecture
		Working
	Methodology
	Development
		1. General Outline of the Virtual Recreation of the ‘Sardinero’ Windmill
		2. Creation of CAD Model with AutoCAD and Import to Autodesk 3ds Max
			2.1. Fieldwork
			2.2. Modeling
				2.2.1. From AutoCAD, by Exporting .3ds Files
				2.2.2. From Autodesk 3ds Max, by Importing .dwg Files
		3. Cameras and Illumination
			3.1. Camera Movement. Creation of Path
			3.2. Illumination
		4. Animation of Working Parts
			4.1. Runner Stone Raising Mechanism
			4.2. Brake Rim Mechanism
		5. Materials and Maps. Mapping Coordinates
		6. Creation of Textures
		7. Rendering and Video Creation
		8. Postproduction
		Conclusion
		Funding
		References
VIRTUAL ENGINEERING IN AUGMENTED REALITY
	Abstract
	1. Introduction
		1.1. The Role of Virtual Engineering
		1.2. Augmented Reality
		1.3. Motivation and Objectives
	2. 3D Modelling in Augmented Reality
		2.1. Hardware Setup
		2.2. Software Setup
		2.3. Examples
	3. Simulating and Animating in AR
		3.1. Multibody Animation
		3.2. FEM Pre and Postprocessing
		3.3. CFD Postprocessing
	4. Conclusion
	References
A SURVEY OF POPULAR 3D SOFT-BODY
ANIMATION COMPRESSION APPROACHES
	1. Introduction
	2. An Overview of Mesh Coding Algorithms
		2.1.Static Mesh Compression
		2.2. Dynamic Mesh Coding Algorithms
			2.2.1.Registration-Based Compression
			2.2.2.Prediction-Based Compression
			2.2.3.Multiresolution Representation
			2.2.4.Other Coding Algorithms
			2.2.5.Encoding 3D Dynamic Meshes with Changing Connectivity
	3. Vertex Clustering for Dynamic Geometry Coding
		3.1.Overview of Vertex Clustering Techniques
			3.1.1.Topology-Based Clustering
			3.1.2.Geometry-Based Clustering
			3.1.3.Spectral-Based 3D Mesh Segmentation
			3.1.4.Analysis of Registration-Based Coding Algorithms
		3.2.ICP-based 3D Dynamic Geometry Compression
			3.2.1.PerformanceMetrics
		3.3.Impact of Vertex Clustering on Compression Performance
			3.3.1.Test Animations
			3.3.2.ExperimentalResults
		3.4.Comparison with PCA-Based Algorithms
	4.Conclusion
	References
VIRTUAL EMOTION TO EXPRESSION:
A COMPREHENSIVE DYNAMIC EMOTION
MODEL TO FACIAL EXPRESSION GENERATION
USING THE MPEG-4 STANDARD
	Abstract
	1.Introduction
	2.Emotion Models and Related Work
	3.The Emotion Hypercube
		3.1.Derived Emotions
		3.2.Binary Derived EmotionsTaxonomy
	4.Modeling Affective Phenomena in H
		4.1.Affective Pattern Description
		4.2.The Dynamics of an Affective Pattern
	5.VeeM: Virtual Emotion to Expression Model
	6.The MPEG-4 Standard
	7.VeeM applied on an MPEG-4 Face Model
	8.Conclusion
	References
EXAMPLE-BASED PERFORMANCE-DRIVEN
ANIMATION OF AN ANATOMICAL FACE MODEL
	Abstract
	1.Introduction
	2.Previous and Related Work
	3.Creating Key Expressions on An Anatomy-based Face Model
	4.Face Deformation Subspace Model
	5.Tracking the Face
	6.Facial Expression Retargeting
	7.Results
	8.Conclusion
	References
DYNAMICS FOR MANAGING OCCLUSION
OF BUILDINGS IN PANORAMIC MAPS
	Abstract
	1.Introduction
	2.RelatedWork
	3.The Occlusion Index
	4.Modification of Viewpoint
	5.Displacing Buildings
	6.Making Buildings Transparent
	7.Altering Heights of Buildings
	8.Results and Discussion
	9.Conclusions
	Acknowledgment
	References
CONSTRAINT-BASED AND FEATURE-BASED
CAD SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS
	Abstract
	1. Introduction
	2. Computer Aided Design Representation Schemes
		2.1. Raw Data
		2.2. Boundary Representation (Brep)
		2.3. Volume Modeling
		2.4. Higher-Level Representations in CAD
	3. Geometric Constraint Solving
		3.1. Numerical Constraint Solvers
		3.2. Constructive Constraint Solvers
			Rule-Constructive Solvers
			Graph-Constructive Solvers
		3.3. Propagation Methods
		3.4. Symbolic Constraint Solvers
		3.5. Hierarchical and Hybrid Approaches
	4. CAD Applications from a Feature-Based/Constraint-Based
Point of View
		4.1. Parametric Feature Based Design in Manufacturing Systems
		4.2. Feature-Based Modeling for Reverse Engineering
	5. Conclusion
	References
COMPUTER AIDED GEOMETRIC DESIGN
WITH POWELL-SABIN SPLINES
	Abstract
	1.Introduction
	2.Powell-Sabin Splines
		2.1. Polynomials on Triangles
		2.2.The Powell-Sabin Spline Space
		2.3. A B-spline Representation
		2.4.Properties of the B-spline Basis
		2.5. A Bernstein-B´ezier Representation
	3.Spline Subdivision
		3.1.Refinement Rules of the Triangulation
		3.2.The Construction of Refined Control Triangles
		3.3.Applications
	4.QHPS Splines
		4.1.The Hierarchical Powell-Sabin Spline Space
		4.2.A Quasi-hierarchical Powell-Sabin Spline Basis
		4.3.Properties of the QHPS B-spline Basis
		4.4. A Practical Implementation
	5.NURPS Surfaces
		5.1.Rational Powell-Sabin Surfaces
		5.2.Modelling with NURPS Surfaces
		5.3.NURPS Subdivision
		5.4.Quadrics as NURPS Surfaces
	6.Conclusion
	References
AN ONTOLOGY OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN
	Abstract
	1. Introduction
	2. An Object-Centred Ontology of Design
		2.1. An Ontology of Design Objects
			2.1.1. Object Function
			2.1.2. Object Behaviour
			2.1.3. Object Structure
			2.1.4. Relationships between Object Function, Behaviour and Structure
		2.2. An Ontology of Design Worlds
			2.2.1. The External World
			2.2.2. The Interpreted World
			2.2.3. The Expected World
			2.2.4. Relationships between the Three Worlds
			2.2.5. A More Detailed Framework of Design Interactions
		2.3. The Situated Function-Behaviour-Structure Framework
	3. A Process-Centred Ontology of Design
		3.1. An Ontology of Processes
			3.1.1. Process Function
			3.1.2. Process Behaviour
			3.1.3. Process Structure
			3.1.4. Relationships between Process Function, Behaviour and Structure
		3.2. An Ontology of Design Processes
	4. An Ontological Framework for Computer-Aided Design Support
		4.1. Computer-aided Design Support for Action
			4.1.1. Support for Communicating the Design
			4.1.2. Support for Initiating Reflective Conversation
		4.2. Computer-aided Design Support for FBSo Transformations and
Evaluation
		4.3. Computer-aided Design Support for Focussing
		4.4. Computer-aided Design Support for Interpretation
			4.4.1. Support for Transfer of Design Concepts as Intended
			4.4.2. Support for Re-Interpretation of Design Concepts
		4.5. Computer-aided Design Support for Constructive Memory
			4.5.1. Support for Retrieval of Design Concepts as Stored
			4.5.2. Support for Re-Construction of Design Concepts
	5. Conclusion
	Acknowledgments
	References
INDEX
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

COMPUTER SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS









COMPUTER ANIMATION



No part of this digital document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or
by any means. The publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this digital document, but makes no
expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No
liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information
contained herein. This digital document is sold with the clear understanding that the publisher is not engaged in
rendering legal, medical or any other professional services.

Page 126

Virtual Emotion to Expression 115

Figure 1. Six universal basic emotions defined by Ekman (surrounded bya dashed line) and
additional Plutchik basic emotions (acceptedandaware).

As discussed in [7], the basic emotion approach aims to build apsychologically ir-
reducibleemotion set, which means that these emotions cannot be derived by any other
emotion and new emotions are derived from them. Note that these considerations matches
to the mathematical definition of a basis.

As mentioned above, the best known method used to study basic emotion is by observ-
ing facial expressions. Through this, Ekman [5] defined six universal emotions:anger,
fear, disgust, surprise, joyandsadness, illustrated in Figure 1.

An extension of Ekman’s model to the basic emotions representation is the approach
proposed by Plutchik [11], where two additional basic emotions are defined (emphasized in
Figure 1):anticipation(also referred asaware, curiosityor interest) andacceptance(also
referred astrust). Plutchik describe its basic emotion as pairs of opposite emotions.

Plutchik emotions are disposed in a wheel of opposed pairs, as illustrated in Figure 2.
Derived emotions are defined as the combination of two neighbor basic emotion or as a basic
emotion intensity variation. In the emotion literature, the Plutchik wheel is considered to
be enough to span most of human emotion state.

Examples of computational systems that use the basic emotion approach to generate
their facial expressions are: SMILE [6], eFASE [3], EE-FAS [15], Cloning Expression [12],
the MPEG-4 Standard [8] and the CSLU Toolkit [2].

In addition to any model of emotion, the emotion perception becomes single for each
person due to factors such as mood and personality.

The approach proposed in [10] is to model mood as a simple and unique dimension:
goodmood andbad mood. A more complete approach proposed by Thayer in [16] uses
emotion spaces to represent mood in two dimensions (calm/tenseandenergy/tired), result-
ing in four mood emotional states:Energetic-calm, Energetic-tense, Tired-calmandTired-
tense. An example of computational system that incorporates mood to the character using
Thayer’s model to generate dynamic facial expressions is the DER [14] [15].

Personality is another important aspect to define the action and reaction of each per-
son as unique even when submitted to the same situation of another person. Until now,
there is not a formal consensus to define the personality trait of a person, however theBig

Page 127

116 Paula Rodrigues, Asla Sáand Luiz Velho

Figure 2. Plutchik wheel.

Five(or Big OCEAN) model is well-known. In this model, each first letter of OCEAN word
defines a dimension in the personality trait:Openess to experience,Conscientiousness,
Extraversion,Agreeableness,Neuroticism1.

Emotions are not static. They are experienced by each individual differently because of
characteristics such as personality and mood, referred here asaffective phenomenas. Addi-
tionally, affective phenomena also interferes in the reaction of each person when receives a
stimulus, defining theemotion sustaining time.

Our aim is to propose a computational system which incorporates and implements a
robust model based on basic emotions. So, the Plutchik model [11] is revisited and gen-
eralized to allow the description of new emotions from the eight basic emotions as well as
the incorporation of emotion dynamics in a comprehensive manner in order to allow the
automatic generation of believable virtual characters.

3. The Emotion Hypercube

The emotion description space proposed in this paper is a reinterpretation of Plutchik’s
emotional wheel.

We consider afamily of emotionsas a set of emotions composed by different intensity
levels of a given basic emotionEi. Plutchik has considered a discrete set of three levels
of intensity of a given basic emotion, namely, an attenuation of the pure basic emotion, the
pure basic emotion itself and an extrapolation of the pure basic emotion, as described in
Table 1.

Assuming that the Plutchik’s set of basic emotions is psychologically irreducible, our

1More information about BIG OCEAN model can be found athttp://www.answers.com/topic/big-five-
personality-traits(accessed in 22-jan-2008).

Page 251

Index240

resolution, 33, 41, 60, 62, 63, 64, 193, 205
resources, 59, 86
returns, 162, 166
rings, 25, 27, 169
robotics, 61
routines, 65
routing, 161, 165, 174

S

sadness, 115, 117, 118
sampling, 108, 158
scaling, 201, 202, 222
schema, 221, 232
scientific computing, 160
search, 2, 214, 225, 226, 233
searching, 163
selecting, ix, 20, 66, 93, 145, 146
semantics, 147, 159, 216, 219, 224
sensation, 37
sensitivity, 227
sensors, 70, 80
sensory experience, 212
separation, 24, 122
shape, vii, ix, 57, 77, 78, 95, 114, 132, 133, 134,

142, 152, 158, 160, 161, 162, 165, 166, 168,
174, 177, 179, 184, 190, 200, 205, 230, 231

sharing, 220
simulation, viii, 23, 27, 57, 58, 63, 67, 68, 69, 70,

71, 72, 73, 77, 78, 79, 82, 83, 141, 160, 206,
223, 225

Singapore, 85, 129
skeleton, 161, 162
skills, 167
skin, viii, 114, 129, 130, 132, 133
smoothness, 90, 98, 99, 101, 158, 178, 206
snakes, 132
social development, vii, 1
software, vii, 20, 34, 54, 57, 63, 64, 68, 213, 217,

221
space, viii, ix, 23, 62, 64, 65, 66, 70, 73, 74, 80,

86, 88, 92, 95, 108, 113, 114, 116, 117, 118,
120, 121, 122, 123, 126, 136, 143, 145, 146,
148, 163, 164, 178, 179, 180, 181, 185, 192,
193, 194, 195, 197, 200, 202, 203, 213, 214,
217, 219, 220, 224, 226, 227, 232

Spain, 1, 3, 4, 55, 56
spatial information, 155
specialisation, 220
spectrum, 159
speech, viii, 113, 121, 123, 125, 126, 132, 144
speed, 12, 13, 18, 141, 142, 162, 169, 217, 218,

220
sports, 59
stability, 184, 188, 196, 202
stakeholders, 220, 223
standards, 223, 233
static geometry, 78

steel, 77
stimulus, 116, 117, 118, 121
stock, 6
storage, 12, 85, 193, 219
strategies, 68, 77, 78, 126, 225, 233
stress, 77, 78
structural modifications, 61
subgroups, 22, 23
surface area, 4
symbols, 98
symmetry, 171
synchronization, viii, 113, 125
synthesis, viii, 3, 39, 129, 131, 142, 144, 220,

233

T

taxonomy, 118, 166, 175
teeth, 122
teleconferencing, 143
teleology, 210
television, 59
temperature, 62, 78, 79, 80
thermal analysis, 225
thoughts, 213, 232
three-dimensional model, 147, 173
three-dimensional space, 155
threshold, 89, 97, 98, 101, 102, 104, 152, 172
timing, 54
tissue, 133
tones, 41
topology, 86, 91, 94, 97, 101, 162, 165, 211
torus, 186, 187, 197
tracking, viii, 59, 61, 62, 63, 65, 129, 130, 131,

132, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142,
143, 144

trade-off, 90, 98, 193
tradition, 55
training, viii, 54, 60, 129, 130, 134, 135, 138,

139, 141, 142
transformation, 27, 33, 65, 73, 74, 75, 78, 79, 97,

133, 137, 148, 217, 218, 219, 225
transformation matrix, 73, 74, 97, 137, 148
transformations, x, 20, 69, 70, 75, 85, 90, 97, 98,

107, 166, 209, 210, 214, 220, 224, 225, 231
transition, 20, 54, 121, 126
transitions, 54
translation, 75, 78, 79, 133, 141
transmission, 25, 64, 85, 88, 99, 102
transmits, 25
transparency, 146, 150
transportation, 217
trees, 145, 164
triangulation, ix, 96, 147, 177, 178, 180, 181,

182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190,
191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199,
200, 201, 205, 207

trust, 115, 117

Similer Documents