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TitleWine Production Technology in the United States
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LanguageEnglish
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Total Pages231
Table of Contents
                            Title Page
Half Title Page
Copyright
ACS Symposium Series
FOREWORD
	PREFACE
	1 Development of the American Wine Industry to 1960
		Early Experiments East of the Rocky Mountains
		California
		1933 to 1960
		Literature Cited
	2 White Table Wine Production in California's North Coast Region
		White Grape Acreage in the North Coast
		Characteristics of North Coast Counties
		Viticultural Practices Affecting Wine Production and Quality
		Harvest
		Mechanical Harvesting
		Crushing
		Crusher to Press
		Pressing
		Treatment of Juice Prior to Clarification
		Juice Clarification
		Fermentation
		Yeast Cultures
		Inoculation
		Juice Solids
		Juice SO2
		Juice Protein Content
		Hydrogen Sulfide Production
		Fermentation Temperature
		Clarification After Fermentation
		Stabilization
		Aging
		Fining
		Bottling
		Oxidation
		Quality Control
		New Directions
		Literature Cited
	3 Red Wine Production in the Coastal Counties of California 1960-1980
		The Climate
		The Soils
		The Grapes
		Production Trends
		The Harvest
		Crushing
		Alcoholic Fermentation
		The Malo-Lactic Fermentation
		Aging
		Blending
		Stabilization
		Fining
		Filtration
		Bottling
		Regulations
		Personnel
		Acknowledgments
		Literature Cited
	4 Sparkling Wine Production in California
		Definitions
		Processes
		Carbon Dioxide
		Grapes
		Wine Processing
		The Cuvée
		Fermenting and Aging
		Yeast Removal and Other Procedures
		Traditional Method
		Transfer System
		Bulk Process
		Bottling Sparkling Wine
		Bottles and Closures
		Analyses of Product
		Equipment
		Comment
		Acknowledgment
		Literature Cited
	5 Production of Table Wines in the Interior Valley
		Grapes
		Wineries: Number and Cooperage
		Production: Wine Types in the Interior Valley
		Grape Harvesting
		Grape Crushing
		Grape Pressing
		Fermentation
		Clarification
		Stabilization
		Aging
		Literature Cited
	6 Production of Baked and Submerged Culture Sherry-Type Wines in California 1960-1980
		Varieties
		Fermentation
		Production Procedures
		The Flor Process
		Literature Cited
	7 Wine Production in Washington State
		Other Areas
		Viticulture
		Harvesting
		Crushing
		Dejuicing
		Fermentation
		Secondary (Malo-Lactic) Fermentation
		Clarification of Wine
		Aging
		Finishing
		Bottling
		Bottle Aging
		Speciality Products
		Future
		Literature Cited
	8 Grapes and Wine Production in the East
		The Grapes
		Wine Production
		White Wine
		Red Wine Production
		Finishing
		Sparkling Wine
		Fortified Wines
		Prospects
		Acknowledgments
		Literature Cited
	INDEX
		A
		B
		C
		D
		E
		F
		G
		H
		I
		J
		K
		L
		M
		N
		O
		P
		Q
		P
		R
		S
		T
		U
		V
		W
		Y
		Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Wine Productio Technology
in the United States

In Wine Production Technology in the United States; Amerine, M.;
ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1981.

Page 115

4. BEim Sparkling Wine Production 109

within three seconds to the transfer machine (Transvasa). This is a thirty-
valve machine similar to a filler but operated in reverse. In the machine,
the bottles are lifted up to a rubber seal and pressurized to 100 psig with
C 0 2 . The pressure forces the wine up through a flexible tube into a pres-
surized, 55-psig holding tank within the machine. The wine is forced by
pressure out of the holding tank through a float control valve to 4800- or
9600-gallon receiving tanks that have been pressurized at 40 psig with
C 0 2 . This operation is at a rate of 120 bottles per minute. The sparkling
wine in the receiving tank is kept at -2° C .

The receiving tanks are vertical stainless pressure vessels equipped
with pressure, temperature, and level gauges, pressure relief valve, inlet
and outlet valves and fittings for liquid and C 0 2 gas, a slow-moving propeller
agitator, and a glycol jacket fo cooling

The transfer machin
of liquid remains in the bottle. This liquid is recovered by inverting the
bottles in a twist conveyor, collecting the liquid, and pumping it into the
receiving tank.

The sparkling wine in the receiving tank is cloudy, contains no sugar,
and requires clarification, sweetening, and treatment before final bottling.
After analysis, the S 0 2 level of the wine is adjusted by adding potassium
metabisulfite. Erythorbic acid is added also. These are for antimicrobial
and antioxidation purposes.

To clarify the wine, it is filtered by pumping through a two-stage
plate-and-frame filter to the bottling tank. Most of the yeast cells and other
solids are removed in the first stage of filtration. The first stage uses both
diatomaceous earth and cellulose filter pads. The second stage has only
sterilizing pads for polish filtration. The diatomaceous earth is added to the
wine as a slurry before the wine enters the filter. If the wine is too dark in
color, activated carbon is added along with the diatomaceous earth. During
this operation, the receiving and bottling tanks are equalized in pressure
with a connecting gas line.

Sparkling wine in the bottling tank after filtration is brilliantly clear and
sugarless. No sweetening is added for brut champagne. Only invert syrup
is added for sparkling burgundy and extra dry champagne. Special blends
of still wine and syrup are added for color and/or flavor and sweetness for
Cold Duck, pink champagne, and crackling wines. Sparkling wine in the
bottling tanks is held at 2° C and 45 psig pressure and is usually bottled
within one to three days.

The addition of preblends, up to 30 percent of volume, dilutes the C 0 2
content of the sparkling wine, and for that reason cuvées destined to be so
blended are fermented to a high C 0 2 level by adding tirage sugar in amounts
up to 30 g/L.

The empty bottles from the transfer machine are inverted to drain the
residual liquid, water-spray rinsed in a twist-rinser, and immediately refilled
with unfermented cuvée. Formerly, the bottles were washed in a large

In Wine Production Technology in the United States; Amerine, M.;
ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1981.

Page 116

110 W I N E P R O D U C T I O N T E C H N O L O G Y I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S

beverage bottle washer, using hot caustic solution, and either conveyed to
the isobarometric filler for filling with final product or packed empty into
cartons for reuse later. Now, the bottles are filled with cuvée, crown
capped, and automatically placed into cartons. This operation is coordi-
nated with transferring. About 40,000 bottles are transferred and refilled
in one day using nine persons. See Figure 10.

The bottling of transfer system sparkling wine is the same as that of bulk
process sparkling wine and wil l be described later. It is reported that the
loss of C O 2 during the entire transfer system, from tirage bottle to the final
product, is V2 to 1 gas volume C 0 2 (100-200 g/100 mL). Most of the loss is
in the transfer operation itself. This degree of loss compares favorably with
that of the traditional method, 1 to IY2 gas volumes C 0 2 .

During the last twent ther hav bee improvement i
the transfer system as practice
the handling of bottles in the fermenting-aging cellars has progressed from
that of individual bottles to bottles in bins to bottles in cartons. Hand
operations of decapping and transferring at rates of 20-25 bottles per minute
have been replaced by fully automatic machines capable of 120 bottles per

CASES CASES

Ε Ε

Π
BOTTLES

Π -2°C
CHILL

TUNNEL
TRANSFER
MACHINE

AGING CELLAR
FERMENTED

15° - 23°C

FROM WINE
TRANSFER • -2°C

MACHINE

ADDITIVES—•

TO BOTTLING

FROM
TRANSFER

MACHINE

BOTTLES BOTTLES BOTTLES I 1 BOTTLES I 1 CASES

BOTTLE
CAPPER

BOTTLE
LOADER

TO FERMENTING/
"AGING CELLAR

Figure 10. Flow diagram for transfer system—Winery C

In Wine Production Technology in the United States; Amerine, M.;
ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1981.

Page 230

228 WIN E PRODUCTIO N I N T H E UNITE D STATE S

Ο

Oak(s)
American 50,75,147,218
European 49-50,75,147,218
French 75,180
Italian and Yugoslavian 75

roffice International de la Vigne
et du Vin 90

Oldham , C. F 13-14
Oxidatio n of whit e vine 52

Palomino 15,16,29,143
Pasteur Institut e 42
Paul Masson winer y 68-69
Pectic enzymes 41,134-144
Pedro Jimenez 143
Petite Bouschet 1
Petite Sirah 16, 20, 60
Phylloxera 9,61

vastatrix 195-196
Pinot blanc 29,49, 60, 67, 77, 91,

92,106,164-166,170,189
Pinot St. George 77
Piquette 17
Plastic stoppers 116
Polyphenol oxidase 52,168
Pomace contact 38
Pomace drainer 128/
Port 19,20,220-221
Potassium bitartrat e 77,211,215
Potassium sorbate 188
Press

fraction(s) 40,179
juice 70,210
rack-and-cloth 4/

Pressing 39-40,134-135,211, 217
Processing, sparklin g win e 92-94
Production practices, early mission 6-8
Production , wine( s )

procedures, sherry-type 145-147
of sparklin g 86-87
table 126-129
trends, red 62-63

Prohibitio n 4,19,200,216
Protein stabilit y 138
Protein stabilization 46
Prunin g 34,164,165/, 196
Puncheons, aging 74/

Q. alba 50
Q. sessilis 50
Qualit y control 52-53,186
Quercus rober 50

R

Rack-and-cloth press 4/
Racking(s) 45,180
Raisaine 201

Ravat 203
Red wines, fermentation of 173

table 136-137
Red win e productio n 59-83, 216-218
Refrigeration 182

systems 172
Regulations 82
Repsold winery 19
Residual sugar 44-45
Rhine win e 32
Riddlin g 100-103,220
Rose of Peru 16
Rosé table wines, fermentation . 135-136
Rubired 92
Ruby Cabernet 92

beticus 149
Sampling station, grape 131/
Santa Clara winery 9
Sauvignon blanc ..16,29,34,35,38,44,

46,49,164,165,167,180,189
Sauvignon vert 13,14, 29
Scuppernong 194
Seibel, Albert 201, 202, 204/, 219
Sémillon 13,16, 29, 38,91,164,

165,167,182
Seyve-Villard 203,204/
Shermat 145,148
Sherry 19,20,220-221

baked-type 146
-type wines 143-152

Sitjar, Buenaventura 7
Skin contact 38-39
Skin fermentations 217
Soft wine 69-70
Soil types 60,161
Solubility, carbon dioxide 88-91
Sonoma winery 9
Sparkling Green Hungarian 86
Sparkling wine(s)

commercially produced 23i
consumption of commercial . . . . 24t
production 85-120,219-220

St. Macaire 16
Stabilization 46-49,77-78

table wine 137-139
Stanford Angelica 13
State of California Wine Grape

Inspection Agency 129-130
Steinberg yeast 42
Still wine(s) 85

commercially produced 23i
consumption of commercial . . . . 24f

Stopped fermentation 45
Submerged culture, acetaldehyde

content of 151/
Submerged-flor processing 148
Sulfur dioxide 38,67,169,173,215

juice 43

In Wine Production Technology in the United States; Amerine, M.;
ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1981.

Page 231

I N D E X 229

Sultana 15,143
Sweet reserve 45
Sweetening 218-219
Sylvaner 16,29,40,91,202
Syrup, dosage 104

Τ

Table wines, productio n 123-140
Tannin 68
Tannat 16
Tartrate stabilit y 93
Tax, federal excise 85
Temperature control durin g

fermentation 172—173
Thermovinificatio n 216
Thompson Seedless 15,91,143,200
Tokay 16,143

win e 1
Traminer 1
Transfer system of sparklin g

win e productio n 107—111
Trellisin g 34,165,222
Tronçais 50
Trousseau 15
Turbidity of submerged

culture 151/, 152/
Twight, Edmund Henri 16-17

U

Ugni Blanc 91,222

V
Vacuum filtration 41-42
Varietal wines 80,222
Vats, aging 73-76
Verdot 16
Vermouth 6,123
Vertical basket press(es) 40, 70, 189
Vidal 203,222
Vignes, Jean Louis 8
Vina vineyard 13
Vine, fan-trained 165/
Vineyard, Buena Vista 8-9
Viticultural characteristics of white

varieties 33t
Viticultural practices and wine

production and quality 32-35
Viticulture in Washington

State 156-167
Vitis

aestivalis 195
berlandieri 195
cinerea 195
labrusca 2, 3,153,195, 221
lincecumii 195
monticola 195
riparia 195
rotundifolia 2, 3,194,198, 223
rupestns 195
vinifera interspecific hybrids . . . 5

W

Wagner, Philip 5
Washington State, wine

production in 153-190
White

port 20
Riesling . . . . 16, 29, 34, 35, 40,44, 49,

86, 91, 94,153,164-166,
170,180,182,187,189

wine
consumption trends 30
grape acreage 30*, 31*
production 210-216

table wine(s), fermentation .135,179
table wine production 29-55

Wine
Advisory Board 25
cellars bonded 32f

of California 129-130
Institute 22,25,124
production and quality, viti-

cultural practices and 32-35
production in Washington

State 153-190
Winehaven Winery 14-15
Winery (ies)

bonded 32*
California 21f

Buena Vista 8-9
California 26/
eastern 206/-207/
in Lake Erie-New York

region 208/-209/
Napa Valley 14/, 26/
Paul Masson 68-69
overhead view 5/
Repsold 19
Santa Clara 9
Sonoma 9
sparkling wine 105-107, 108/
table wine 125-126

Winkler, A. J 22
Winter-killed vines 198,199/
Wire hoods 117-118
Wetmore, Charles A 11-13
Wolfskill, William 8

Y
Yeast(s) 94-96,172

count of submerged culture . . . . 151/
cultures 42,175-177
and fermentation 42
inoculation 43
removal 114-115

Yugoslavian oak 75

Ζ

de Zalvidea, Father Jose Mari a . .. 6
Zin f andel 15,16, 20, 60, 92,136

In Wine Production Technology in the United States; Amerine, M.;
ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1981.

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