Table of Contents
Chapter 9: Visual Aids Provided by Aerodrome Lighting
Section 9.1: General
9.1.1 Application and Definitions
184.108.40.206 Existing installed lighting systems must be operated and maintained in accordance with existing procedures. The standards in this Chapter do not apply to an existing lighting facility until:
(a) the light fittings of a lighting system are being replaced with fittings of a different type. A lighting system in this case has the following meaning: lights on a section of taxiway (not all taxiways), lights on a threshold (not all thresholds) etc.
(b) the facility is upgraded;
(c) there is a change in the category of either:
(d) for operations of the kind mentioned in sub-subparagraph (i) or (ii) — 29 May 2014, or an earlier date if an aerodrome operator so elects and tells CASA in writing of the election, being aerodrome operations supporting:
(e) in exceptional circumstances, CASA determines that in the interests of safety a lighting facility must meet the standards of this Chapter.
220.127.116.11 For aerodrome lighting purposes, words used in this Chapter have the following meaning:
(a) Aerodrome layout. This means the number of runways, taxiways and aprons at an aerodrome provided with lighting, and is divided into the following categories:
(b) Aerodrome traffic density. This means the number of aircraft movements in the mean busy hour, and is divided into the following categories:
(c) Upgrade of a facility has the same meaning as Upgrade (for an aerodrome facility) in Section 1.2.
(d) Practicable. This term is used to allow CASA acceptance of variation to a standard due to insurmountable difficulties in the way of full compliance. If an aerodrome operator believes that compliance with a standard is impracticable, the onus rests...
9.1.2 Standardisation of Aerodrome Lighting
18.104.22.168 It is important for pilot recognition and interpretation of aerodrome lighting systems, that standard configurations and colours be used. The pilot always views the aerodrome lighting systems in perspective, never in plan, and has to interpre...
22.214.171.124 Pilot visual workload is best moderated by standardisation, balance and integrity of elements. A ragged system with many missing lights can break the pattern from the pilot’s eye position, restricted as that position is by cockpit cut-off ang...
126.96.36.199A As far as practicable, light fittings with different photometric characteristics must not be mixed in a lighting system.
188.8.131.52 For some aerodrome lighting systems, historic usage in various countries has resulted in more than one system being endorsed by ICAO. In these circumstances, CASA may have endorsed some, but not all, ICAO systems for use in Australia.
184.108.40.206 Those systems not included in the MOS are not endorsed by CASA for use in Australia. Australian pilot training gives pilots familiarity with Australian standard systems, but not with those systems that are not Australian standard. It is impo...
220.127.116.11 If the aerodrome owner has any doubts about a new system for their aerodrome, they are to check with CASA before proceeding.
9.1.3 Lighting in the Vicinity of an Aerodrome
18.104.22.168 An existing or proposed non-aeronautical ground light in the vicinity of an aerodrome, which, by reason of its intensity, configuration or colour, might endanger the safety of aircraft, must be notified to the relevant CASA office for a safety...
(a) for a code 4 instrument runway – within a rectangular area the length of which extends at least 4500 m before each threshold and the width of which is at least 750 m either side of the extended runway centreline;
(b) for a code 2 or 3 instrument runway, within an area with the same width as (a) with the length extending to at least 3000 m from the threshold;
(c) for other cases, within the approach area.
9.1.4 Minimum Lighting System Requirements
22.214.171.124 At an aerodrome opened for night operations, at least the following facilities must be provided with appropriate lighting:
(a) runways, taxiways and aprons intended for night use;
(ab) for taxiways used only by aeroplanes of code A or B — at least 1 such code A or B taxiway between the runway and the apron, with retroreflective markers permitted on the other code A or B taxiways;
(b) at least one wind direction indicator;
(c) if an obstacle within the applicable OLS area of the aerodrome is determined by CASA as requiring obstacle lighting, the obstacle lighting.
126.96.36.199 Where any approach end of a runway is intended to serve jet-propelled aeroplanes engaged in air transport operations, that approach end must be provided with an approved visual approach slope indicator system, in accordance with Paragraph 9.9....
188.8.131.52 To avoid confusion at an aerodrome with more than one visual approach slope indicator system, the same type of approach slope indicator system must be used, in accordance with Paragraph 184.108.40.206.
220.127.116.11 A runway intended to serve Category I, II or III precision approach operations must be provided with an approach lighting system, where physically practicable, in accordance with the standards set out in this Chapter.
18.104.22.168 Movement area guidance signs intended for use at night must be illuminated in accordance with the standards set out in Chapter 8.
22.214.171.124 In certain circumstances additional lighting systems may be required at some aerodromes. For example, aerodrome beacons, visual docking guidance systems and runway threshold identification lights. Where provided, they shall be in compliance wi...
9.1.5 Primary Source of Electricity Supply
126.96.36.199 Unless it is impracticable to do so, except for Paragraph 188.8.131.52 below, an aerodrome lighting system must be an electrically connected installation, with the primary source of electric power supplied by the local electricity supply authority.
184.108.40.206 Where the power supply of an aerodrome lighting system has to be derived from a source other than the normal reticulated electricity supply, a note to that effect shall be included in ERSA.
220.127.116.11 If, at an aerodrome intended for use by aircraft with less than 10 passenger seats engaged in air transport operations, power supply cannot be supplied by normal reticulated electricity, the supply may be derived from stand-alone generators or...
9.1.6 Electrical Circuitry
18.104.22.168 Where they are electrically connected, aerodrome ground lighting, which includes runway, taxiway, approach and visual approach slope indicator and MAGS lighting circuits, must be by means of the series current system.
22.214.171.124 Feeder cables and series isolating transformers must be installed below ground, being:
(a) directly buried; or
(b) in pits, ducts or similar receptacles.
126.96.36.199 Other electrical equipment and wiring, except for a light or light fitting, must not be installed above ground level in the manoeuvring area.
9.1.7 Secondary Power Supply
188.8.131.52 Secondary power supply means electricity power supply which is connected to the load automatically on the failure of the primary power source. This may be derived by either of the following:
(a) independent public power, which is a source of power supplying the aerodrome service from a substation other than the normal substation through a transmission line following a route different from the normal power supply route and such that the po...
(b) generators, batteries etc. from which electric power can be obtained.
184.108.40.206 Secondary power must be provided to at least one runway at an aerodrome intended for Cat I precision approach operations, which would allow the operation of the following lighting systems:
(a) approach lighting;
(b) visual approach slope indicator;
(c) runway edge;
(d) runway threshold;
(e) runway end;
(f) essential taxiway and runway guard lights;
(g) apron; and
(h) obstacles, if any, lighting of which has been determined by CASA as essential for the safety of aircraft operations.
220.127.116.11 In addition to Paragraph 18.104.22.168 above, for an aerodrome intended for Cat II and III precision approach operations, the secondary power must be adequate for the lighting of the following:
(a) runway centreline lights;
(b) touchdown zone lights; and
(c) all stop bars.
22.214.171.124 Secondary power must be provided to allow the operation of the following lighting systems at every runway from which aircraft are intended to take off in RVR conditions less than a value of 800 m:
(a) runway edge lights;
(b) runway end lights;
(c) runway centreline lights, where provided;
(d) all stop bars, when they are being used;
(e) runway guard lights, when stop bars are not being used;
(f) essential taxiway lights;
(g) essential obstacle lights.
9.1.8 Switch-over Time
126.96.36.199 The time interval between failure of the normal source of power and the complete restoration of the service following switch-over to secondary power is not to exceed, for:
(a) Precision Approach Cat I visual aids – 15 seconds.
(b) Precision Approach Cat II and III visual aids;
(c) Runways meant for take-off in RVR conditions less than a value of 800 m;
188.8.131.52 For paragraph 184.108.40.206, alerting of the generators is an acceptable method of achieving the very short switch-over times. For this method, before commencement of low visibility, or when weather conditions indicate that the Supply Authority ele...
220.127.116.11 Where alerting of the generators is the method adopted for meeting the switch-over times to support Precision Approach Cat II and III approaches, and take offs in RVR conditions less than a value of 800 m, real time information on the operatin...
9.1.9 Standby Power Supply
18.104.22.168 For lighting to be notified in ERSA as provided with standby power, the standby power supply may be either secondary power or standby generators which are manually activated.
22.214.171.124 Where the activation of the standby power is not automatic, procedures must be established to facilitate the introduction of standby power as soon as possible when the need arises.
9.1.10 Portable Lighting
126.96.36.199 Portable lights are only for temporary emergency use, and primarily for VFR operations.
188.8.131.52 Portable lights:
(a) may comprise liquid fuel-burning flares or lamps, battery-powered electric lights or other similar devices; and
(b) must have a substantially omni-directional light output.
184.108.40.206 If an aerodrome is notified in ERSA as having portable lighting, the following requirements apply:
(a) the portable lights must always be in a serviceable condition and a state of readiness, including clean glasses and either fuel tanks filled or fresh batteries available;
(b) appropriate persons must be trained to deploy the lights and put them into operation without delay when the need arises.
220.127.116.11 The portable lights must be:
(a) at the same spacing as permanently installed lights; and
(b) level so that the vertical axis is true; and
(c) deployed in such a way that an aircraft can land into the wind.
18.104.22.168 For an aircraft arrival, the portable lights must be lit or switched on at least 30 minutes before the estimated time of arrival.
22.214.171.124 For an aircraft departure, the portable lights must be:
(a) lit or switched on at least 10 minutes before the time of departure; and
(b) retained after take-off:
9.1.11 Light Fixtures and Supporting Structures
126.96.36.199 All aerodrome light fixtures and supporting structures must be of minimum weight while being fit for the function, and frangible.
188.8.131.52 Supporting structures for approach lights also need to be of minimum weight and frangible, except that, in that portion of the approach lighting system beyond 300 m from the runway threshold:
(a) where the height of a supporting structure exceeds 12 m, the frangibility requirement need apply to the top 12 m only; and
(b) where a supporting structure is surrounded by non-frangible objects, only that part of the structure that extends above the surrounding objects need be frangible.
184.108.40.206 Where an approach light fixture or supporting structure is not in itself sufficiently conspicuous, it is to be suitably marked.
9.1.12 Elevated and Inset Lights
220.127.116.11 Elevated lights must be frangible and sufficiently low to preserve clearance for propellers and the engine pods of jet aircraft. In general, they should not be more than 360 mm above the ground.
18.104.22.168 Elevated lights, in general, are preferable to inset lights, because they provide a larger aperture from which light signals can be seen. Elevated lights must be used in all cases except:
(a) where the use of inset lights is specified in this Chapter, or
(b) where it is not practicable to use elevated lights.
22.214.171.124 Inset lights, also known as in-pavement lights, must not:
(a) be constructed with sharp edges;
(b) project more than 25 mm above the surrounding surface at locations where the lights will not normally come into contact with aircraft wheels, such as threshold lights, runway end lights and runway edge lights;
(c) project more than 13 mm above the surrounding surface at locations which will normally come into contact with aircraft wheels, such as runway centreline lights, touch down zone lights and taxiway centreline lights.
126.96.36.199 The maximum surface temperature attained by an inset light must not exceed 160 C over a period of 10 minutes, if operating at maximum intensity while covered by an aircraft wheel.
188.8.131.52 The standard colour of the casings of elevated light units is yellow.
184.108.40.206 If some inset lights are included in a system of elevated lights, the photometric characteristics of the inset lights must be as close as practicable to those of the elevated lights.
9.1.13 Colour of Light Shown
220.127.116.11 The colour of the light shown must be in accordance with the applicable standard specified in Section 9.2.
18.104.22.168 To ensure uniformity of visual appearance, light fittings using different filter technology must not be mixed (e.g. dichroic filters, other absorption filters, light emitting diode (LED), etc.) in such a way as to create inconsistency in eith...
9.1.14 Light intensity and Control
22.214.171.124 At an aerodrome with an air traffic service (ATS), the following lighting systems, if provided, must be equipped with an intensity control so that the ATS can select light output to suit ambient conditions and avoid dazzling pilots:
(a) approach lighting system;
(b) approach slope guidance system;
(c) runway edge, threshold and end lights;
(d) runway centreline lights;
(e) runway touchdown zone lights;
(f) taxiway lights.
126.96.36.199 At an aerodrome with a Certified Air-Ground Radio Operator (CAGRO), a Unicom operator, or similar responsible person with 2-way radio communications with aircraft, the aerodrome may choose to provide aerodrome lighting intensity control for u...
188.8.131.52 Intensity must be capable of being varied in 5 or 6 stages, for the following systems:
(a) approach lighting systems
(b) visual approach slope indicator systems;
(c) high intensity runway edge, threshold and end lights;
(d) runway centreline lights;
(e) runway touchdown zone lights.
184.108.40.206 Intensity must be capable of being varied in at least 3 stages, for medium intensity runway edge, threshold and end lights.
220.127.116.11 If a runway is equipped with both high and medium intensity runway edge lighting, the 3 lowest intensity stages shall be provided by the medium intensity system.
18.104.22.168 For taxiway lights:
(a) Taxiway centreline lights with a main beam average intensity of the order of 50 cd or less, 3 stages of intensity control will normally be sufficient.
(b) Taxiway centreline lights with main beam average intensity of the order of 100 cd or greater will normally require more than 3 stages of intensity control, or alternatively to have the maximum light output permanently reduced by fixing the maximum...
(c) Taxiway edge lights do not normally require separate intensity control. It is common for taxiway edge lights to be installed on the same electrical circuit as the low or medium intensity runway edge lights, and to be controlled by the runway ligh...
22.214.171.124 Intensity must be reduced from each successive stage to an order of 25-33%. This is based on the fact that a change of that magnitude is required for the human eye to detect that a change has occurred. For 6 stages of intensities, they should...
126.96.36.199 At an aerodrome where the lighting is provided with intensity settings but the ATS, CAGRO, Unicom operator, or similar responsible person, does not provide 24 hours coverage and:
(a) the operator leaves the lights turned on all night; or
(b) the lights are controlled by a PAL out of hours;
the recommended stage of intensity, which provides adequate illumination but will not dazzle pilots is stage 2.
188.8.131.52 If a lighting system is operated by an ATS provider or a similar responsible person (the lighting system operator):
(a) an automatic monitoring system must provide the lighting system operator with the following information:
(b) the information must be automatically relayed to the lighting system operator position of the operator responsible for the lighting system.
184.108.40.206A For subparagraph 220.127.116.11 (b), the information must be automatically relayed within the following time frames:
(a) for a stop bar at a runway-holding position — 2 seconds;
(b) for all other types of visual aids — 5 seconds.
18.104.22.168 At an aerodrome with Low Intensity Runway Edge Lighting Systems, in accordance with Paragraph 22.214.171.124(a), the light fittings used must be in compliance with Paragraph 9.10.6. However, it is permissible with these systems, at commissioning, ...
9.1.15 Commissioning of Lighting Systems
126.96.36.199 Commissioning means the formal process by which the performance of the lighting system is confirmed by CASA, or a qualified person, as meeting the specifications. Qualified person in this case means:
(a) For ground check of compliance with electrical specifications and CASA standards — an electrical engineer or licensed electrician with such aerodrome lighting knowledge and experience of aerodrome lighting as equips him or her to competently perfo...
(b) For flight checking of compliance with operational specifications — pilot approved by CASA as having the competency to conduct flight check.
188.8.131.52 All aerodrome lighting systems must be commissioned by ground check before they are brought into use.
184.108.40.206A For commissioning, evidence that light fitting types, models and versions comply with the standards for photometric and other characteristics as specified in this Chapter must be in the form of test reports from a laboratory that is accredit...
(a) the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA);
(b) an overseas accrediting authority which has a mutual recognition agreement with NATA.
220.127.116.11 The ground check of a visual approach slope indicator system must include verification of vertical and horizontal angles of light signal changes by a person having civil engineering or surveying qualification and experience.
18.104.22.168 The commissioning of the following lighting systems, in addition to the ground check, must include flight checks of:
(a) approach lighting system;
(b) runway lighting system for instrument runways;
(c) visual approach slope indicator system
(d) pilot-activated lighting system (PAL).
22.214.171.124 For a visual approach slope indicator system specified in Paragraph 126.96.36.199, that is provided for temporary use only, for example due to a temporary displaced threshold, or during works in progress, the requirement for a flight check is waived.
188.8.131.52 For those systems specified in Paragraph 184.108.40.206, the aerodrome operator shall forward duly certified ground check and flight check reports to the relevant CASA office. If CASA is satisfied with the reports, CASA will approve the issue of a...
(a) For visual approach slope indicator system;
(b) For a PAL;
220.127.116.11 For those systems not specified in Paragraph 18.104.22.168, the aerodrome operator must use the duly certified ground check as sufficient evidence of compliance with standards to initiate a permanent NOTAM.
22.214.171.124 At any time after commissioning, CASA may direct the ground checking and/or the flight checking of a lighting system specified in Paragraph 126.96.36.199, following substantial changes to the system, or on receipt of adverse reports on the perform...
(a) removal and replacement of 50% or more of the light fittings, at the same time, of an approach or runway lighting system;
(b) removal and replacement of one or more light units of a PAPI system;
(c) removal and replacement of two or more light units, at the same time, of an AT-VASIS system; and
(d) removal and replacement of the receiver unit from a PAL.
188.8.131.52 Before a runway is opened for night use, the aerodrome operator must assess obstacles within the obstacle limitation surface area of the aerodrome for obstacle lighting purposes, particularly if the obstacles are within 3 km of the aerodrome.
184.108.40.206 Copies of all ground check reports, flight check reports, and light fitting laboratory test reports used to support the commissioning of lighting systems must be:
(a) filed in the aerodrome operator’s Aerodrome Manual; and
(b) kept in the custody, or under the control, of the aerodrome operator for as long as the relevant lighting system remains in service.
Section 9.2: Colours for Aeronautical Ground Lights
220.127.116.11 The following specifications define the chromaticity limits of colours to be used for aerodrome lighting.
18.104.22.168 The chromaticities are expressed in terms of the standard observer and co-ordination system adopted by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE).
22.214.171.124 The chromaticities of aerodrome lights must be within the following boundaries:
CIE Equation (see Figure 9.2-1)
(f) Variable White
9.2.3 Discrimination Between Coloured Lights
126.96.36.199 If there is a requirement to discriminate yellow and white from each other, they must be displayed in close proximity of time or space as, for example, by being flashed successively from the same beacon.
188.8.131.52 If there is a requirement to discriminate yellow from green or white, as for example with exit taxiway centreline lights, the ‘y’ co-ordinate of the yellow light must not exceed a value of 0.40.
184.108.40.206 The colour variable white is intended to be used only for lights that are to be varied in intensity, e.g. to avoid dazzling. If these lights are to be discriminated from yellow lights, the lights must be designed and operated so that:
(a) the ‘x’ co-ordinate of the yellow is at least 0.050 greater than the ‘x’ co-ordinate of the white; and
(b) the disposition of the lights is such that the yellow lights are displayed simultaneously and in close proximity to the white lights.
Section 9.3: Pilot Activated Lighting Systems
220.127.116.11 If a pilot activated lighting (PAL) system is used to activate aerodrome lighting, the PAL is to turn ON all the lighting facilities which are required to be illuminated for night operations, unless the illumination of a required facility is a...
18.104.22.168 Where PAL is used to activate visual approach slope guidance systems (T-VASIS or PAPI):
(a) activation of the PAL during daytime is to turn the visual approach slope guidance system ON to Day intensity, and leave all other aerodrome lighting extinguished;
(b) activation of the PAL during twilight is to turn the visual approach slope guidance system ON to Twilight intensity, and turn all other aerodrome lighting on to the only intensity available, or to Night intensity if multiple intensities are availa...
(c) activation of the PAL during night-time is to turn the visual approach slope guidance system ON to Night intensity, and turn all other aerodrome lighting on to the only intensity available, or to Night intensity if multiple intensities are available;
(d) once the lighting has been activated by the PAL, appropriate changes from Day to Twilight to Night intensities must take place automatically;
(e) the appropriate changes from Day to Twilight to Night operation shall take place under the control of a light sensitive switch or similar device;
(f) intensity must be the following percentage of full intensity:
22.214.171.124 The PAL must activate an aerodrome lighting system on detection of a coded carrier frequency signal from an aircraft air/ground VHF transmitter.
126.96.36.199 On receipt of the coded signal, the PAL control unit must go into the operate mode for a pre-set period. The minimum period that the lights remain ON shall be 30 minutes.
188.8.131.52 Ten minutes before the aerodrome lighting system is due to turn OFF, the PAL must cause the lights of at least the primary Illuminated Wind Direction Indicator (IWDI), in accordance with Paragraph 184.108.40.206, to commence to flash at approximatel...
(a) the PAL system switches OFF, and all aerodrome lighting, including the IWDI lights, is extinguished; or
(b) the PAL system has been reset for another ON period.
220.127.116.11 When in operate mode (including the last 10 minutes) the receipt of another correctly coded signal must reset the PAL system to the beginning of the pre-set period.
9.3.2 VHF Carrier Activation Code
18.104.22.168 The code required to activate the PAL system must be generated when the microphone button of the aircraft radio air/ground VHF transmitter is depressed and a radio frequency carrier signal is produced.
22.214.171.124 The correct code is to consist of three bursts of carrier signal each anywhere between 1 and 5 seconds long, with the last two code bursts completed within 24 seconds of the end of the first burst.
126.96.36.199 The gap between code bursts that the detector can tolerate shall be 0.1 seconds. (This is less than the time it takes to release and depress the aircraft microphone button.)
9.3.3 VHF Carrier Detector Technical Requirements
188.8.131.52 The VHF carrier detector must accept a carrier signal over the frequency range of 118 MHz to 136 MHz.
184.108.40.206 The receiver must be crystal controlled at a single frequency within the frequency range, with a channel separation of 25 kHz.
220.127.116.11 Only allocated frequencies must be used, to maintain order in the air/ground VHF band, and prevent interference to other facilities or users in the vicinity.
18.104.22.168 The frequency stability must be within ±0.0010% over the temperature range of -10 C to +70 C.
22.214.171.124 The minimum detectable input signal of the VHF carrier detector must be adjustable over a range to suit the operational requirements.
126.96.36.199 Under normal circumstances, to ensure activation of the PAL system by aircraft at approximately 15 NM from the aerodrome, the receiver sensitivity must be set at not less than 15 µV.
188.8.131.52 The VHF carrier detector bandwidth is to have the following characteristics:
±7.5 kHz within 3 dB of nominal
±16 kHz greater than 60 dB below nominal;
the spurious response is to be no less than 80 dB below nominal.
9.3.4 Inputs to the PAL
184.108.40.206 The PAL must be capable of having the following inputs:
(a) radio frequency activation signal, as described above;
(b) manual activation of the PAL. An ON/OFF switch must be provided for manual activation. When the switch is selected to ON the lighting system will be activated and remain on. When the switch is selected to OFF the PAL system must go into operate mo...
(c) remote control override of the PAL. If a PAL is provided at a controlled aerodrome, the circuitry of the PAL system must be such that when the controller is on duty, the PAL will be overridden by the controller.
9.3.5 Fail-safe Arrangements with PAL system
220.127.116.11 The circuitry of the PAL system must be so designed that if the PAL fails for whatever reason, the aerodrome lighting can still be provided. This can be achieved by either:
(a) the lighting facilities being automatically turned ON if the PAL fails; or
(b) the provision of a by-pass switch to allow manual activation of the lights.
18.104.22.168 The mains supply to the equipment may be subject to electrical transients, typical of rural electrical distribution systems. The PAL system must be so designed that the electrical transients have no effect on the PAL system.
22.214.171.124 Following a PAL failure, on restitution of power the PAL must automatically commence a complete ‘Light ON’ cycle.
9.3.6 Access to Manual Switches
126.96.36.199 If the manual switches provided for PAL are either key operated switches, or enclosed in an area that requires key access, sufficient numbers of keys must be provided to persons who may have reason to gain access to the manual switches in the ...
188.8.131.52 The following persons are likely to be called upon to manually activate the aerodrome lighting:
(a) the agents of the airlines using the aerodrome;
(b) a representative from local operators of flying schools, fuelling agents, or aircraft maintenance organisations;
(c) representatives from the local hospital and/or emergency services;
(d) local police;
(e) where available, responsible person or persons living close to the aerodrome.
9.3.7 Receiving Antenna
184.108.40.206 The PAL receiving antenna must be so located such that it will receive activating signals from aircraft both in the air and on the aerodrome movement area.
220.127.116.11 The PAL must be so designed that it will operate satisfactorily when connected to an antenna with the following specifications:
(a) unity gain with respect to a dipole;
(b) vertical polarisation;
(c) omnidirectional radiation pattern in the horizontal plane;
(d) voltage standing wave ratio when matched to the PAL antenna input of not greater than 1.5:1, over the frequency range of 118 to 136 MHz;
(e) height of the mounting above local ground level not less than 4.5 m.
9.3.8 PAL with Audio Acknowledgment
18.104.22.168 Aerodrome operators are encouraged to use a PAL with message acknowledgment capability, which can provide positive response on receipt of pilot transmission and caution if the lighting cycle is within the 10 minute switch off phase.
22.214.171.124 Where provided, the broadcast message must be brief, to minimise congestion on the frequency.
Section 9.4: Obstacle Lighting
126.96.36.199 Under the Civil Aviation Regulations, CASA may determine that an object or a proposed object which intrudes into navigable airspace requires, or will be required to be provided with, obstacle lighting. Responsibility for the provision and main...
188.8.131.52 In general, an object in the following situations would require to be provided with obstacle lighting unless CASA, in an aeronautical study, assesses it as being shielded by another lit object or that it is of no operational significance:
(a) for a runway intended to be used at night:
(b) outside the obstacle limitation surfaces of an aerodrome, if the object is or will be more than 110 m above ground level.
184.108.40.206 Owners of tall buildings or structures below the obstacle limitation surfaces, or less than 110 m above ground level, may, of their own volition, provide obstacle lighting to indicate the presence of such buildings or structures at night. To e...
220.127.116.11 In circumstances where the provision of obstacle marking is impracticable, obstacle lighting may be used during the day in lieu of obstacle marking.
9.4.2 Types of Obstacle Lighting and Their Use
18.104.22.168 Three types of lights are used for lighting obstacles. These are low intensity, medium intensity and high intensity lights, or a combination of such lights.
22.214.171.124 Low intensity obstacle lights are steady red lights and are to be used on non-extensive objects whose height above the surrounding ground is less than 45 m.
126.96.36.199 Medium intensity obstacle lights are to be used either alone or in combination with low intensity lights, where:
(a) the object is an extensive one;
(b) the top of the object is 45 m or more above the surrounding ground; or
(c) CASA determines that early warning to pilots of the presence of the object is desirable.
188.8.131.52 There are three types of medium intensity obstacle lights:
(a) Flashing white light. Likely to be unsuitable for use in environmentally sensitive locations, and near built-up areas. May be used in lieu of obstacle markings during the day to indicate temporary obstacles in the vicinity of an aerodrome, for e...
(b) Flashing red light, also known as a hazard beacon. Is suitable for all applications, and is extensively used to mark terrain obstacles such as high ground.
(c) Steady red light. May be used where there is opposition to the use of a flashing red light, for example in environmentally sensitive locations.
184.108.40.206 High intensity obstacle lights are flashing white lights used on obstacles that are in excess of 150 m in height. As high intensity obstacle lights have a significant environmental impact on people and animals, it is necessary to consult with ...
9.4.3 Location of Obstacle Lights
220.127.116.11 One or more obstacle lights are to be located as close as practicable to the top of the object. The top lights are to be arranged so as to at least indicate the points or edges of the object highest above the obstacle limitation surface.
18.104.22.168 In the case of a chimney or other structure of like function, the top lights are to be placed sufficiently below the top (nominally 1.5 m to 3 m) so as to minimise contamination by smoke, etc.
22.214.171.124 In the case of a tower or antenna structure to be provided with high intensity obstacle lights, and the structure has an appurtenance such as a rod or antenna extending greater than 12 m above the structure, and it is not practicable to locate...
126.96.36.199 In the case of an extensive object or a group of closely spaced objects, top lights are to be displayed at least on the points or edges highest in relation to the obstacle limitation surfaces, so as to indicate the general definition and exten...
188.8.131.52A In the case of a wind farm whose wind turbines must have obstacle lighting, medium intensity lights are to be installed as follows:
(a) if any part of the wind turbine, including the rotating blades, penetrates the obstacle limitation surface (OLS) of an aerodrome, top lights must mark the highest point reached by the rotating blades;
(b) if the rotating blades do not penetrate the OLS, the top lights must be placed on top of the generator housing;
(c) obstacle lights must be provided on a sufficient number of individual wind turbines to indicate the general definition and extent of the wind farm, with intervals between lit turbines not exceeding 900 m;
(d) all of the obstacle lights on a wind farm must be synchronised to flash simultaneously;
(e) the downward component of obstacle lighting may be shielded to the extent mentioned in either or both of the following sub-subparagraphs:
(f) to prevent obstacle light shielding by the rotating blades, 2 lights must be provided on top of the generator housing in a way that allows at least 1 of the lights to be seen from every angle in azimuth.
184.108.40.206 When the obstacle limitation surface concerned is sloping and the highest point above the obstacle limitation surface is not the highest point of the object, additional obstacle lights are to be placed on the highest part of the object.
220.127.116.11 When the top of the obstacle is more than 45 m above the level of the surrounding ground or the elevation of the tops of nearby buildings (when the obstacle is surrounded by buildings), the top lights are to be medium intensity lights. Additio...
18.104.22.168 Where high intensity obstacle lights are used on an object other than a tower supporting overhead wires or cables, the spacing between the lights is not to exceed 105 m. Where the high intensity obstacle lights are used on a tower supporting w...
(a) at the top of the tower;
(b) at the lowest level of the catenary of the wires or cables; and
(c) at approximately midway between the two levels.
22.214.171.124 The number and arrangement of lights at each level to be marked is to be such that the obstacle is indicated from every angle of azimuth. Where a light is shielded in any direction by an adjacent object, the light so shielded may be omitted bu...
126.96.36.199 Illustrations of typical lighting of obstacles are shown below.
9.4.4 Natural Obstacles
188.8.131.52 Natural obstacles such as terrain and vegetation are normally extensive and the need for obstacle lighting will be assessed by CASA on an individual case basis. Where required, obstacle lights are to be provided as follows:
(a) if the obstacle is located within the approach area, the portion of the obstacle which is within the approach area is to be treated in the same manner as man-made obstacles for the provision of obstacle lights;
(b) if the obstacle is located outside the approach area, it is to be marked by sufficient number of lights on the highest and most prominent features, so placed that the obstacle can be readily identified.
9.4.5 Temporary Obstacles
184.108.40.206 At night and in poor visibility conditions, temporary obstacles in the approach area or on the movement area are to be marked with permanent or temporary red obstacle lights. The lights are to be so arranged that they clearly mark the height, ...
9.4.6 Characteristics of Low Intensity Obstacle Lights
220.127.116.11 Low intensity obstacle lights, for general applications, are to have the following characteristics:
(a) fixed lights showing red;
(b) a horizontal beam spread that results in 360 coverage around obstacle;
(c) a peak intensity of 100 cd minimum;
(d) a vertical beam spread (to 50% of peak intensity) of 10 ;
(e) a vertical distribution with 100 cd minimum at +6 and +10 above the horizontal; and
(f) not less than 10 cd at all elevation angles between –3 and +90 above the horizontal.
18.104.22.168 Low intensity obstacle lights, used to indicate taxiway obstacles or unserviceable areas of the movement area, are to have a peak intensity of 10 cd minimum.
9.4.7 Characteristics of Medium Intensity Obstacle Lights
22.214.171.124 Medium intensity obstacle lights are to be flashing or steady red lights or flashing white lights, visible in all directions in azimuth.
126.96.36.199 The frequency of flashes is to be between 20 and 60 flashes per minute.
188.8.131.52 The peak effective intensity is to be 2,000 ( 25% cd with a vertical distribution as follows:
(a) vertical beam spread is to be 3( minimum (beam spread is defined as the angle between two directions in a plane for which the intensity is equal to 50% of the lower tolerance value of the peak intensity);
(b) at -1( elevation, the intensity is to be 50% minimum and 75% maximum of lower tolerance value of the peak intensity; and
(c) at 0( elevation, the intensity is to be 100% minimum of the lower tolerance value of the peak intensity.
184.108.40.206 Where the flashing white light is used in lieu of obstacle marking during the day to indicate temporary obstacles in the vicinity of an aerodrome, in accordance with Paragraph 220.127.116.11(a), the peak effective intensity is to be increased to 20,0...
9.4.8 Characteristics of High Intensity Obstacle Lights
18.104.22.168 High intensity obstacle lights are flashing white lights.
22.214.171.124 The effective intensity of a high intensity obstacle light located on an object other than a tower supporting overhead wires or cables is to vary depending on background luminance as follows:
(a) 200,000 ( 25% cd effective intensity at a background luminance of above 500 cd/m² (day);
(b) 20,000 ( 25% cd effective intensity at a background luminance of between 50-500 cd/m² (dusk or dawn);
(c) 2,000 ( 25% cd effective intensity at a background luminance of below 50 cd/m² (night).
126.96.36.199 The effective intensity of a high intensity obstacle light located on a tower supporting overhead wires or cables is to vary depending on background luminance as follows:
(a) 100,000 ( 25% cd effective intensity at a background luminance of above 500 cd/m² (day);
(b) 20,000 ( 25% cd effective intensity at a background luminance of between 50-500 cd/m² (dusk or dawn);
(c) 2,000 ( 25% cd effective intensity at a background luminance of below 50 cd/m² (night).
188.8.131.52 High intensity obstacle lights located on an object other than a tower supporting overhead wires or cables are to flash simultaneously at a rate between 40-60 flashes per minute.
184.108.40.206 High intensity obstacle lights located on a tower supporting overhead wires or cables are to flash sequentially; first the middle light, second the top light, and last the bottom light. Cycle frequency is to be 40 - 60 per minute and the inter...
220.127.116.11 To minimise environmental impact, unless otherwise directed by CASA, the installation setting angles for high intensity obstacle lights are to be:
9.4.9 Floodlighting of Obstacles
18.104.22.168 Where the installation of normal obstacle lights is deemed impracticable or undesirable for aesthetic or other reasons, floodlighting of obstacles may be an acceptable alternative. However, floodlighting is not to be used unless with the concu...
22.214.171.124 In general, floodlighting is not suitable if:
(a) the structure is skeletal as a substantially solid surface or cladding with satisfactory reflectance properties are required; or
(b) there is high background lighting level.
126.96.36.199 The floodlighting colour is to be white. Illumination of the obstacle is to cover all directions of azimuth over the full height portion of the obstacle which needs to be illuminated and is to be uniform around the circumferences of the obstacle.
188.8.131.52 The minimum level of luminance is to be 5 cd/m² at all points.
184.108.40.206 The light fittings are to be spaced evenly around the structure, at not more than 120 with at least two fittings at each location. At each location the fittings are to be on separate circuits and separately fused.
9.4.10 Ongoing Availability of Obstacle Lights
220.127.116.11 It is important that obstacle lights provided are in working condition when they are required to be on. The owners of obstacle lights needs to establish a pro-active maintenance program to minimise light outage.
18.104.22.168 For obstacle lights located within the obstacle limitation surface area of the aerodrome, the aerodrome operator is to establish a monitoring program, which is to include:
(a) visual observation of the obstacles lights at least once every 24 hours (see note); and
(b) where a medium or high intensity obstacle light is located such that it is not readily observable visually:
22.214.171.124 For an obstacle located within the OLS area of the aerodrome, the following requirements apply:
(a) if there is an obstacle light outage, the aerodrome operator must:
(b) if the aerodrome has been notified by CASA that it must close upon the failure of a specified obstacle light considered by CASA to be essential for safety, the aerodrome operator must immediately notify CASA of the failure.
126.96.36.199A The aerodrome operator’s Aerodrome Manual must include:
(a) the procedures to be followed when an obstacle light outage occurs; and
(b) details of any CASA notification that the aerodrome must close upon the failure of a specified obstacle light considered by CASA to be essential for safety.
188.8.131.52 For obstacles located outside the obstacle limitation surface area of an aerodrome, the owners of the lights need to establish a program to monitor the lights and report light failures. The reporting point for obstacle light failure is normal...
Section 9.5: Aerodrome Beacons
184.108.40.206 An aerodrome beacon is to be provided if it is determined by CASA that such a visual cue is operationally necessary.
220.127.116.11 The following factors will be used in determining operational necessity:
(a) whether the aerodrome is intended to be used at night by aircraft navigating predominantly by visual means;
(b) the type and quantity of air traffic;
(c) the presence of other visual or radio aids;
(d) whether the location is subject to frequent periods of reduced visibility;
(e) whether it is difficult to locate the aerodrome from the air due to surrounding lights or terrain.
18.104.22.168 Where provided, the aerodrome beacon is to be located on or adjacent to the aerodrome in an area of low ambient background lighting. In addition, the aerodrome beacon is to be sited so that it is neither shielded by obstacles nor dazzling to a...
22.214.171.124 At international aerodromes or aerodromes in built-up areas, the aerodrome beacon is to show two flashes, one white and the other coloured, so that they produce alternate white and colour flashes. For land aerodromes, the colour is to be green...
126.96.36.199 At other locations, white flashes only is satisfactory.
188.8.131.52 The frequency of total flashes must be from 20 to 30 per minute.
184.108.40.206 The light from the beacon is to be visible from all angles of azimuth.
220.127.116.11 The light intensity distribution of the aerodrome beacon must be in accordance with Table 9.5-1:
18.104.22.168 The effective intensity of colour flashes is to be not less than 0.15 times the intensity of the white flashes at the corresponding angle of elevation.
22.214.171.124 Where provided, information on the colour coding, flash rate and location (if not in the immediate vicinity of the aerodrome) of the aerodrome beacon is to be published in the aerodrome ERSA entry.
Section 9.6: Illuminated Wind Direction Indicator
126.96.36.199 At an aerodrome intended for night use, at least one wind direction indicator is to be lit.
188.8.131.52 If a WDI is provided in the vicinity of a runway threshold to provide surface wind information for pilots engaged in instrument straight-in approach and landing operations, and such operations are to be conducted at night, then the wind direct...
184.108.40.206 An illuminated wind direction indicator (IWDI) must be illuminated by floodlighting from above.
220.127.116.11A An IWDI installed on or after 1 July 2011 must be illuminated by at least 4 lamp units which together provide between 100 and 600 lux illumination on any point of the horizontal plane passing through the top of the IWDI sleeve at the supporti...
18.104.22.168B The lighting must have:
(a) accurate colour rendering; and
(b) no perceptible warm-up or restrike delay.
22.214.171.124C An IWDI installed before 1 July 2011 must be illuminated:
(a) in accordance with paragraphs 126.96.36.199A and 188.8.131.52B; or
(b) as follows:
184.108.40.206 The floodlighting is to be aimed and shielded to ensure that it causes neither glare nor distraction to pilots.
220.127.116.11 If only one wind direction indicator is lit at an aerodrome and there are two or more lit runways, control of the lighting of the wind direction indicator is to be incorporated in the runway lighting control for each runway, so that energising...
18.104.22.168 Where more than one wind direction indicator can be lit, control of the lighting of each wind direction indicator is to be incorporated in the runway lighting control for the operationally related runway.
22.214.171.124 If the electricity supply to a wind direction indicator is provided from a runway lighting circuit for which intensity control is provided, a uniform intensity is required for the wind direction indicator irrespective of the intensity setting ...
126.96.36.199 Where a PAL is installed the wind direction indicator lighting is to be programmed in such a way that 10 minutes before the end of the aerodrome lighting ‘ON’ period, the lights of the wind direction indicator will commence to flash, at approx...
(a) the PAL system switches off, and all aerodrome lighting, including the wind direction indicators, is extinguished; or
(b) the PAL system has been reset for another ‘ON’ period.
188.8.131.52 If the PAL system is reset for another ‘ON’ period, the lights of the wind direction indicator are to return to steady lighting.
Section 9.7: Approach Lighting Systems
9.7.1 Simple Approach Lighting System
184.108.40.206 A simple approach lighting system is a lighting system intended for a non-instrument or a non-precision approach runway. Standards for this system are not included in this Chapter as there is no operational credit for such systems.
9.7.2 Precision Approach Category I Lighting System
220.127.116.11 A precision approach Category I lighting system must be provided to serve a precision approach runway Category I, as far as physically practicable.
18.104.22.168 A precision approach Category I lighting system must consist of a row of lights on the extended centreline of the runway extending, wherever possible, over a distance of 900 m from the runway threshold, with a row of lights forming a crossbar ...
22.214.171.124 The lights forming the crossbar must be:
(a) as nearly as practicable in a horizontal straight line at right angles to, and bisected by, the line of the centreline lights; and
(b) spaced so as to produce a linear effect, except that gaps may be left on each side of the centreline provided:
126.96.36.199 The lights forming the centreline must be placed at longitudinal intervals of 30 m with the innermost light located 30 m from the threshold.
188.8.131.52 The lighting system must lie as nearly as practicable in the horizontal plane passing through the threshold, and be such that:
(a) no object, other than an ILS azimuth antenna, protrudes through the plane of the approach lights within a distance of 60 m from the centreline of the system; and
(b) no light, other than a light located within the central part of a crossbar or a centreline barrette (not their extremities), is screened from an approaching aircraft.
184.108.40.206 An ILS azimuth antenna protruding through the plane of the lights must be treated as an obstacle and marked and lighted accordingly.
220.127.116.11 The centreline and crossbar lights of a precision approach Category I lighting system must:
(a) be fixed lights showing variable white; and
(b) for each centreline light position — consist of:
18.104.22.168 A barrette must be:
(a) at least 4 m in length; and
(b) if composed of lights approximating to point sources — composed of such lights uniformly spaced at intervals of not more than 1.5 m.
22.214.171.124 If the centreline consists of barrettes in accordance with sub-subparagraph 126.96.36.199 (b) (ii), each barrette that is at least 300 m from the threshold must be supplemented by a capacitor discharge light which must:
(a) be flashed twice a second in sequence, beginning with the outermost light and progressing toward the threshold to the innermost light of the system; and
(b) be of such electrical circuit design that it can be operated independently of the other lights of the approach lighting system.
188.8.131.52 If the centreline consists of lights as described in sub-subparagraph 184.108.40.206 (b) (i):
(a) crossbars of lights (additional to the crossbar of lights at 300 m from the threshold) must be provided at 150 m, 450 m, 600 m and 750 m from the threshold; and
(b) the lights forming each crossbar must be:
220.127.116.11 Where the additional crossbars described in 18.104.22.168 are incorporated in the system, the outer ends of the crossbars must lie on two straight lines that converge to meet the runway centreline 300 m from threshold.
22.214.171.124 Figure 9.7-1 below illustrates both kinds of precision approach Category I lighting configurations mentioned in this section.
126.96.36.199 The lights must be in accordance with the specifications of Section 9.8, Figure 9.8-1.
9.7.3 Precision Approach Categories II and III Lighting System
188.8.131.52 A precision approach Category II and Category III lighting system must be provided to serve a precision approach runway Category II or III.
184.108.40.206 The approach lighting system must consist of a row of lights on the extended centreline of the runway, extending, wherever possible, over a distance of 900 m from the runway threshold, with:
(a) 2 side rows of lights, extending 270 m from the threshold; and
(b) 2 crossbars, 1 at 150 m and 1 at 300 m from the threshold, as shown in Figure 9.7.2.
220.127.116.11 The centreline lights must be at longitudinal intervals of 30 m, with the innermost lights located 30 m from the threshold.
18.104.22.168 The side row lights must be placed:
(a) on each side of the centreline; and
(b) at a longitudinal spacing equal to that of the centreline lights; and
(c) with the first light located 30 m from the threshold; and
(d) so that the lateral spacing (or gauge) between the innermost lights of the side rows is not less than 18 m nor more than 22.5 m, but in any event equal to that of the touchdown zone lights.
22.214.171.124 The crossbar provided at 150 m from the threshold must fill in the gaps between the centreline and side row lights.
126.96.36.199 The crossbar provided at 300 m from the threshold must extend on both sides of the centreline lights to a distance of 15 m from the centreline.
188.8.131.52 If the centreline beyond a distance of 300 m from the threshold consists of lights as described in subparagraph 184.108.40.206 (b), additional crossbars of lights must be provided at 450 m, 600 m and 750 m from the threshold.
220.127.116.11 Where the additional crossbars described in 18.104.22.168 are incorporated in the system, the outer ends of these crossbars must lie on two straight lines that converge to meet the runway centreline 300 m from the threshold.
22.214.171.124 The lighting system must lie as nearly as practicable in the horizontal plane passing through the threshold, and be such that:
(a) no object, other than an ILS azimuth antenna, may protrude through the plane of the approach lights within a distance of 60 m from the centreline of the system; and
(b) no light, other than a light located within the central part of a crossbar or a centreline barrette (not their extremities), may be screened from an approaching aircraft.
126.96.36.199 An ILS azimuth antenna protruding through the plane of the lights must be treated as an obstacle and marked and lighted accordingly.
188.8.131.52 The centreline of a precision approach Categories II and III lighting system for the first 300 m from the threshold must consist of barrettes showing variable white, except that, where the threshold is displaced 300 m or more, the centreline ...
184.108.40.206 Beyond 300 m from the threshold, each centreline light position must consist of 1 of the following which all must show variable white:
(a) 1 barrette as used on the inner 300 m;
(b) 2 light sources in the central 300 m of the centreline, and 3 light sources in the outer 300 m of the centreline.
220.127.116.11 A barrette must be:
(a) at least 4 m in length; and
(b) if composed of lights approximating to point sources — composed of such lights uniformly spaced at intervals of not more than 1.5 m.
18.104.22.168 If the centreline beyond a distance of 300 m from the threshold consists of barrettes as described in subparagraph 22.214.171.124 (a), each barrette must be supplemented by a capacitor discharge light which must:
(a) be flashed twice a second in sequence, beginning with the outermost light and progressing toward the threshold to the innermost light of the system; and
(b) be of such electrical circuit design that it can be operated independently of the other lights of the approach lighting system.
126.96.36.199 Each side row of lights must consist of a barrette:
(a) whose lights show red; and
(b) whose length and light spacing must be equal to the length and light spacing of the barrettes in the touchdown zone.
188.8.131.52 The lights forming the crossbars must be:
(a) fixed lights showing variable white; and
(b) uniformly spaced at intervals of not more than 2.7 m.
184.108.40.206 The intensity of the red lights must be compatible with the intensity of the white lights.
220.127.116.11 The lights must be in accordance with the specifications of Section 9.8, Figure 9.8-1 and Figure 9.8-2.
Section 9.8: Isocandela Diagrams of Approach Lighting
9.8.1 Collective Notes
18.104.22.168 Except for Paragraph 22.214.171.124, the collective notes for Section 9.11 apply to this Section.
126.96.36.199 Average intensity ratio. The ratio between the average intensity within the ellipse defining the main beam of a typical new light and the average intensity of the main beam of a new runway edge light is to be as follows:
(a) Figure 9.8-1 Approach centreline and crossbars ― 1.5 to 2.0 (white light)
(b) Figure 9.8-2 Approach side row ― 0.5 to 1.0 (red light)
Section 9.9: Visual Approach Slope Indicator Systems
188.8.131.52 A visual approach slope indicator system shall be provided to serve the approach to a runway, whether or not the runway is served by electronic approach slope guidance, where one of the following applies:
(a) The runway is regularly used by jet-propelled aeroplanes engaged in air transport operations.
(b) CASA directs that visual approach slope guidance be provided, because it has determined that such a visual aid is required for the safe operation of aircraft.
184.108.40.206 In making a determination that visual approach slope guidance is required, CASA will take into account the following:
(a) The runway is frequently used by other jet-propelled aeroplanes, or other aeroplanes with similar approach guidance requirements.
(b) The pilot of any type of aeroplane may have difficulty in judging the approach due to:
(c) The presence of objects in the approach area may involve serious hazard if an aeroplane descends below the normal approach path, particularly if there are no non-visual or other visual aids to give warning of such objects.
(d) Physical conditions at either end of the runway present a serious hazard in the event of an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the runway.
(e) Terrain or prevalent meteorological conditions are such that the aeroplane may be subjected to unusual turbulence during approach.
220.127.116.11 CASA may direct that a visual approach slope indicator system be provided for temporary use only, for example due to a temporary displaced threshold, or during works in progress.
18.104.22.168 The following visual approach slope indicator systems are approved for use in Australian civil aerodromes:
(c) Double-sided PAPI; and
22.214.171.124 The standard installations must be:
(a) At international aerodromes, T-VASIS, or double-sided PAPI. Where this is impracticable, an AT-VASIS or PAPI is acceptable.
(b) At aerodromes other than international aerodromes, AT-VASIS or PAPI, except where (c) below applies.
(c) At aerodromes where CASA has determined that additional roll guidance is required, and/or high system integrity is necessary, T-VASIS or double-sided PAPI.
(d) AT-VASIS and PAPI must be installed on the left side of the runway, unless this is impracticable.
126.96.36.199 Where a T-VASIS is to be replaced by a PAPI, a double-sided PAPI must be provided.
188.8.131.52 Where more than one visual approach slope indicator system is provided at an aerodrome, to avoid confusion, the same type of approach slope indicator system must be used at each end of a runway. If there is more than one runway, the same type...
184.108.40.206 Where a visual approach slope indicator system is provided for temporary use only, in accordance with 220.127.116.11, then 18.104.22.168 need not apply.
22.214.171.124 The choice of T-VASIS or PAPI is a matter between the aerodrome operator and airline operators using the runway. For capital city runways used by a range of medium and large jet aeroplanes, T-VASIS would be a better visual aid.
9.9.2 Obstacle Assessment Surface
126.96.36.199 An obstacle assessment surface (OAS) must be surveyed and assessed for obstacles for each end of the runway where a T-VASIS, AT-VASIS, double-sided PAPI or PAPI is to be provided. Standards of OAS are as follows and an OAS is illustrated below:
(a) Baseline: Width 150 m, coincident with the existing baseline for the approach surface;
(b) Slope: 1.9º;
(c) Splay: 7.5º outwards, commencing from the ends of the baseline;
(d) Length: 9 km from the baseline.
188.8.131.52 The aerodrome operator must check any penetration by, or proximity to, objects such as radio masts, buildings etc. and terrain, of the Obstacle Assessment Surface as specified in Paragraph 184.108.40.206. Where one or more obstacles are found, or whe...
220.127.116.11 Where practicable, objects above the assessment surface must be removed, except where CASA determines that the object would not adversely affect the safety of operations.
18.104.22.168 If the study determines that safety could be adversely affected, and it is not practicable to remove the object, then one or more of the following measures should be undertaken:
(a) suitably raise the approach slope of the system – to a maximum of 3.3 where the runway is used by jet propelled aeroplanes, or 4 for other aeroplanes: the OAS slope can then be raised by the same amount, e.g. for a 3.3 slope the OAS can become ...
(b) reduce the azimuth spread so that the obstacle is outside the confines of the beam;
(c) displace the axis of the system and its associated OAS by up to 5 ;
(d) suitably displace the threshold; and
(e) if (d) is impracticable, suitably displace the system upwind of the threshold to provide an increase in threshold crossing height equal to the height of the obstacle penetration.
9.9.3 T-VASIS and AT-VASIS
22.214.171.124 A T-Visual Approach Slope Indicator System (T-VASIS) is a set of lights so arranged that the pattern seen by the pilot varies according to his position (up or down, left or right) relative to the desired approach path. Where installed in the r...
126.96.36.199 A T-VASIS must consist of twenty light units symmetrically disposed about the runway centreline in the form of two wing bars of four light units each, with bisecting longitudinal lines of six lights, and laid out as shown in Figure 9.9-2.
188.8.131.52 An AT-VASIS must consist of ten light units arranged on one side of the runway in the form of a single wing bar of four light units with a bisecting longitudinal line of six lights.
184.108.40.206 The light units must be constructed and arranged in such a manner that the pilot of an aeroplane during an approach will:
(a) When above the correct approach slope, see an inverted white ‘T’ pattern comprising the white wing bar(s) lights, and one, two or three white ‘fly-down’ lights, the more fly-down lights being visible, the higher the pilot is above the correct appr...
(b) When on the correct approach slope, see a line of white wing bar(s) lights.
(c) When below the correct approach slope, see a white ‘T’ pattern comprising the white wing bar(s) lights and one, two or three white ‘fly-up’ lights, the more fly-up lights being visible the lower the pilot is below the correct approach slope; and w...
220.127.116.11 Siting a T-VASIS or AT-VASIS. The siting of a T-VASIS or AT-VASIS must be such that:
(a) The light units must be located as shown in Figure 9.9-2, subject to the tolerances given in Table 9.9-1.
(b) The light units forming the wing bars, or the light units forming a fly-down or a fly-up matched pair, must be mounted so as to appear to the pilot of an approaching aeroplane to be substantially in a horizontal line. The light units must be moun...
18.104.22.168 Characteristics of the T-VASIS light units. The characteristics of the T-VASIS light units must be such that:
(a) The system must be suitable for both day and night operations.
(b) A suitable intensity control must be provided to allow adjustments to meet the prevailing conditions and to avoid dazzling the pilot during approach and landing.
(c) The light distribution of the beam of each light unit must be of fan shape showing over a wide arc in azimuth in the approach direction. The wing bar light units shall produce a beam of white light from 1 54’ vertical angle up to 6 vertical ang...
(d) The colour transition from white to red must be so as to appear to an observer at a distance of not less than 300 m, to occur over a vertical angle of not more than 15’. Immediately below this transition sector the intensity of the completely red...
(e) The beam of light produced by the light units must show through an angle of at least 1 30’ above and below the approach slope both by day and by night and in azimuth through not less than 10 by day and not less than 15 by night. The effective ...
(f) The light units must be so designed that deposits of condensation, dirt, etc. on optically transmitting or reflecting surfaces must interfere to the least possible extent with the light signals and must in no way affect the elevation of the beams ...
22.214.171.124 Approach slope and elevation settings of light beams. The approach slope and elevation settings of light beams must be such that:
(a) An approach slope that is operationally satisfactory is to be selected for each runway. The standard approach slope is 3º (1:19 nominal), and with an eye height over threshold of 15 m.
(b) When the runway on which a T-VASIS is provided is equipped with an ILS, the siting and elevation of the light units must be such that the T-VASIS approach slope is compatible with the ILS glide path. A T-VASIS eye-height over the threshold 1 m hig...
(c) The light beams from the corresponding light units on opposite sides of the runway must have the same recognition angle. The fly-up and fly-down light units of the ‘T’ must appear with uniform steps as the approach slope changes.
(d) The elevation of the beams of the wing bar light units on both sides of the runway must be the same. The elevation of the top of the beam of the fly-up light unit nearest to each wing bar, and the bottom of the beam of the fly-down light unit nea...
(e) The elevation setting of the top of the red light beams of the wing bar and fly-up light units must be such that, during an approach, the pilot of an aeroplane, to whom the wing bar and three fly-up units are visible, would clear all objects in th...
126.96.36.199 Clearance from movement areas. Light unit must not be sited closer than 15 m from the edge of the runway. Light units should be sited at least 15 m from the edge of a taxiway but should circumstances require units to be closer than this dista...
188.8.131.52 System dimensions. Tabulated below are system dimensions, with allowable tolerances. These values apply to design, installation and subsequent maintenance:
184.108.40.206 The aerodrome operator must ensure that the immediate surround of each unit is kept free of grass. Tall grass immediately in front of the light unit could provide conflicting light signals. Grass growing near to the box on any side could resu...
220.127.116.11 Current settings. The following information is provided for guidance only of aerodrome operators. For existing installations, the recommended lamp current, the approximate series current and approximate light intensities are shown in Table ...
9.9.4 Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) system
18.104.22.168 The PAPI system must consist of a row, also termed ‘wing bar’, of 4 equally spaced sharp transition multi-lamp (or paired single lamp) units. The system must be located on the left side of the runway, as viewed by an aircraft approaching to la...
22.214.171.124 The PAPI system must be sited and adjusted so that a pilot making an approach will:
(a) when on or close to the approach slope, see the two units nearest the runway as red and the two units farthest from the runway as white;
(b) when above the approach slope, see the one unit nearest the runway as red and the three units farthest from the runway as white; and when further above the approach slope, see all the units as white;
(c) when below the approach slope, see the three units nearest the runway as red and the unit farthest from the runway as white; and when further below the approach slope, see all the units as red.
126.96.36.199 Where it is impracticable to install the PAPI on the left side of the runway, and it has been installed on the right, the usual order of the light units must be reversed, so that the on-slope indication is still given by the two units nearest ...
188.8.131.52 A double-sided PAPI system must consist of eight light units symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line in the form of two wing bars of four light units each. The indications seen by the pilot must be symmetrical, so that when on or ...
184.108.40.206 Siting a PAPI or a Double-sided PAPI. The following requirements are applicable to the siting of a PAPI or a Double-sided PAPI:
(a) The light units must be located as in the basic configuration illustrated in Figure 9.9-3, subject to the installation tolerances given therein.
(b) The light units forming a wing bar must be mounted so as to appear to a pilot of an approaching aeroplane to be substantially in a horizontal line. The light units must be mounted as low as possible and must be frangible.
220.127.116.11 Characteristics of the PAPI light units. The characteristics of the PAPI light units must be such that:
(a) The system must be suitable for both day and night operations.
(b) The colour transition from red to white in the vertical plane must be such that as to appear to an observer, at a distance of not less than 300 m, to occur within a vertical angle of not more than 3'.
(c) At full intensity the red light must have a Y co-ordinate not exceeding 0.320.
(d) The light intensity distribution of the light units must be as shown in Figure 9.9-4.
(e) Suitable intensity control must be provided to allow adjustment to meet the prevailing conditions and to avoid dazzling the pilot during approach and landing.
(f) Each light unit must be capable of adjustment in elevation so that the lower limit of the white part of the beam may be fixed at any desired angle of elevation between 1 30' and at least 4 30' above the horizontal.
(g) The light units must be so designed that deposits of condensation, snow, ice, dirt, etc., on optical transmitting or reflecting surfaces must interfere to the least possible extent with the light signals and must not affect the contrast between th...
18.104.22.168 Approach slope and elevation setting of light units. The requirements for the approach slope and elevation setting of light units are:
(a) The approach slope, as defined in Figure 9.9-5, must be appropriate for use by the aeroplanes using the approach. The standard approach slope is 3 .
(b) When the runway on which a PAPI is provided is equipped with an ILS, the siting and elevation of the light units must be such that the PAPI approach slope conforms as closely as possible with the ILS glide path.
(c) The angle of elevation settings of the light units in a PAPI wing bar must be such that, during an approach, the pilot of an aeroplane observing a signal of one white and three reds will clear all objects in the approach area by a safe margin. Se...
(d) The azimuth spread of the light beam must be suitably restricted where an object located outside the obstacle assessment surface of the PAPI system, but within the lateral limits of its light beam, is found to extend above the plane of the obstacl...
(e) Where a double-sided PAPI is provided, corresponding units must be seen at the same angle so that the signals of each wing bar change symmetrically at the same time.
22.214.171.124 Determining PAPI wing bar distance from threshold
(a) The optimum distance of PAPI wing bar from the runway threshold is determined by:
(b) The distance of the PAPI units from the threshold may have to be modified from the optimum after consideration of:
(c) Table 9.9-4 specifies the standard wheel clearance over the threshold for the most demanding amongst the aircraft regularly using the runway, for four aircraft eye-to-wheel height groups. Where practicable, the standard wheel clearance shown in c...
(d) Where the landing run may be limited, especially at smaller aerodromes, a reduction in wheel clearance over the threshold may be more acceptable than a loss of landing distance. The special minimum wheel clearance shown in column (3) may be used ...
(e) The final location of the units is determined by the relationship between the approach angle, the difference in levels between threshold and the units, and the minimum eye height over the threshold (MEHT). The angle M used to establish the MEHT i...
(f) Where a PAPI is installed on a runway not equipped with an ILS, the distance D1 shall be calculated to ensure that the lowest height at which a pilot will see a correct approach path indication provides the wheel clearance over the threshold speci...
(g) Where a PAPI is installed on a runway equipped with an ILS, the distance D1 shall be calculated to provide the optimum compatibility between the visual and non-visual aids for the range of eye-to-antenna heights of the aeroplanes regularly using t...
(h) If a wheel clearance greater than that that specified in 126.96.36.199(f) is required for specific aircraft, this can be achieved by increasing D1.
(i) Distance D1 shall be adjusted to compensate for differences in elevation between the lens centres of the light units and the threshold.
(j) PAPI units must be the minimum practicable height above ground, and not normally more than 0.9 m. All units of a wing bar should ideally lie in the same horizontal plane; however, to allow for any transverse slope, small height differences of no ...
188.8.131.52 Procedure for Establishing the Distance of the PAPI Wing Bar from the Runway Threshold
(a) Decide on the required approach slope. The standard approach slope is 3 .
(b) On runways where no ILS is installed, refer to Table 9.9-4 to determine the aeroplane eye-to-wheel group and the wheel clearance to be provided at the threshold. The MEHT, which provides the appropriate wheel clearance over the threshold, is esta...
(c) The calculation of the nominal position of the PAPI is made on the assumption that the PAPI units are at the same level as the runway centreline adjacent to them, and this level, in turn, is the same as that of the runway threshold. The nominal d...
(d) Where there is a difference in excess of 0.3 m between the elevation of the runway threshold and the elevation of unit B at the nominal distance from the threshold, it will be necessary to displace the PAPI from its nominal position. The distance...
(e) Where a PAPI is installed on a runway equipped with an ILS, the distance D1 must be equal to that between the threshold and the effective origin of the ILS glide path, plus a correction factor for the variation of eye-to-antenna heights of the aer...
Section 9.10: Runway Lighting
9.10.1 Types of Runway Edge Lighting Systems
184.108.40.206 A runway edge lighting system may be of the following type:
(a) low intensity – a single intensity lighting system suitable for a non-instrument runway or a non-precision approach runway. This is provided at an aerodrome where there is no appropriate person, such as an air traffic controller, certified air/gro...
(b) medium intensity – a 3-stage intensity lighting system suitable for a non-instrument runway or a non-precision approach runway. This is provided to enhance the lighting system particularly in marginal weather conditions. This system cannot be used...
(c) high intensity – a 5 or 6 stage intensity lighting system which is suitable for precision approach runways. This system cannot be used at an aerodrome that does not have air traffic services or similar personnel.
9.10.2 Runway Edge Lights
220.127.116.11 Runway edge lights must be provided for a runway intended for use at night or for a precision approach runway intended for use by day or night.
18.104.22.168 Runway edge lighting must meet the following operational requirements:
(a) for every runway intended for use at night, omnidirectional lights meeting the characteristics requirements of 9.10.6 shall be provided to cater for both visual circling after an instrument approach to circling minima, and circuits in VMC;
(b) for a precision approach runway, in addition to (a) above, unidirectional lights meeting the characteristics requirements of 9.10.7, and 9.10.8, if applicable, shall also be provided.
9.10.3 Location of Runway Edge Lights
22.214.171.124 Runway edge lights must be placed along both sides of the runway, in two parallel straight rows equidistant from the centreline of the runway, commencing one-light spacing from the threshold and continuing to one-light spacing from the runway...
9.10.4 Longitudinal Spacing of Runway Edge Lights
126.96.36.199 The longitudinal spacing of runway edge lights must be uniform and be:
(a) for an instrument runway, 60 m +0 / -5 m;
(b) for a non-instrument runway, 90 m ± 10 m, or 60 m +0 / -5 m if there is an intention to upgrade the runway to an instrument runway at some time in the future.
(c) for non-precision instrument runways intended to be used in visibility conditions of 1.5 km or greater, where existing edge lights are spaced at 90 m ±10 m, it is acceptable to retain this spacing until the next replacement or improvement of the e...
188.8.131.52 Where the runway is a non-instrument or a non-precision instrument runway, and it is intersected by other runways or taxiways:
(a) within 600 m of the threshold, lights may be spaced irregularly, but not omitted, and
(b) more than 600 m from the threshold, lights may be spaced irregularly or omitted, but no two consecutive lights may be omitted;
provided that such irregular spacing or omission does not significantly alter the visual guidance available to a pilot using the runway.
184.108.40.206 Runway edge lights must not to be omitted on a precision approach runway.
220.127.116.11 Where a runway edge light cannot be omitted, inset runway edge lights must be provided in place of elevated lights.
18.104.22.168 Unless a light is omitted or displaced in accordance with Paragraph 22.214.171.124, a runway edge light must be aligned with a light on the opposite side of the runway.
9.10.5 Lateral Spacing of Runway Edge Lights
126.96.36.199 Subject to Paragraph 188.8.131.52, runway edge lights must be placed along the edges of the area declared for use as the runway or outside the edges of the area at a distance of not more than 3 m.
184.108.40.206 If the width of a runway is less than 30 m in width, the runway edge lights must be placed as if the runway is 30 m in width, and in accordance with Paragraph 220.127.116.11.
18.104.22.168 If a runway is provided with both low or medium intensity and high intensity runway light units, the row of high intensity light units shall be placed closer to the runway centreline. The two rows of light units are to be parallel, separated ...
9.10.6 Characteristics of Low and Medium Intensity Runway Edge Lights
22.214.171.124 Low intensity and medium intensity runway edge lights must be fixed omnidirectional lights that show variable white. Elevated omnidirectional lights must have light distribution that is uniform for the full 360 horizontal coverage. Where e...
126.96.36.199 The minimum light intensity for low intensity runway edge lights is to be in accordance with Section 9.11, Figure 9.11-1. The main beam, between 0º and 7º above the horizontal, is to have a minimum average intensity of not less than 100 cd, a...
188.8.131.52 Low intensity runway edge lights are to have a single intensity for all lights in the same runway lighting system.
184.108.40.206 The minimum light intensity for medium intensity runway edge lights is to be in accordance with Section 9.11, Figure 9.11-2. The main beam, between 0º and 7º above the horizontal, is to have a minimum average intensity of not less than 200 cd...
9.10.7 Characteristics of High Intensity Runway Edge Lights
220.127.116.11 High intensity runway edge lights must be fixed unidirectional lights with the main beam directed towards the threshold.
18.104.22.168 High intensity runway edge light beam coverage shall be toed in towards the runway as follows:
(a) 3.5 in the case of a 30-45 m wide runway;
(b) 4.5 in the case of a 60 m wide runway.
22.214.171.124 High intensity runway edge lights must show variable white except for those located within 600 m from the runway end which must show yellow.
126.96.36.199 The minimum light intensity for high intensity runway edge lights that show variable white is to be in accordance with Section 9.11
(a) Figure 9.11-3 for 30 m to 45 m wide runways; and
(b) Figure 9.11-4 for 60 m wide runways.
188.8.131.52 The minimum light intensity for high intensity runway edge lights that show yellow is the standard set out in Figure 9.11-3 or Figure 9.11-4, whichever is applicable, multiplied by 0.4.
9.10.8 Use of Bidirectional or Back-to-back Light Fittings
184.108.40.206 On a runway where high intensity edge lights are intended to be used from either direction, separate high intensity runway edge light fittings may be provided back-to-back, or bidirectional light fittings with the correct toe-in angle built i...
9.10.9 Runway Threshold Lights
220.127.116.11 Runway threshold lights must be provided on a runway that is equipped with runway edge lights.
9.10.10 Location of Runway Threshold Lights
18.104.22.168 Runway threshold lights must be located in a straight line at right angles to the centreline of the runway and:
(a) when the threshold is at the extremity of a runway – as near to the extremity as possible and not more than 3 m outside, or 1 m inside of the extremity; or
(b) when the threshold is a displaced threshold – at the displaced threshold with a tolerance of ± 1 m.
9.10.11 Pattern of Low Intensity and Medium Intensity Runway Threshold Lights
22.214.171.124 Low and medium intensity runway threshold lights are to consist of:
(a) 2 omnidirectional lights, one at each end of the threshold and in line with the runway edge lights; and
(b) 6 unidirectional lights at equal intervals between the 2 omnidirectional lights.
126.96.36.199 The 6 unidirectional lights are to be inset lights if:
(a) the threshold is a permanently displaced threshold; or
(b) the threshold is also equipped with high intensity threshold lights; or
(c) it is impractical for elevated lights to be installed.
188.8.131.52 Subject to paragraph 184.108.40.206, only an aerodrome used predominantly for training and general aviation may use the alternative pattern of low intensity or medium intensity runway threshold lights as described in paragraph 220.127.116.11.
18.104.22.168 The alternative pattern is not suitable for aerodromes used predominantly by aircraft having a take-off weight greater than 5,700 kg, nor is it suitable for aerodromes where commercial air transport jet propelled aeroplanes operate.
22.214.171.124 The alternative pattern consists of:
(a) 6 elevated lights arranged in 2 groups of 3 equally spaced lights, with the distance between the 2 groups equal to half the lateral distance between the 2 rows of runway edge lights; and.
(b) The outer lights on either side shall be omnidirectional green lights, and the inner 4 lights shall be unidirectional green lights (or bidirectional green/red lights when the same light fittings are used for runway end lights).
126.96.36.199 On and after 1 June 2010, an aerodrome may use the alternative pattern of low intensity or medium intensity runway threshold lights in paragraph 188.8.131.52 only if:
(a) the aerodrome was using, and was entitled to use, the alternative pattern immediately before 1 June 2010; and
(b) the aerodrome operator continues to comply with the alternative pattern on and after that date.
9.10.12 Pattern of High Intensity Runway Threshold Lights
184.108.40.206 High intensity runway threshold lights must consist of:
(a) 2 unidirectional lights, one at each end of the threshold and in line with the row of runway edge lights; and
(b) unidirectional lights uniformly spaced between the 2 outer lights, at intervals of not more than 3 m. These lights must be inset lights.
9.10.13 Characteristics of Low Intensity and Medium Intensity Runway Threshold Lights
220.127.116.11 Low intensity and medium intensity runway threshold lights must have the following characteristics:
(a) the outermost light on each side must be a fixed omnidirectional light showing green;
(b) the inner lights must be fixed unidirectional lights showing green in the direction of approach over not less than 38 or more than 180 of azimuth;
(c) the light distribution in the direction of approach must be as close as practicable to that of the runway edge lights;
(d) the intensity of the green lights must be in the range of 1 to 1.5 times the intensity of the runway edge lights.
9.10.14 Characteristics of High Intensity Runway Threshold Lights
18.104.22.168 High intensity runway threshold lights must be fixed lights showing green in the direction of approach with a minimum light intensity in accordance with Section 9.11, Figure 9.11-5.
9.10.15 Additional Lighting to Enhance Threshold Location
22.214.171.124 Threshold Wing Bars:
(a) On a precision approach runway, if it is operationally required that an increase in the conspicuity of the threshold at night be provided, the threshold may be provided with threshold wing bars.
(b) Where provided, threshold wing bars must be symmetrically disposed on either side of the threshold:
126.96.36.199 Characteristics of Threshold Wing Bars:
(a) Threshold wing bars must have the following characteristics:
(b) If it is impracticable to use elevated lights, inset lights may be used, however, inset and elevated lights must not be used in the same threshold wing bar.
188.8.131.52 Runway Threshold Identification Lights:
(a) At an aerodrome where it is difficult to locate a runway threshold from the air during the day such as in the case of a displaced threshold or an aerodrome with complex runway/taxiway layout in the vicinity of the threshold, runway threshold ident...
(b) Runway threshold identification lights must be provided, during the day, to mark a temporarily displaced threshold of a runway serving international jet propelled aeroplanes conducting air transport operations.
184.108.40.206 Location of runway threshold identification lights. Because of their nature and use, runway threshold identification lights can have more flexibility in their installation location than other visual aids. Advantage can be taken of this par...
220.127.116.11 Where provided, one light unit shall be on each side of the runway, equidistant from the runway centreline, on a line perpendicular to the runway centreline. The optimum location of the light units shall be 12 to 15 m outside each line of r...
18.104.22.168 Characteristics of runway threshold identification lights. Runway threshold identification lights must have the following characteristics:
(a) be flashing lights;
(b) the light flashes are synchronised with a normal flash rate of 100-120 per minute;
(c) the colour of the lights is white;
(d) a minimum range in bright sunlight of approximately 7 km; and
(e) the beam axis of each light unit shall be aimed 15 outward from a line parallel to the runway centreline and inclined at an angle of 10 above the horizontal.
22.214.171.124 Temporarily displaced threshold lights for use at night. Temporarily displaced threshold lights must be provided at night to identify the new threshold location when the threshold of a runway is temporarily displaced.
126.96.36.199 Location of temporarily displaced threshold lights. Temporarily displaced threshold lights must be provided on each side of the runway:
(a) in line with the displaced threshold:
(b) at right angles to the runway centreline; and
(c) with the innermost light on each side aligned with the row of runway edge lights on that side of the threshold.
188.8.131.52 Characteristics of temporarily displaced threshold lights. Temporarily displaced threshold lights must have the following characteristics:
(a) each side must consist of 5 lights except that 3 lights per side is sufficient if the runway width is 30 m or less;
(b) the lights must be spaced at 2.5 m apart;
(c) the innermost light of each side must be a fixed omnidirectional light showing green in all angles of azimuth;
(d) the outer 4 or 2 lights, as appropriate, of each side must be fixed unidirectional lights showing green in the direction of approach, over not less than 38 or more than 180 of azimuth;
(e) the light distribution in the direction of approach must be as close as practicable to that of the runway edge lights;
(f) the light intensity must be as close as practicable to 1.5 times, and not less than, that of the runway edge lights.
184.108.40.206 Runway lighting before a displaced threshold
(a) If the part of runway located before a displaced threshold is available for aircraft use, i.e. for take-offs, and landings from the opposite direction, runway edge lights in this part of runway must:
(b) The intensity of the red runway edge lights required under Paragraph 220.127.116.11(a) must not be less than one-quarter, and not more than one-half, that of the white runway edge lights.
(c) Runway edge lights may be bidirectional light fittings or separate light fittings installed back to back.
(d) If the portion of runway before a displaced threshold is closed to aircraft operations, all the runway lights thereon must be extinguished.
9.10.16 Runway End Lights
18.104.22.168 Runway end lights must be provided on a runway equipped with runway edge lights.
9.10.17 Location of Runway End Lights
22.214.171.124 Runway end lights must be located in a straight line at right angles to the runway centreline, and:
(a) when the runway end is at the extremity of the runway – as near to the extremity as possible and not more than 3 m outside, or 1 m inside the extremity;
(b) when the runway end is not at the extremity of the runway – at the runway end, with a tolerance of ± 1 m.
(c) for the following areas:
the runway end lights must be located in such a way that an aircraft using the area will not be required to cross the row of red lights comprising the runway end lights.
9.10.18 Pattern of Runway End Lights
126.96.36.199 The pattern of runway end lights must consist of:
(a) at least 6 lights spaced at equal intervals between the rows of runway edge lights; or
(b) if the runway is provided with the alternative threshold light pattern, the threshold pattern.
188.8.131.52 For a precision approach runway Category III, the spacing between runway end lights must not exceed 6 m.
9.10.19 Characteristics of Low and Medium Intensity Runway End Lights
184.108.40.206 Low intensity and medium intensity runway end lights must have the following characteristics:
(a) the lights must be fixed unidirectional showing red in the direction of the runway over not less than 38 or more than 180 of azimuth;
(b) the intensity of the red light must not be less than one-quarter, and not more than one-half, that of the runway edge lights;
(c) the light distribution in the direction of the runway must be as close as practicable to that of the runway edge lights.
220.127.116.11 Low intensity and medium intensity runway end lights must be inset lights if:
(a) the runway is also equipped with high intensity runway end lights; or
(b) it is impracticable for elevated lights to be installed.
18.104.22.168 If the runway end coincides with the runway threshold, bidirectional light fittings may be used or separate light fittings installed back to back.
9.10.20 Characteristics of High Intensity Runway End Lights
22.214.171.124 High intensity runway end lights must have the following characteristics:
(a) the lights must be inset, fixed unidirectional showing red in the direction of the runway; and
(b) the minimum light intensity must be in accordance with Section 9.11, Figure 9.11-7.
9.10.21 Runway Turning Area Edge Lights
126.96.36.199 Where an aircraft turning area is provided on a runway, the edge of the turning area must be provided with blue edge lights if the runway is provided with edge lights.
188.8.131.52 Runway turning area edge lights must be located not less than 0.6 m, and not more than 1.8 m, outside the edge of the turning area.
184.108.40.206 If the beginning of the splay into a runway turning area is more than 10 m from the previous runway edge light, a blue edge light must be located where the turning area commences.
220.127.116.11 Turning area edge lights must be provided to mark any change of direction along the side of the turning area.
18.104.22.168 Where a side of the turning area is longer than 30 m, equally spaced blue edge lights must be provided along that side, with spacing not exceeding 30 m.
22.214.171.124 Runway turning area edge lights must have the same characteristics as taxiway edge lights, in accordance with Paragraph 9.13.15.
9.10.22 Stopway Lights
126.96.36.199 Stopway lights must be provided on a stopway which is longer than 180 m and is intended for night use.
188.8.131.52 Stopway lights must be located along both sides of the stopway in line with the runway edge lights and up to the stopway end.
184.108.40.206 The spacing of stopway lights must be uniform and not more than that of the runway edge lights, with the last pair of lights located at the stopway end.
220.127.116.11 The stopway end must be further indicated by at least 2 stopway lights at equal intervals across the stopway end between the last pair of stopway lights.
18.104.22.168 Stopway lights must have the following characteristics:
(a) the lights must be fixed and unidirectional showing red in the direction of the runway, and not visible to a pilot approaching to land over the stopway;
(b) the light distribution in the direction of the runway must be as close as possible to that of the runway edge lights; and
(c) the intensity of the red light must not be less than one quarter, and not more than one half, that of the white runway edge lights.
9.10.23 Hold Short Lights
22.214.171.124 Hold short lights must be provided on a runway which is intended to accommodate land and hold short operations (LAHSO).
126.96.36.199 Hold short lights must be at least 6 inset lights located across the runway as near to the hold short line as possible, and in any case not beyond, and not more than 3 m before the hold short line, which is at least 75 m from the centreline ...
188.8.131.52 The hold short lights must be at right angles to the runway, and located symmetrically about the runway centreline, with the closest lights at 1.5 m from the centreline, and subsequent lights 3 m apart.
184.108.40.206 The hold short lights must be unidirectional, showing white in the direction of approach to the hold short position, and have photometric characteristics in accordance with Section 9.11, Figure 9.11-8.
220.127.116.11 The lights must occult, in unison, at between 25 and 35 cycles per minute. The illumination period shall be approximately 2/3, and the light suppression period shall be approximately 1/3, of the total period of each cycle.
18.104.22.168 Each bar of hold short lights must be individually controlled, provided with variable intensity setting, and technically monitored for serviceability, at the operator position of the ATC operator controlling the LAHSO operation.
22.214.171.124 Where secondary power is available, hold short lights must be connected to that power system, with changeover times not greater than for the runway lighting on the same runway.
9.10.24 Runway Centreline Lights
126.96.36.199 Runway centreline lights must be provided on the following:
(a) a Cat II or III precision approach runway;
(b) a runway intended for take-offs with an operating minimum below an RVR of 350 m.
188.8.131.52 Runway centreline lights must be located from the threshold to the end at longitudinal spacing of approximately:
(a) 15 m on a runway intended for use in runway visual range conditions less than a value of 350 m; and
(b) 30 m on a runway intended for use in runway visual range conditions of 350 m or greater.
184.108.40.206 The runway centreline lights may be offset by not more than 0.6 m from the true runway centreline, for maintenance of runway marking purposes.
220.127.116.11 The offset shall be on the left hand side of the landing aircraft, where practicable. Where the runway is used in both directions, the direction from which the majority of landings will take place shall prevail.
18.104.22.168 Runway centreline lights must be inset, fixed lights showing white from the threshold to a point 900 m from the runway end. From 900 m to 300 m from the runway end, the light pattern is to be two red lights followed by two white lights. For ...
22.214.171.124 The light intensity and distribution of runway centreline lights must be in accordance with:
(a) Section 9.11, Figure 9.11-8 — for 30 m spacing;
(b) Section 9.11, Figure 9.11-9 — for 15 m spacing.
9.10.25 Runway Touchdown Zone Lights
126.96.36.199 Runway touchdown zone lights must be provided for a runway intended for precision approach Category II or III operations.
188.8.131.52 Runway touchdown zone lights must extend from the threshold for a distance of 900 m. The lighting is to consist of a series of transverse rows of lights, or barrettes, symmetrically located on each side of the runway centreline.
184.108.40.206 Each barrette must consist of three light units at 1.5 m apart. The innermost light of each barrette must be at 9 m from the true runway centreline.
220.127.116.11 The first pair of barrettes must be located at 60 m from the threshold. Subsequent barrettes must be spaced longitudinally at 60 m apart.
18.104.22.168 Runway touchdown zone lights must be inset, fixed unidirectional lights showing variable white.
22.214.171.124 Runway touchdown zone lights must be in accordance with Section 9.11, Figure 9.11-10.
9.10.26 Photometric Characteristics of Runway Lights
126.96.36.199 Section 9.11, Figure 9.11-11 shows the method of establishing the grid points for calculating the average intensity of low and medium intensity runway lights for non-instrument and instrument non-precision approach runways.
188.8.131.52 Section 9.11, Figure 9.11-12 shows the method of establishing grid points for calculating the average intensity of high intensity approach and runway lights for precision approach runways.
184.108.40.206 The average light intensity of the main beam of a light is calculated by:
(a) establishing grid points in accordance with the method shown in Section 9.11, Figure 9.11-11 or Figure 9.11-12, whichever is applicable.
(b) measuring the light intensity values at all grid points within and on the perimeter of the rectangle or ellipse representing the main beam;
(c) calculating the arithmetic average of the light intensity values as measured at those grid points.
220.127.116.11 The maximum light intensity value measured on or within the perimeter of the main beam must not to be more than three times the minimum light intensity value so measured.
9.10.27 Installation and Aiming of Light Fittings
18.104.22.168 The following points must be followed in the installation and aiming of light fittings:
(a) the lights are aimed so that there are no deviations in the main beam pattern, to within 1/2 from the applicable standard specified in this Chapter;
(b) horizontal angles are measured with respect to the vertical plane through the runway centreline;
(c) when measuring horizontal angles for lights other than runway centreline lights, the direction towards the runway centreline is to be taken to be positive;
(d) vertical angles specified are to be measured with respect to the horizontal plane.
9.10.28 Illustrations of Runway Lighting
22.214.171.124 Section 9.12 contains illustrations of runway lighting.
Section 9.11: Isocandela Diagrams of Runway Lighting
9.11.1 Collective Notes
126.96.36.199 The ellipses in each figure are symmetrical about the common vertical and horizontal axes.
188.8.131.52 Figure 9.11-1 to Figure 9.11-10 show the minimum allowable light intensities. The average intensity of the main beam is calculated by establishing the grid points as shown in Figure 9.11-11 or Figure 9.11-12, as appropriate, and using the int...
184.108.40.206 No deviations are acceptable in the main beam pattern when the lighting fixture is properly aimed.
220.127.116.11 Average intensity ratio. The ratio between the average intensity within the ellipse defining the main beam of a typical new light and average light intensity of the main beam of a new runway edge light is to be as follows:
18.104.22.168 The beam coverages in the figures provide the necessary guidance for approaches down to an RVR of the order of 150 m and take-off to an RVR of the order of 100 m.
22.214.171.124 Horizontal angles are measured with respect to the vertical plane through the runway centreline. For lights other than centreline lights, the direction towards the runway centreline is considered positive. Vertical angles are measured with re...
126.96.36.199 The light units are to be installed so that the main beam is aligned within one-half degree of the specified requirement.
188.8.131.52 On the perimeter of and within the ellipse defining the main beam, the maximum light intensity is not to be greater than three times the minimum light intensity value measured.
Section 9.12: Illustrations of Runway Lighting
Section 9.13: Taxiway Lighting
9.13.1 Provision of Taxiway Centreline Lights
184.108.40.206 Unless the aerodrome has light traffic density, a taxiway intended for use in RVR conditions less than a value of 350 m must have centreline lights that provide continuous guidance between the runway centreline and the apron.
220.127.116.11 A taxiway intended for use at night in RVR conditions of between 350 m and 1 200 m must have centreline lights unless the aerodrome has:
(a) a simple layout; or
(b) light traffic density.
18.104.22.168 Taxiway centreline lights must be used on a rapid exit taxiway.
22.214.171.124 Taxiway centreline lights may be used in other cases, if the aerodrome chooses. At aerodromes where the layout is complex, the use of taxiway centreline lights would be beneficial for surface movement.
9.13.2 Provision of Taxiway Edge Lights
126.96.36.199 Except for Paragraphs 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206, taxiway edge lights must be provided at the edges of a taxiway and holding bays, intended for use at night and not provided with centreline lights.
220.127.116.11 Where additional visual cues are required to delineate apron edges at night, taxiway edge lights may be used. Examples of where this requirement may occur include, but are not limited to:
(a) aprons where taxi guidelines and aircraft parking position marking are not provided;
(b) aprons where apron floodlighting provides inadequate illumination at the edge of the apron; and
(c) where the edge of the apron is difficult to distinguish from the surrounding area at night.
9.13.3 Taxiway Markers
18.104.22.168 For code letter A or B taxiways, retroreflective taxiway centreline or edge markers may be used instead of taxiway centreline or edge lights, provided at least 1 taxiway from the runway to the apron has taxiway centreline or edge lights.
22.214.171.124 If taxiway centreline lights are not provided, taxiway centreline markers may be used to improve guidance on the taxiway, or to supplement:
(a) taxiway centreline marking; or
(b) taxiway edge markers or taxiway edge lights.
126.96.36.199 If taxiway edge lights are not provided, taxiway edge markers may be used to improve guidance on the taxiway, or to supplement:
(a) taxiway edge marking; or
(b) taxiway centreline markers or taxiway centreline lights.
9.13.4 Apron Taxiway Lighting
188.8.131.52 Taxiway lights are not required for an apron taxiway if the apron taxiway is illuminated by apron floodlighting meeting the standards specified in Section 9.16.
9.13.5 Use of Different Types of Taxiway Lights
184.108.40.206 As far as practicable, the provision of taxiway lights shall be such that taxying aircraft do not need to alternate between taxiway centreline and edge lights.
220.127.116.11 Where additional guidance is required to delineate taxiway edges, taxiway edge lights may be used to supplement taxiway centreline lights. When provided, taxiway edge lights must comply with Paragraphs 9.13.13 to 9.13.15. This may occur at, ...
(a) rapid exit taxiways;
(b) taxiway curves;
(d) a narrower section of taxiway.
9.13.6 Control of Lights on Taxiways
18.104.22.168 At an aerodrome with Air Traffic Service, taxiway lights with an average intensity within the main beam of more than 20 candela must be provided with intensity control in accordance with Paragraph 22.214.171.124, to allow adjustment of the lighting...
126.96.36.199 If it is desired to illuminate only standard taxi routes during certain period of operations, for example during low visibility operations, the taxiway lighting may be designed to allow taxiways in use to be lit and those not in use to be unl...
188.8.131.52 Where a runway forming part of a standard taxi-route is provided with runway lighting and taxiway lighting, the lighting systems must be interlocked to preclude the possibility of simultaneous operation of both forms of lighting.
9.13.7 Location of Taxiway Centreline Lights
184.108.40.206 Taxiway centreline lights must be located on the centreline of the taxiway or uniformly offset from the taxiway centreline by not more than 0.3 m.
9.13.8 Spacing of Taxiway Centreline Lights
220.127.116.11 Except for Paragraphs 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124, the longitudinal spacing of taxiway centreline lights on a straight section of taxiway must be uniform and be not more than the values specified in Table 9.13-1 below:
126.96.36.199 For the purpose of taxiway centreline lighting, a straight section of taxiway that is less than 181 metres in length is considered a short straight taxiway. Taxiway centreline lights on a short straight section of taxiway must be spaced at un...
188.8.131.52 For a taxiway entering a runway:
(a) the last taxiway centreline light must be not more than 1 m outside the line of runway edge lights; and
(b) if the taxiway centreline lights continue towards the runway centreline, they must end no closer than 1.2 m from the runway centreline.
184.108.40.206 When a taxiway changes from a straight to a curved section, the taxiway centreline lights must continue on from the preceding straight section at a uniform distance from the outside edge of the taxiway.
220.127.116.11 The longitudinal spacing of taxiway centreline lights on a curved section of taxiway must be uniform and be not more than the values specified in Table 9.13-2.
9.13.9 Location of Taxiway Centreline Lights on Exit Taxiways
18.104.22.168 Taxiway centreline lights on exit taxiways, other than rapid exit taxiways, must:
(a) start at the tangent point on the runway;
(b) have the first light offset 1.2 m from the runway centreline on the taxiway side; and
(c) be spaced at uniform longitudinal intervals of not more than 7.5 m.
9.13.10 Location of Taxiway Centreline Lights on Rapid Exit Taxiways
22.214.171.124 Taxiway centreline lights on a rapid exit taxiway must:
(a) start at least 60 m before the tangent point;
(b) on that part of taxiway parallel to the runway centreline, be offset 1.2 m from the runway centreline on the taxiway side; and
(c) continue at the same spacing to a point on the centreline of the taxiway at which an aeroplane can be expected to have decelerated to normal taxying speed.
126.96.36.199 Taxiway centreline lights on a rapid exit taxiway must be spaced at uniform longitudinal intervals of not more than 15 m.
9.13.11 Characteristics of Taxiway Centreline Lights
188.8.131.52 Taxiway centreline lights are to be inset, fixed lights showing green on:
(a) a taxiway other than an exit taxiway; and
(b) a runway forming part of a standard taxi-route.
184.108.40.206 Taxiway centreline lights on exit taxiways, including rapid exit taxiways, must be inset, fixed lights:
(a) showing green and yellow, alternately, from the point where they begin near the runway centreline, to whichever of the following is furthest from the runway:
(b) showing green from that point onwards.
220.127.116.11 When viewed from the runway, the exit taxiway light nearest the perimeter or the lower edge of the inner transitional surface, whichever is further, must show yellow.
18.104.22.168 Where the taxiway centreline lights are used for both runway exit and entry purposes, the colour of the lights viewed by a pilot of an aircraft entering the runway must be green. The colour of the lights viewed by a pilot of an aircraft exi...
22.214.171.124 Where the taxiway centreline lights cross a runway, the colour of the taxiway centreline lights viewed by a pilot of an aircraft entering the runway from the taxiway must be:
(a) green up to the runway centreline; and
(b) alternately green and yellow beyond the runway centreline while exiting on the other side of the runway.
9.13.12 Beam Dimensions and Light Distribution of Taxiway Centreline Lights
126.96.36.199 The beam dimensions and light distribution of taxiway centreline lights must be such that the lights are visible only to pilots of aircraft on, or in the vicinity of, the taxiway.
188.8.131.52 The light distribution of the green taxiway centreline lights in the vicinity of a threshold must be such as not to cause confusion with the runway threshold lights.
184.108.40.206 On a taxiway intended for use in RVR conditions of 350 m or greater, taxiway centreline lights must comply with the specifications set out in Section 9.14, Figure 9.14-1 or Figure 9.14-2, whichever is applicable.
220.127.116.11 On a taxiway intended for use in RVR conditions of less than a value of 350 m, the taxiway centreline lights must comply with the specifications set out in Section 9.14, Figure 9.14-3, Figure 9.14-4 or Figure 9.14-5, whichever is applicable.
9.13.13 Location of Taxiway Edge Lights
18.104.22.168 Taxiway edge lights must be located along both sides of the taxiway, with edge lights along each edge located opposite the corresponding lights along the other edge, except as allowed for in Paragraph 22.214.171.124.
126.96.36.199 A taxiway light may be omitted if it would otherwise have to be located on an intersection with another taxiway or runway.
188.8.131.52 Taxiway edge lights must be located outside the edge of the taxiway, being:
(a) equidistance from the centreline except where asymmetric fillets are provided; and
(b) as close as practicable to 1.2 m from the taxiway edge, but no further than 1.8 m, or nearer than 0.6 m.
184.108.40.206 Where a taxiway intersects with a runway, the last taxiway edge lights should preferably line-up with the line of runway edge lights, and must not encroach beyond the line of runway edge lights into the area outlined by the runway edge lights.
9.13.14 Spacing of Taxiway Edge Lights
220.127.116.11 Spacing of taxiway edge lights must be in accordance with Figure 9.13-1 below:
18.104.22.168 On a curved section of taxiway, the edge lights must be spaced at uniform longitudinal intervals in accordance with Curve A in Figure 9.13-1 above.
22.214.171.124 On a straight section of taxiway, the edge lights must be spaced at uniform longitudinal intervals, not exceeding 60 m, in accordance with Curve B in Figure 9.13-1 above.
126.96.36.199 Where a straight section joins a curved section, the longitudinal spacing between taxiway edge lights must be progressively reduced, in accordance with Paragraphs 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206, over not less than 3 spacings before the tangent point.
220.127.116.11 The last spacing between lights on a straight section must be the same as the spacing on the curved section.
18.104.22.168 If the last spacing on the straight section is less than 25 m, the second last spacing on the straight section must be no greater than 25 m.
22.214.171.124 If a straight section of taxiway enters an intersection with another taxiway, a runway or an apron, the longitudinal spacing of the taxiway edge lights must be progressively reduced over not less than 3 spacings, before the tangent point, so...
126.96.36.199 The taxiway edge lights must continue around the edge of the curve to the tangent point on the other taxiway, the runway or apron edge.
188.8.131.52 Taxiway edge lights on a holding bay or apron edge are to be spaced at uniform longitudinal intervals not exceeding 60 m, and in accordance with Curve B in Figure 9.13-1.
9.13.15 Characteristics of Taxiway Edge Lights
184.108.40.206 Taxiway edge lights must be fixed omnidirectional lights showing blue. The lights must be visible:
(a) up to at least 30 above the horizontal; and
(b) at all angles in azimuth necessary to provide guidance to the pilot of an aircraft on the taxiway.
220.127.116.11 At an intersection, exit or curve, the lights must be shielded, as far as is practicable, so they cannot be seen where they may be confused with other lights.
18.104.22.168 The peak intensity of the blue edge lights must not be less than 5 candela.
9.13.16 Provision of Runway Guard Lights
22.214.171.124 Runway guard lights must be provided at the intersection of a taxiway with a runway intended for use in:
(a) RVR conditions less than a value of 550 m where stop bars are not installed; or
(b) RVR conditions of values between 550 m and 1 200 m where the traffic density is heavy.
126.96.36.199 An aerodrome that is not required to provide runway guard lights may choose to do so as an aid to reducing runway incursions.
188.8.131.52 Subject to paragraph 184.108.40.206, if runway guard lights are introduced for a runway, they must:
(a) be introduced and used at all taxiways which allow access to the runway; and
(b) as far as practicable, be introduced at all taxiways at the same time; and
(c) if introduced in stages — be introduced in a way that removes any risk of confusion.
220.127.116.11 Runway guard lights are not required for a taxiway if:
(a) the taxiway is used only for exiting from the runway; and
(b) the taxiway cannot be used for entry to the runway.
18.104.22.168 Paragraph 22.214.171.124 does not apply if an aerodrome that is not required and has not chosen to be equipped with runway guard lights installs such lights only at an identified runway incursion hot spot.
9.13.17 Pattern and Location of Runway Guard Lights
126.96.36.199 There are two standard configurations of runway guard lights:
(a) Configuration A (or Elevated Runway Guard Lights) has lights on each side of the taxiway, and
(b) Configuration B (or In-pavement Runway Guard Lights) has lights across the taxiway.
188.8.131.52 Configuration A is the configuration to be installed in all cases; except that Configuration B, or both Configuration A and B, must be used where enhanced conspicuity of the taxiway/runway intersection is needed, for example;
(a) on complex taxiway intersections with a runway; or
(b) where holding position markings do not extend straight across the taxiway; or
(c) on a wide-throat taxiway where the Configuration A lights on both sides of the taxiway would not be within the normal field of view of a pilot approaching the runway guard lights.
184.108.40.206 Configuration A runway guard lights must be located on both sides of the taxiway, at the runway holding position closest to the runway, with the lighting on both sides:
(a) equidistant from the taxiway centreline; and
(b) not less than 3 m, and not more than 5 m, outside the edge of the taxiway.
220.127.116.11 Configuration B runway guard lights must be located across the entire taxiway, including fillets, holding bays, etc. at the runway holding position closest to the runway, with the lights spaced at uniform intervals of 3 m.
9.13.18 Characteristics of Runway Guard Lights
18.104.22.168 Configuration A runway guard lights must consist of two pairs of elevated lights showing yellow, one pair on each side of the taxiway.
22.214.171.124 Configuration B runway guard lights must consist of inset lights showing yellow.
126.96.36.199 The performance of Configuration A runway guard lights must comply with the following:
(a) the lights in each pair are to be illuminated alternately at between 30 and 60 cycles per minute;
(b) the light suppression and illumination periods of each light in a pair are to be of equal and opposite duration;
(c) the light beams are to be unidirectional and aimed so that the beam centres cross the taxiway centreline at a point 60 m prior to the runway holding position;
(d) the effective intensity of the yellow light and beam spread are to be in accordance with the specifications in Section 9.14, Figure 9.14-6.
188.8.131.52 The performance of Configuration B runway guard lights must comply with the following:
(a) adjacent lights are to be alternately illuminated and alternate lights are to illuminate in unison;
(b) the lights are to be illuminated between 30 and 60 cycles per minute and the light suppression and illumination periods are to be equal and opposite in each light;
(c) the light beam is to be unidirectional and aligned so as to be visible to the pilot of an aeroplane taxying to the holding position.
(d) the effective intensity of the yellow beam and beam spread are to be in accordance with the specifications in Section 9.14, Figure 9.14-3.
9.13.19 Control of Runway Guard Lights
184.108.40.206 Runway guard lights are to be electrically connected such that all runway guard lights protecting a runway can be turned on when the runway is active, day or night.
9.13.20 Provision of Intermediate Holding Position Lights
220.127.116.11 Intermediate holding position lights must be provided at the following locations:
(a) the runway holding position on a taxiway serving a runway equipped for night use when runway guard lights and/or stop bars are not provided;
(b) the holding position of a holding bay, where the holding bay is intended to be used at night;
(c) at taxiway/taxiway intersections where it is necessary to identify the aircraft holding position; and
(d) a designated intermediate holding position on a taxiway intended to be used at night.
9.13.21 Pattern and Location of Intermediate Holding Position Lights
18.104.22.168 On a taxiway equipped with centreline lights, the intermediate holding position lights must consist of at least 3 inset lights, spaced 1.5 m apart, disposed symmetrically about, and at right angles to, the taxiway centreline, located not mor...
22.214.171.124 On a taxiway equipped with edge lights, the intermediate holding position lights must consist of 1 elevated light on each side of the taxiway, located in line with the taxiway edge lights and the runway holding position marking, intermediate...
9.13.22 Characteristics of Intermediate Holding Position Lights
126.96.36.199 Inset intermediate holding position lights must:
(a) be fixed, unidirectional lights showing yellow;
(b) be aligned so as to be visible to the pilot of an aircraft approaching the holding position;
(c) have light distribution as close as practicable to that of the taxiway centreline lights.
188.8.131.52 Elevated intermediate holding position lights must:
(a) be fixed, omnidirectional lights showing yellow;
(b) have light distribution as close as practicable to that of the taxiway edge lights.
9.13.23 Stop Bars
184.108.40.206 If a runway is intended to be used in RVR conditions less than a value of 550 m, a stop bar must be provided at each runway holding position serving the runway.
220.127.116.11A Paragraph 18.104.22.168 does not apply if:
(a) operational procedures ensure that in RVR conditions less than a value of 550 m:
(b) appropriate aids and procedures designed to prevent the inadvertent incursion of aircraft or vehicles on to the runway are:
22.214.171.124 Where provided, the control mechanism for stop bars must meet the operational requirements of the Air Traffic Service at that aerodrome.
9.13.24 Location of Stop Bars
126.96.36.199 A stop bar must:
(a) be located across the taxiway on, or not more than 0.3 m before, the point at which it is intended that traffic approaching the runway stop;
(b) consist of inset lights spaced 3 m apart across the taxiway;
(c) be disposed symmetrically about, and at right angles to, the taxiway centreline.
188.8.131.52 Where a pilot may be required to stop the aircraft in a position so close to the lights that they are blocked from view by the structure of the aircraft, a pair of elevated lights, with the same characteristics as the stop bar lights, must b...
9.13.25 Characteristics of Stop Bars
184.108.40.206 A stop bar must be unidirectional and show red in the direction of approach to the stop bar.
220.127.116.11 The intensity and beam spread of the stop bar lights must be in accordance with the applicable specifications in Section 9.14, Figure 9.14-1 to Figure 9.14-5.
18.104.22.168 Selectively switchable stop bars must be installed in conjunction with at least three taxiway centreline lights (extending for a distance of at least 90 m from the stop bar) in the direction that it is intended for an aircraft to proceed fro...
22.214.171.124 The lighting circuit must be designed so that:
(a) stop bars located across entrance taxiways are selectively switchable;
(b) stop bars located across taxiways used as exit taxiways only are switchable selectively or in groups;
(c) when a stop bar is illuminated, any taxiway centreline lights immediately beyond the stop bar are to be extinguished for a distance of at least 90 m; and
(d) with control interlock and not manual control, when the centreline lights beyond the stop bar are illuminated the stop bar is extinguished and vice versa.
9.13.26 Taxiway Edge Markers
126.96.36.199 Where taxiway edge markers are used, they must be installed at least in the same locations as taxiway edge lights would have been installed had they been used.
9.13.27 Characteristics of Taxiway Edge Markers
188.8.131.52 Taxiway edge markers must be retroreflective blue.
184.108.40.206 The surface of a taxiway edge marker as viewed by the pilot must be a rectangle with a height to width ratio of approximately 3:1 and a minimum viewing area of 150 cm².
220.127.116.11 Taxiway edge markers must be lightweight, frangible and low enough to preserve adequate clearance for propellers and for the engine pods of jet aircraft.
9.13.28 Taxiway Centreline Markers
18.104.22.168 Where taxiway centreline markers are used, they must be installed at least in the same locations as taxiway centreline lights would have been installed had they been used.
9.13.29 Characteristics of Taxiway Centreline Markers
22.214.171.124 Taxiway centreline markers must be retroreflective green.
126.96.36.199 The marker surface as viewed by the pilot must be a rectangle and must have a minimum viewing surface of 20 cm².
188.8.131.52 Taxiway centreline markers must be able to withstand being run over by the wheels of an aircraft without damage either to the aircraft or to the markers themselves.
9.13.30 Photometric Characteristics of Taxiway Lights
184.108.40.206 The average intensity of the main beam of a taxiway light is calculated by:
(a) establishing the grid points in accordance with the method shown in Section 9.14, Figure 9.14-7;
(b) measuring the light intensity values at all grid points located within and on the perimeter of the rectangle representing the main beam;
(c) calculating the arithmetic average of the light intensity values as measured at those grid points.
220.127.116.11 The maximum light intensity value measured on or within the perimeter of the main beam must not be more than three times the minimum light intensity values so measured.
9.13.31 Installation and Aiming of Light Fittings
18.104.22.168 The following points must be followed in the installation and aiming of light fittings:
(a) the lights are aimed so that there are no deviations in the main beam pattern, to within ½ from the applicable standard specified in this Chapter;
(b) horizontal angles are measured with respect to the vertical plane through the taxiway centreline;
(c) when measuring horizontal angles for lights other than taxiway centreline lights, the direction towards the taxiway centreline is to be taken to be positive;
(d) vertical angles specified are to be measured with respect to the horizontal plane.
(e) Illustrations of Taxiway Lighting
22.214.171.124 Section 9.15: contains illustrations of taxiway lighting.
Section 9.14: Isocandela Diagrams for Taxiway Lights
9.14.1 Collective Notes to Figures
126.96.36.199 Figure 9.14-1 to Figure 9.14-5 show candela values in green and yellow for taxiway centreline lights and red for stop bar lights.
188.8.131.52 Figure 9.14-1 to Figure 9.14-5 show the minimum allowable light intensities. The average intensity of the main beam is calculated by establishing grid points as shown in Figure 9.14-7, and using the intensity values measured at all grid point...
184.108.40.206 No deviations are acceptable in the main beam when the lighting fixture is properly aimed.
220.127.116.11 Horizontal angles are measured with respect to the vertical plane through the taxiway centreline except on curves where they are measured with respect to the tangent to the curve.
18.104.22.168 Vertical angles are measured from the longitudinal slope of the taxiway surface.
22.214.171.124 The light unit is to be installed so that the main beam is aligned within one-half degree of the specified requirement.
126.96.36.199 On the perimeter of and within the rectangle defining the main beam, the maximum light intensity value is not to be greater than three times the minimum light intensity measured.
Section 9.15: Illustrations of Taxiway Lighting
Section 9.16: Apron Floodlighting
188.8.131.52 ICAO establishes only one apron floodlighting standard. However, Australia will retain the two tier system, viz. a higher illuminance standard for aprons intended to serve larger aeroplanes, and a lower illuminance standard for aprons intende...
184.108.40.206 An existing floodlighting system on an apron currently used by larger aeroplanes which does not meet the specifications of this Section does not need to be replaced until the system is due for replacement, or there is a significant change in ...
9.16.2 Provision of Apron Floodlighting
220.127.116.11 Apron floodlighting, in accordance with this Section, must be provided on an apron, or the part of an apron, and on a designated isolated aircraft parking position, intended for use at night.
9.16.3 Location of Apron Floodlighting
18.104.22.168 Apron floodlighting must be located so as to provide adequate illumination on all the apron service areas that are intended for use at night.
22.214.171.124 If an apron taxiway is not provided with taxiway lighting, then it must be illuminated by the apron floodlighting in accordance with either 126.96.36.199(b) or 188.8.131.52(b).
184.108.40.206 Apron floodlights must be located and shielded so that there is a minimum of direct or reflected glare to pilots of aircraft in flight and on the ground, air traffic controllers, and personnel on the apron.
220.127.116.11 An aircraft parking position must receive, as far as practicable, apron floodlighting from two or more directions to minimise shadows.
18.104.22.168 Apron floodlighting poles or pylons must not penetrate the obstacle limitation surfaces.
9.16.4 Characteristics of Apron Floodlighting
22.214.171.124 To minimise the chance of an illuminated rotating object such as a propeller appearing stationary, at major aerodromes, the apron floodlighting is to be distributed across the phases of a three-phase power supply system to avoid a stroboscopi...
126.96.36.199 The spectral distribution of apron floodlights must be such that the colours used for aircraft marking connected with routine servicing, and for surface and obstacle marking, can be correctly identified. Monochromatic lights must not to be used.
188.8.131.52 The average illuminance of an apron intended for larger aeroplanes must be at least as follows:
(a) at an aircraft parking position:
(b) at other apron areas, horizontal illuminance at 50 per cent of the average illuminance on the aircraft parking position with a uniformity ratio (average to minimum) of not more than 4 to 1.
184.108.40.206 The average illuminance of an apron intended to be used only by smaller aeroplanes must be at least as follows:
(a) at an aircraft parking position:
(b) at other apron areas, horizontal illuminance graded to a minimum of 1 lux at the apron extremities or 2 lux for apron edge taxiways which do not have taxiway lights.
220.127.116.11 A dimming control may be provided to allow the illuminance of an aircraft parking position on an active apron that is not required for aircraft use to be reduced to not less than 50 per cent of its normal values.
18.104.22.168 At an aerodrome where PAL activates the apron floodlighting, the apron floodlighting must achieve normal illuminance within 2 minutes of activation.
22.214.171.124 For aprons used by larger aeroplanes, the apron floodlighting must:
(a) be included in the aerodrome secondary power supply system; and
(b) be capable, following a power interruption of up to 30 seconds, of being re-lit and achieving not less than 50 per cent of normal illuminance within 60 seconds.
126.96.36.199 If existing or proposed floodlights cannot meet the requirement of Paragraph 188.8.131.52, auxiliary floodlighting must be provided that can immediately provide at least 2 lux of horizontal illuminance of aircraft parking positions. This auxiliar...
184.108.40.206 Each minimum illuminance value mentioned in this Section is maintained illuminance below which the actual value must not fall.
220.127.116.11 Each floodlight design must meet a target value which allows for a depreciation and maintenance factor that is appropriate for the particular floodlighting system.
18.104.22.168 The design, installation, verification and subsequent management of an apron floodlighting system must be in accordance with Australian Standard AS/NZS 3827.1, Lighting system performance – Accuracies and tolerances. Part 1: Overview and gen...
Section 9.17: Visual Docking Guidance Systems
9.17.1 Provision of Visual Docking Guidance Systems
22.214.171.124 A visual docking guidance system must be provided at an apron aircraft parking position equipped with a passenger loading bridge, where the characteristics of the passenger loading bridge require precise positioning of an aircraft.
126.96.36.199 The provisions of this Section do not, of themselves, require the replacement of existing installations. When existing installations are to be replaced due to obsolescence, facility upgrade, change of apron layout, change of passenger loadin...
9.17.2 Characteristics of Visual Docking Guidance Systems
188.8.131.52 The system must provide both azimuth and stopping guidance.
184.108.40.206 The azimuth guidance unit and the stopping position indicator must be adequate for use in all weather, visibility, background lighting, and pavement conditions for which the system is intended, both by day and night, but must not dazzle the p...
220.127.116.11 The azimuth guidance unit and the stopping position indicator must be of a design such that:
(a) a clear indication of malfunction of either or both is available to the pilot; and
(b) they can be turned off.
18.104.22.168 The azimuth guidance unit and the stopping position indicator must be located in such a way that there is continuity of guidance between the aircraft parking position markings, the aircraft stand manoeuvring guidance lights, if present, and t...
22.214.171.124 The accuracy of the system must be adequate for the type of loading bridge and fixed aircraft servicing installations with which it is to be used.
126.96.36.199 The system must be usable by all types of aircraft for which the aircraft parking position is intended, preferably without selective operation.
188.8.131.52 If selective operation is required to prepare the system for use by a particular type of aircraft, then the system must provide an identification of the selected aircraft type to both the pilot and the system operator as a means of ensuring t...
9.17.3 Azimuth Guidance Unit - Location
184.108.40.206 The azimuth guidance unit must be located on or close to the extension of the parking position centreline ahead of the aircraft so that its signals are visible from the cockpit of an aircraft throughout the docking manoeuvre and aligned for u...
220.127.116.11 Systems with azimuth guidance aligned for use by the pilots occupying both the left and right seats are acceptable.
9.17.4 Azimuth Guidance Unit - Characteristics
18.104.22.168 The azimuth guidance unit must provide unambiguous left/right guidance which enables the pilot to acquire and maintain the lead-in line without over controlling.
22.214.171.124 When azimuth guidance is indicated by colour change, green must be used to identify the centreline and red for deviations from the centreline.
9.17.5 Stopping Position Indicator - Location
126.96.36.199 The stopping position indicator must be located in conjunction with, or sufficiently close to, the azimuth guidance unit so that a pilot can observe both the azimuth and stop signals without turning the head.
188.8.131.52 The stopping position indicator must be usable at least by the pilot occupying the left seat.
184.108.40.206 Systems with stopping position indicator usable by the pilots occupying both the left and right seats are acceptable.
9.17.6 Stopping Position Indicator - Characteristics
220.127.116.11 The stopping position information provided by the indicator for a particular aircraft type must account for the anticipated range of variations in pilot eye height and/or viewing angle.
18.104.22.168 The stopping position indicator must show the stopping position of the aircraft for which the guidance is being provided, and must provide closing rate information to enable the pilot to gradually decelerate the aircraft to a full stop at the...
22.214.171.124 The stopping position indicator must provide closing rate information over a distance of at least 10 m.
126.96.36.199 When stopping guidance is indicated by colour change, green must be used to show that the aircraft can proceed and red to show that the stop point has been reached except that for a short distance prior to the stopping point a third colour ma...
9.17.7 Parking Position Identification Sign
188.8.131.52 A parking position identification sign must be provided at an aircraft parking position equipped with a visual docking guidance system.
184.108.40.206 A parking position identification sign must be located so as to be clearly visible from the cockpit of an aircraft prior to entering the parking position.
220.127.116.11 A parking position identification sign must consist of a numeric or alphanumeric inscription that is:
(a) in white on a black background; and
(b) illuminated at night by a continuous line of green light outlining the inscription.
9.17.8 Notification of Type of Aircraft Docking Guidance Systems
18.104.22.168 Due to the large variety of different type of visual docking guidance systems to be found in operation at aerodromes, information on particular types installed is published in aeronautical information publications, for use by pilots.
22.214.171.124 Aerodrome operators must notify the Procedure Design Section of Airservices Australia, the details of their aircraft docking guidance system intended for use for International operations.
126.96.36.199 The information to be provided is to include:
(a) type of visual docking guidance system;
(b) descriptive information, including illustrations where appropriate, for any type of system not currently described in AIP Australia; and
(c) parking positions at which the system is installed.
188.8.131.52 Initial and subsequent notification must be in accordance with Chapter 5, Aerodrome Information for AIP and Chapter 10, Operating Standards for Certified Aerodromes. The visual docking guidance system information must also be recorded in the...
Section 9.18: Lighting Associated with Closed and Unserviceable Areas
9.18.1 Closed Runway or Taxiway
184.108.40.206 When a runway or taxiway, or portion thereof is closed, all aerodrome lighting thereon is to be extinguished. The lighting is to be electrically isolated or disabled, to prevent inadvertent activation of the lights.
220.127.116.11 Where a closed runway, taxiway, or portion thereof, is intercepted by a useable runway or taxiway which is used at night, unserviceability lights are to be placed across the entrance to the closed area at intervals not exceeding 3 m.
9.18.2 Unserviceable Areas
18.104.22.168 When any portion of a taxiway, apron, or holding bay is unfit for movement of aircraft, but it is still possible for aircraft to bypass the area safely, and the movement area is used at night, unserviceability lights are to be used.
22.214.171.124 The lights are to be placed at intervals sufficiently close so as to delineate the unserviceable area and, in any case, must not be more than 7.5 m apart.
9.18.3 Characteristics of Unserviceability Lights
126.96.36.199 Unserviceability lights are to be steady red lights.
188.8.131.52 The lights are to have an intensity sufficient to ensure conspicuity considering the intensity of the adjacent lights and the general level of illumination against which they would normally be viewed. In no case is the intensity to be less t...
Section 9.19: Other Lights on an Aerodrome
9.19.1 Vehicle Warning Lights
184.108.40.206 Vehicle warning lights, as required by subsection 10.9.2, must be provided to indicate to pilots and others the presence of vehicles or mobile plant on the movement area.
220.127.116.11 A vehicle warning light or lights must be mounted on the top of the vehicle, so as to provide 360 visibility.
18.104.22.168 The lights must be amber/yellow/orange, and be flashing or rotating of a standard type commercially available as an automobile accessory.
22.214.171.124 For lighting of rescue and fire fighting vehicles, see MOS 139 Subpart H, Chapter 4.
126.96.36.199 For emergency or security vehicles not dedicated to aerodrome use, vehicle warning lights complying with the local traffic code are acceptable for on-aerodrome operation.
9.19.2 Works Limit Lights
188.8.131.52 Works limit lights are provided to indicate to persons associated with the works organisation the limit of the works area.
184.108.40.206 Works limit lights must be portable, amber/yellow/orange lights of a standard type commercially available as works warning lights. Alternatively they may be liquid fuel lanterns with amber/yellow/orange lenses.
9.19.3 Road and Car Park Lighting
220.127.116.11 CASA does not regulate the lighting of roads and car parks, other than ensuring compliance with Paragraph 9.1.3.
18.104.22.168 Where road and car park lighting is required on an aerodrome, the aerodrome operator is advised to consult with the relevant local road authority or Australian Standards AS 1158 – Code of Practice for Public Lighting.
9.19.4 Road-holding Position Light
22.214.171.124 A road-holding position light must be provided at each road-holding position serving a runway if it is intended that the runway will be used in RVR conditions of less than 350 m.
126.96.36.199 A road-holding position light must:
(a) conform to the standards specified in ICAO Annex 14; or
(b) be capable of demonstrating an outcome equivalent to that of light which does conform.
Section 9.20: Monitoring, Maintenance and Serviceability of Aerodrome Lighting
188.8.131.52 The aerodrome operator must monitor and maintain all lights and lighting systems associated with the aerodrome visual ground aids, both day and night, on a continuing basis for correctness and so that they are easily seen. Monitoring of light...
184.108.40.206 Grass areas around lights must be maintained such that the lights are not in any way obscured. Lights must be kept free from dirt so as not to degrade their colour and conspicuousness. Damage to lights, including loss or degradation of light ...
9.20.2 Reporting of Aerodrome Lighting Outage
220.127.116.11 Any aerodrome light outage detected must be fixed as soon as is practicable. The specifications listed below are intended to define the maintenance performance level objectives. They are not intended to define whether the lighting system is...
18.104.22.168 For details of the raising of NOTAMs refer to Section 10.3.
22.214.171.124 A light is deemed to be on outage when the main beam is out of its specified alignment or when the main beam average intensity is less than 50 per cent of the specified value. For light units where the designed main beam average intensity is ...
126.96.36.199 A flashing or occulting light is deemed to be on outage when:
(a) the light ceases to flash or occult; or
(b) the frequency and/or duration of flash is outside the specified range by a factor of 2 to 1 or greater; or
(c) within a 10 minute period, more than 20% of flashes fail to occur.
188.8.131.52 A lighting system is deemed to be on outage when:
(a) in the case of a lighting system comprising less than 4 lights (e.g. intermediate holding position lights or runway threshold identification lights), any of the lights are on outage;
(b) in the case of a lighting system comprising 4 or 5 lights (e.g. wind direction indicator lights or runway guard lights), more than 1 light is on outage;
(c) in the case of a lighting system comprising 6 to 13 lights (e.g. threshold lights or LAHSO lights), more than 2 lights are on outage, or 2 adjacent lights are on outage;
(d) for a precision approach runway Category II or III:
(e) in the case of a runway meant for take-off in visibility conditions of less than 550 m:
(f) in the case of a taxiway intended for use in RVR conditions of less 350 m, 2 or more adjacent taxiway centreline lights are on outage; and
(g) in the case of any other lighting system with more than 13 lights:
184.108.40.206 For a T-VASIS, the outage standards take into account both the number of outage lamps within a light unit, and also the number of light units within the T-VASIS system. The standards are:
(a) A T-VASIS light unit is deemed on outage when 3 or more lamps in the electrical (day) circuit are on outage, or when any of the lamps in the electrical (night) circuit is on outage.
(b) A T-VASIS system is deemed on outage when:
(c) An AT-VASIS system is deemed on outage when:
(d) Whenever a red filter has deteriorated such that it does not produce the correct colour light beam, is missing, or is damaged, all the lamps within the affected light unit must be extinguished until the red filter is rectified. The affected light...
220.127.116.11 For a PAPI, the outage standards take into account both the number of lamps on outage within a light unit and also the number of light units within the PAPI system. The standards are:
(a) a PAPI light unit is deemed on outage when more than one lamp in a 3 or more lamp light unit is on outage, or any lamp in a less-than-3-lamp light unit is on outage;
(b) whenever a red filter has deteriorated such that it does not produce the correct colour light beam, is missing, or is damaged, all the lamps associated with that filter must be extinguished until the red filter is rectified. The affected lamp/s a...
(c) a double-sided PAPI system (i.e. 8 light units) is:
(d) a single-sided PAPI system (i.e. 4 light units) is deemed to be on outage when any light unit is on outage. The PAPI system must be extinguished until the system is rectified.
18.104.22.168 At an aerodrome where the lighting system is provided with interleaf circuitry, the lighting system is deemed to be on outage when any one of the circuits fails.
22.214.171.124 For a movement area guidance sign:
(a) the sign must be legible at all times; and
(b) any lamp outage in a sign must be fixed as soon as practicable.
Section 9.21: Lighting in the Vicinity of Aerodromes
9.21.1 Advice to Lighting Designers
126.96.36.199 This Section supersedes a paper of the same name dated July 1988 issued by the Civil Aviation Authority and referred to in Australian Standard AS 4282-1997, Control of the obtrusive effects of outdoor lighting.
9.21.1A Purpose of the Section
9.21.1A.1 This Section provides advice to those involved in the design or provision of lighting systems for use at or in the vicinity of an aerodrome. The intention is to minimise the potential hazard to aircraft operations from the lighting systems.
9.21.1A.2 If an aerodrome operator becomes aware that a lighting installation is proposed to be or is being installed in the vicinity of the aerodrome, it is in the aerodrome’s interest to make sure that the person responsible for the lighting system ...
9.21.2 Legislative Background
188.8.131.52 The Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) has the power through regulation 94 of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 (CAR 1988), to require lights which may cause confusion, distraction or glare to pilots in the air, to be extinguished or mo...
94 Dangerous lights
(1) Whenever any light is exhibited at or in the neighbourhood of an aerodrome, or in the neighbourhood of an air route or airway facility on an air route or airway, and the light is likely to endanger the safety of aircraft, whether by reason of glar...
(2) An owner or person on whom a notice is served under this regulation must comply with the directions contained in the notice.
Penalty: 25 penalty units.
(2A) An offence against subregulation (2) is an offence of strict liability.
Note For strict liability, see section 6.1 of the Criminal Code.
(2B) It is a defence to a prosecution under subregulation (2) if the defendant had a reasonable excuse.
Note A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subregulation (2B) (see subsection 13.3 (3) of the Criminal Code).
(3) If any owner or person on whom a notice under this regulation is served fails, within the time specified in the notice, to extinguish or to screen effectually the light mentioned in the notice, CASA may authorise an officer, with such assistance a...
9.21.3 General Requirement
184.108.40.206 Advice for the guidance of designers and installation contractors is provided for situations where lights are to be installed within a 6 km radius of a known aerodrome. Lights within this area fall into a category most likely to be subjected ...
220.127.116.11 The primary area is shown in Figure 9.21-1. This drawing also nominates the intensity of light emission above which interference is likely. Lighting projects within this area should be closely examined to see they do not infringe the provisio...
18.104.22.168 The fact that a certain type of light fitting already exists in an area is not necessarily an indication that more lights of the same type can be added to the same area.
22.214.171.124 Even though a proposed installation is designed to comply with the zone intensities shown in Figure 9.21-1, designers are advised to consult with CASA as there may be overriding factors which require more restrictive controls to avoid conflict.
9.21.4 Light Fittings
126.96.36.199 Light fittings chosen for an installation should have their isocandela diagram examined to ensure the fitting will satisfy the zone requirements. In many cases the polar diagrams published by manufacturers do not show sufficient detail in the...
188.8.131.52 For installations where the light fittings are selected because their graded light emission above horizontal conform with the zone requirement, no further modification is required.
184.108.40.206 For installations where the light fitting does not meet the zone requirements, then a screen should be fitted to limit the light emission to zero above the horizontal. The use of a screen to limit the light to zero above the horizontal is nec...
9.21.5 Coloured Lights
220.127.116.11 Coloured lights are likely to cause conflict irrespective of their intensity as coloured lights are used to identify different aerodrome facilities. Proposals for coloured lights should be referred to the Authority for detailed guidance.
9.21.6 Information and Correspondence
18.104.22.168 Check with the nearest CASA office for likely effect on aircraft operations of proposed lighting in the vicinity of an aerodrome.
Section 9.22: Use of Unarmoured Cables for Aerodrome Lighting
22.214.171.124 The type of cable usually used in Australia for the series current electrical supply to aerodrome lighting fittings is a single core 6 mm² (7/1.04 mm) plain annealed copper conductor covered with a polyethylene insulation and an overall nylon...
126.96.36.199 As the series current system, and the cable used, was significantly different from normal electrical practice, the Department of Civil Aviation (DCA) referred the matter to the Standards Association of Australia in 1958.
188.8.131.52 Committee EL/1, the committee responsible for the SAA Wiring Rules, advised DCA in 1959 that it recommended to all Statutory Authorities that such installations be treated as ‘unusual installations’ that did not have to strictly comply with c...
9.22.2 Significant Areas of the Dispensation
184.108.40.206 Firstly it allowed unarmoured cable to be used for high voltage, and that the cable could be installed at a depth of 450 mm instead of the 750 mm required for high voltage in the Wiring Rules.
220.127.116.11 Secondly, it allowed the cable to be buried directly in the ground without mechanical protection against digging.
18.104.22.168 The dispensation was reaffirmed to the Department of Aviation in 1983, and again to the Civil Aviation Authority in 1993.
9.22.3 Conditions Governing the Dispensation
22.214.171.124 The conditions under which the dispensation was sanctioned by the SAA are:
(a) the series lighting circuit which they serve are normally isolated from the supply mains;
(b) the location of the cables is carefully and permanently marked;
(c) earthworks and excavations on an aerodrome are very strictly controlled; and
(d) the lighting circuits are not normally energised during daylight hours when earthworks could be in progress.
9.22.4 Aspects to Note
126.96.36.199 The dispensation only applies to the Movement Area. In other areas of the aerodrome, such as within the building area, the dispensation does not apply.
188.8.131.52 To satisfy Paragraph 184.108.40.206(b), cables should as far as practicable, be laid in straight lines. Suitably engraved permanent cable markers should be installed above all buried cable. The markers should be flush with the finished ground surfa...
220.127.116.11 Accurate and up to date plans of the aerodrome should be maintained which record actual locations of all cables installed on the aerodrome.
18.104.22.168 To satisfy condition (d), at aerodromes where lighting systems may be used by day, including visual approach slope guidance systems, or where pilot activation of aerodrome lighting is possible, local procedures should be established that ensu...
22.214.171.124 A copy of the most recent Standards Australia letter dated 7 September 1993, is attached for reference in Figure 9.22-1 and Figure 9.22-2.
9.22.5 Acceptability of an Installation to the Supply Authority
126.96.36.199 Not withstanding anything in this Section, it is the aerodrome operators’ responsibility to ensure that any proposed installation on their aerodrome meets the requirements of the relevant Supply Authority.
Chapter 10: Operating Standards for Certified Aerodromes
Section 10.1: General
10.1.1.1 This Chapter sets out the standards to be incorporated in operating procedures at certified aerodromes, including those procedures to be documented in the aerodrome manual.
10.1.1.2 This Chapter also contains information on aerodrome Safety Management System (SMS). As prescribed in CASR Part 139, SMS will be applicable at aerodromes accommodating international operations with effect from November 2005. And a later date, ...
10.1.1.3 The standards are to be applied in a manner commensurate with the type and level of aircraft activities at the particular aerodrome. For example, Section 10.17 on low visibility operations, will not apply to all aerodromes.
10.1.2 Aerodrome Manual and Aerodrome Operating Procedures
10.1.2.1 As an integral part of the certification process, an aerodrome manual must be prepared setting out a range of information and operating procedures specified in CASR Part 139. Although the certification process does not involve a separate appr...
10.1.2.2 The aerodrome manual must be in a format that can be readily updated.
10.1.2.3 The contents of the aerodrome manual may be presented in a single bound document or in a number of separate documents. For example, at major aerodromes, the aerodrome emergency plan and the airside vehicle control handbook may each be a large...
10.1.2.4 An up-to-date copy of all components of the aerodrome manual must be kept at the business premises of the aerodrome operator and made available for CASA audit purposes.
10.1.3 Training of Aerodrome Personnel Involved with Safety Functions
10.1.3.1 Persons engaged to perform the reporting officer functions, including aerodrome serviceability inspections; and works safety officer functions must be adequately trained for the job. In addition, Aerodrome Technical Inspections must be carrie...
10.1.3.2 CASA is primarily concerned with the competency of persons involved with aerodrome safety functions. Essential competencies will include:
(a) inspect and report on the physical characteristics and conditions of the aerodrome;
(b) inspect and report on aerodrome lighting systems;
(c) inspect and report on the OLS;
(d) initiating a NOTAM;
(e) use of radio, and
(f) supervise the safety of aerodrome works.
10.1.3.3 There are no mandatory provisions which regulate private training organisations or aerodrome operator training initiatives; but aerodrome operators must be able to demonstrate that persons carrying out aerodrome safety functions, have had the...
10.1.4 Aerodrome Safety Management System (SMS)
10.1.4.1 In line with international practice, SMS will be progressively introduced at Australian aerodromes, with particular emphasis initially on aerodromes used in international operations.
10.1.4.2 Safety culture and ongoing commitment of senior management are essential ingredients for a successful SMS, along with the setting of safety objectives, clear responsibilities, ongoing hazard identification and reporting, training and performa...
10.1.4.3 The SMS does not necessarily generate a need for an additional set, or duplication of documents. The SMS requirements should complement the procedures set out in the aerodrome manual.
Section 10.2: Inspecting and Reporting Aerodrome Serviceability
10.2.1.1 Whilst aerodrome serviceability inspections are essentially visual checks, the process must include appropriate remedial actions where there is an immediate affect on the safety of aircraft operations. If the identified fault cannot be remedi...
10.2.1.2 The operator of a certified aerodrome is required to arrange for aerodrome serviceability inspections to be carried out each day and after a severe wind or rain storm, or when requested by air traffic control or by CASA.
10.2.1.3 Subject to CASA agreement, the frequency of inspections may be reduced to not less than 2 per week, at aerodromes with low numbers of traffic movements.
10.2.1.4 Aerodrome reporting is the notification of changes to the published aerodrome information or any other occurrence or emergency affecting the availability of the aerodrome and safety of aircraft using the aerodrome. The occurrences may be know...
10.2.1.5 Particulars of the procedures for carrying out serviceability inspections, including the use of a checklist, and for reporting any changes to aerodrome information or for requesting the issue of a NOTAM; are to be included in the aerodrome ma...
10.2.2 Significant Objects
10.2.2.1 Any significant object found in the course of the inspection, including aircraft parts which may have fallen from the aircraft, or the remains of birds which may have been struck by an aircraft, must be reported immediately to Air Traffic Con...
10.2.3 Surface Conditions of the Movement Area, Including the Presence of Water
10.2.3.1 The inspection must check for the presence of:
(b) cracking or spalling;
(c) rubber build up;
(d) surface irregularities;
(e) damage caused by spillage of corrosive fluids;
(f) pipe drain faults particularly in fine grain non cohesive subgrades, in high rainfall areas;
(g) scour or erosion ditches;
(h) termite mounds or other ground obstacles obscured by long grass;
(i) soft ground, particularly in combination with surface roughness and slipperiness; and
(j) any other sign of pavement distress which has the potential to develop quickly into a hazardous situation.
10.2.4 Aerodrome Markings, Lightings, Wind Direction Indicators and Ground Signals
10.2.4.1 The inspection must check for:
(a) loss of visibility of markers and markings;
(b) use of incorrect markers and markings;
(c) any disturbance to level and alignment of lights;
(d) visual light intensity check; does a light stand out less bright than others in the same system?
(e) discoloured or dirty lenses;
(f) outage lamps, incorrect lamps fitted, or lamps fitted wrongly;
(g) the condition of the frangibility of light bases;
(h) exposed edges around footings and other aerodrome installations;
(i) damage to wind indicator assembly or mounting; and
(j) damage to wind indicator sleeve fabric, or loss of conspicuous colour.
10.2.5 Cleanliness of the Movement Area.
10.2.5.1 The inspection must check for:
(a) foreign objects, such as aircraft fastening devices and other parts,
(b) mechanics tools, small items of equipment and personal items;
(c) debris, such as sand, loose rocks, concrete, wood, plastic, pieces of tyre and mud; and
(d) with particular vigilance during and after construction activity, where vehicles and plant travel over unpaved areas under wet conditions.
10.2.6 Obstacles Infringing the Take-off, Approach and Transitional Surfaces
10.2.6.1 The aerodrome operator must have procedures and equipment in place to enable inspection personnel to identify objects protruding through the OLS. Equipment should include appropriate instrumentation, such as:
(a) a hand held clinometer;
(b) ‘sighting plane’ installations; or
(c) more formal survey equipment.
10.2.7 Birds or Animals on, or in the Vicinity of, the Movement Area
10.2.7.1 The inspection must include:
(a) the condition of aerodrome fencing, particularly in critical areas;
(b) climatic or seasonal considerations, such as the presence of birds at certain times of the year, or related to the depth of water in drainage ponding areas;
(c) possible shelter provided by aerodrome infrastructure such as buildings, equipment and gable markers;
(d) bird hazard mitigating procedures incorporated in the environmental management procedures for the aerodrome;
(e) off-airport attractors like animal sale yards, picnic areas, aeration facilities and waste disposal or landfill areas, and
(f) use of harassment procedures where appropriate.
10.2.8 Empirical Assessment of the Bearing Strength of Unrated Runway Pavements and Runway Strips
10.2.8.1 The bearing strength of a runway strip will only be required to be assessed where an unsealed runway is not marked and the whole of the runway strip is available for aircraft operations.
10.2.8.2 Whilst discretion and judgement together with local knowledge, will always form part of empirical assessment of bearing capacity, appropriate test procedures must be in place for the practical guidance of persons making the assessment. Simple...
(a) use of a crowbar when a dry surface may conceal a soft unserviceable base;
(b) the back of a pick, in the hands of someone with practical pavement experience; or
(c) a suitably laden utility or truck to simulate the wheel loads of user aircraft.
10.2.9 Currency of NOTAMs
10.2.9.1 Daily serviceability inspection must include checking any outstanding NOTAM for the aerodrome. Check that the contents of the NOTAM, particularly the effective period(s) are still current.
10.2.10 Aerodrome Fencing
10.2.10.1 The inspection must check for damaged fences, open gates and signs of attempted entry by either animals or humans.
10.2.11 Aerodrome Frequency Response Unit
10.2.11.1 Where provided by the aerodrome operator, the inspection must check that the equipment is functional.
10.2.12 Inspection Logbooks
10.2.12.1 The aerodrome operator must maintain aerodrome inspection logbooks for recording the date and time of each aerodrome serviceability inspection, the results of each inspection and any action taken. Logbooks must be retained for at least 2 years.
Section 10.3: Initiating a NOTAM
10.3.1.1 A NOTAM is used to inform pilots and aircraft operators of significant changes to the aerodrome that may impact on aircraft operations. This is one of the most important aerodrome safety functions, so the process and procedures for initiating...
10.3.1.2 For changes to navigation aids, MBZ/CTAF frequencies or special procedures, NOTAM may be originated by a relevant services provider such as Airservices or a CASA officer. Where a navigation aid is owned and maintained by the aerodrome operato...
10.3.2 Changes Reported to Australian NOTAM Office
10.3.2.1 Where a change in the aerodrome condition requires a NOTAM to be issued, the nominated reporting officer must send the notification to the NOTAM Office (NOF) by FAX or by telephone. Telephone advice must be confirmed in writing as soon as pos...
10.3.2.2 The following occurrences must be reported to the Australian NOTAM Office:
(a) changes (temporary or permanent) in the published aerodrome information including additional changes to current permanent NOTAMs;
(b) aerodrome works affecting runways or the obstacle limitation surfaces, including time-limited works that require more than 10 minutes to re-instate to serviceable order;
(c) unserviceable portions of the runway or failure in aerodrome lighting or obstacle lighting;
(d) temporary obstacles to aircraft operations;
(e) a significant increase in, or concentration of birds or animals on or in the vicinity of the aerodrome;
(f) changes in excess of 0.05% of the published gradient data;
(g) emergence of new obstacles;
(h) when a radio navigation aid or landing aid owned by the aerodrome operator is unserviceable or returned to service;
(i) when an Aerodrome Frequency Response Unit owned by the aerodrome operator is unserviceable or returned to service; and
(j) any other significant event which affects the safety of aircraft using the aerodrome.
10.3.2.3 Reporting to NOTAM Office must be carried out as expeditiously as possible. If all the relevant information cannot be provided at once, the matter must still be reported, and subsequent details can be issued by further NOTAM. When in doubt, e...
10.3.2.4 In reporting changes for NOTAM action, the aerodrome operator must submit a report which includes:
(a) aerodrome name;
(b) the aerodrome facility affected and details of unserviceability;
(c) reason for change;
(d) start time and expected end time of the unserviceability; and
(e) daily duration or time schedule of the unserviceability, where applicable.
10.3.2.5 After making a request to the NOF for a NOTAM, the reporting officer must obtain a copy of the subsequent NOTAM, in order to check the accuracy and to keep a record of its issue.
10.3.3 Time-Limited NOTAM
10.3.3.1 A NOTAM which is not a Permanent NOTAM is ‘time limited’. A time-limited NOTAM will have an expected end time, and will lapse automatically.
10.3.4 Permanent NOTAM
10.3.4.1 A PERM NOTAM is originated in respect to permanent changes to aerodrome operational information published in AIP-ERSA. This information is passed to the NOTAM office which will issue the NOTAM and further pass the information on to AIS. AIS w...
10.3.5 Making Changes to Aerodrome Information Published in AIP-ERSA
10.3.5.1 For changes to ERSA information which does not have an immediate impact on aircraft operations, the changes are not to be notified to NOF. Instead the aerodrome operator must notify AIS directly in writing of such changes. Example: change of ...
10.3.6 Bird or Animal Hazard Warning
10.3.6.1 At aerodromes where a standing caution is included in ERSA for a bird or animal hazard, NOTAM must only be initiated where there is a significant increase of birds or animals. The NOTAM must provide specific information on species, period of ...
10.3.7 New or Upgraded Visual Aids
10.3.7.1 Any ERSA amendment which introduces a new visual aid, or the upgrading of an existing aid, must be referred to the appropriate CASA Aerodrome Inspector for clearance purposes. Certain visual aids have to be commissioned or flight checked befo...
10.3.8 Changes to Type A Chart Information
10.3.8.1 Changes to Type A Chart information are not notified through NOTAM, however, ERSA must refer to the latest edition of the Type A Chart. Aerodrome operators must provide an amendment service for the Type A Chart information directly to holders...
10.3.9 Follow up Actions
10.3.9.1 Whenever a report of ERSA changes is sent to the NOTAM Office or to the AIS, a copy of the report must also be sent to the appropriate CASA Aerodrome Inspector. The aerodrome operator must also ensure that the Aerodrome Manual is amended to r...
10.3.10 Record Keeping
10.3.10.1 Aerodrome operators must maintain a logbook showing details of all reports; check subsequent NOTAM or changes to AIP-ERSA for accuracy, and keep a copy of reports and NOTAM with the logbook.
Section 10.4: Sample Aerodrome Report Form
Section 10.5: Examples of NOTAM and Listing of Abbreviations
10.5.1.1 To illustrate how changes to aerodrome information are communicated to pilots, some examples of NOTAM are given below.
10.5.1.2 Time-limited Work
A) MARYBOROUGH 0174/91 (AD) 9106140900
E) RWY 17/35 WIP. MAE WILL CLR IF OPRT INDICATED.
10.5.1.3 Explanations of NOTAM Format
C0174/91 — the NOTAM number;
NOTAMN — a NOTAM containing new information;
A) Maryborough — name of aerodrome;
AD — information relating to aerodromes, or facilities thereon, including approach and landing aids, and the existence or removal of hazards or obstructions;
9106140900 — year/date/time of issue of NOTAM, in ten figures UTC, representing year, month, day, hour and minutes (Note, the year may be omitted);
B) 9106211000 — commencement of occurrence;
C) 9106211600 — cessation of occurrence and notification;
D) 1000/1600 — periods of activity within the period specified in Fields B and C;
E) The text of the NOTAM expressed as concisely as possible.
10.5.1.4 Major works in accordance with Method of Working Plan (MOWP) The MOWP will be faxed directly into the AVFAX electronic briefing system, with the pertinent stages of work activated by a trigger NOTAM quoting duration and AVFAX product code. Tr...
(a) C0943/91 NOTAMN
A) PERTH 0943/91 (AD) 9105200600
C) 9105270800 EST
E) RWY 06/24 NOT AVBL DUE WIP. REF MOWP 4/1987 ACT STAGE 1. AVFAX CODE XXXX.
(b) C0056/91 NOTAMN
A) COOLANGATTA 0056/91 (AD) 9106101002
E) RWY 14/32 NOT AVBL DUE WIP. REF MOWP QRO 86/7 ACT STAGE3. AVFAX CODE XXXX.
(c) C0934/95 NOTAMN
A) MACKAY C0934/95 (AD) 9505200600
D) 2200/0600 DAILY
E) RWY 06/24 WIP. REF MOWP 4/1993 AMENDMENT 3. 360M N END NOT AVBL.
(d) C0935/95 NOTAMN
A) MACKAY C0935/95 (AD) 9505200600
D) 2200/0600 DAILY
E) RWY 18/36 WIP. REF MOWP 4/1993 AMENDMENT 3. (followed by lengthy text of NOTAM).
10.5.1.5 Unserviceable movement areas.
(a) C0639/91 NOTAMN
A) KINGAROY 0639/91 (AD) 9107272100
C) 9108010600 EST
E) RWY 05/23 AND TWY PARL RWY 16/34. NOT AVBL DUE SOFT WET SFC. RWY 16/34 AVBL.
(b) C0021/91 NOTAMN
A) WONDAI 0021/91 (AD) 9103232200
C) 9103290600 EST
E) RWY 18/36 AMD. LEN. 140M S END NOT AVBL DUE ROUGH SFC. THR 36 DISP 200M. RWY 18 TORA 1264 (4146) TODA 1464 (4802) (2.3) ASDA 1264 (4146) LDA 1264 (4146) RWY 36 TORA 1264 (4146) TODA 1324 (4343) (1.6) ASDA 1264 (4146) LDA 1204 (3949) STODA RWY 18 1...
10.5.1.6 Surface bearing capacity. If the surface or part of the manoeuvring area is not serviceable for heavy aircraft a weight restriction may be imposed to allow light aircraft to operate.
A) TARA 0281/91 (AD) 9108160400
C) 9108230600 EST
E) AD NOT AVBLTO ACFT ABV 1930 KG MTOW. DUE SOFT WET SFC.
10.5.1.7 Apron areas. These are not part of the manoeuvring area and therefore should not normally be the subject of NOTAM, but a NOTAM may be issued at minor aerodromes to indicate temporary parking arrangements.
A) MERIMBULA 0256/91 (AD) 9108280500
C) 9108292600 EST
E) APRON CLOSED DUE WIP. LOAD UNLOAD ON RWY. RWY NOT AVBL WHEN ACFT STANDING THEREON. PILOTS SHOULD MAKE PROVISION FOR ALTN.
10.5.1.8 Obstacle information
(a) A permanent NOTAM to amend changes to declared distances owing to change in height of critical obstacle (trees).
A) COOLANGATTA CO166/95 (AD) 9501210200
E) AMD RWY 14 GRADIENTS RWY 14 TORA 2042 (6698) TODA 2102 (6895) (2.82) ASDA 2042 (6698) LDA 2042 (6698) STODA RWY 14 1226 (4021) (2.2) 1716 (5628) (2.5) AMD AIP ERSA DATED 12 SEP 96.
(b) A temporary NOTAM to advise of a crane within the OLS area.
A) COOLANGATTA 0073/91 (AD) 9104200700
C) 9106210600 EST
E) RWY 14/32 TEMPO TEMP OBST CRANE. 300FT AMSL BRG 076 MAG 2 NM FROM SE END OF RWY 14/32. INFRINGES HZS.
10.5.1.9 Runway Lighting Out of Service
A) RICHMOND 0091/91 (AD) 9108510420
E) RWY LGT NOT AVBL.
10.5.1.10 Temporary or Permanent Withdrawal of Aerodrome Licence
(a) C0037/91 NOTAMN
A) MOROWA 0037/91 (AD) 9109251035
E) AD LICENCE SUSPENDED.
(b) C0048/91 NOTAMN
A) TURKEY CREEK 0048/91 (AD) 9103272218
E) AD DELICENSED.
10.5.2 General Word Abbreviations and Phrase Contractions to Minimise Message Length of Aerodrome NOTAMs
(Abbreviations shown in singular words are also applicable to the plural of those words)
Section 10.6: Appointment of Reporting Officers
10.6.1.1 The aerodrome operator must appoint suitably trained person(s) as the nominated reporting officer(s). The nomination(s) must be notified in writing, to the NOTAM office and the relevant CASA Office which has surveillance responsibility for th...
10.6.1.2 Persons other than employees of the aerodrome operator may, with appropriate training and experience, also be appointed as aerodrome reporting officers.
10.6.2 Reporting Officer Qualifications
10.6.2.1 Aerodrome operators must ensure that any person carrying out the reporting function has been suitably trained and has the following attributes:
(a) a sound knowledge of the physical characteristics of the aerodrome movement area, the aerodrome obstacle limitation surfaces, aerodrome markings, lighting and ground signals and essential aerodrome safety equipment;
(b) an understanding of the aerodrome information included in ERSA;
(c) the ability to carry out a serviceability inspection of the aerodrome;
(d) a knowledge of the aerodrome emergency procedures; and
(e) a knowledge of the NOTAM system and the ability to carry out aerodrome reporting procedures.
10.6.3 What to Report
10.6.3.1 Aerodrome operators must advise the Australian NOTAM Office of the following occurrences:
(a) changes (temporary or permanent) in the published runway information including further changes to information contained in current permanent NOTAMs;
(b) aerodrome works affecting runways or the obstacle limitation surfaces, including time-limited works that require more than 10 minutes to restore normal safety standards;
(c) outage of aerodrome lighting or obstacle lighting beyond specified limits;
(d) temporary obstacles to aircraft operations;
(e) a significant increase in, or concentration of birds or animals on or near the aerodrome which is a danger to aircraft;
(f) changes in excess of 0.05% of the published gradient data;
(g) emergence of new obstacles;
(h) when a radio navigation aid owned by the aerodrome operator, or landing aid is unserviceable or returned to service;
(i) when an Aerodrome Frequency Response Unit (AFRU) owned by the aerodrome operator is unserviceable or returned to service; or
(j) any other event which affects the safety of aircraft using the aerodrome.
10.6.3.2 Reporting must be carried out as soon as possible after a reportable occurrence is observed, giving as much detail as is available. Where necessary, subsequent additional detail can be reported as it becomes available for further NOTAM to be ...
10.6.3.3 Aerodrome operators must provide as much notice as possible of aerodrome works which will affect airline schedules.
10.6.4 Monitoring Activities Outside Aerodrome
10.6.4.1 The reporting function must also include monitoring activities outside but in the vicinity of the aerodrome which may result in hazards to aircraft operations. This includes:
(a) developments which may become obstacles;
(b) land planning and use which may attract birds; and
(c) installation of lighting systems which may create confusion to pilots at night.
Section 10.7: Aerodrome Emergency Planning
10.7.1.1 The aerodrome operator must establish and chair an Aerodrome Emergency Committee (AEC), including agencies on and off the aerodrome that could assist in an emergency. The AEC must develop the Aerodrome Emergency Plan (AEP), including procedur...
10.7.1.2 Currency and adequacy of the AEP must be reviewed at least once every twelve months.
10.7.1.3 Emergency exercises must be carried out at least once every two years, commensurate with the size and scale of operations at the airport, unless the emergency plan was activated in a real emergency within the two-year period.
10.7.1.4 AEP must include organisational and procedural arrangements for responding to at least the following emergencies:
(a) aircraft crash;
(b) local standby and full emergency;
(c) bomb scare;
(d) disabled aircraft;
(e) hazardous material incident;
(f) fire and natural disaster; or
(g) medical emergency.
10.7.1.5 The AEP must clearly define the activation sequence including call out arrangements for Local Standby and Full Emergency. For instance, Local Standby does not require a response from off-aerodrome agencies whereas a Full Emergency does. The a...
10.7.1.6 The aerodrome operator must produce a grid map (or maps) of the aerodrome and its immediate vicinity, to include detailed location of primary and secondary access gates; this information to be made available to all responding agencies.
10.7.1.7 CASA does not regulate AEP responding agencies and how they conduct their functions. It is the responsibility of the AEC to ensure that the level and availability of emergency equipment and services are adequate for the aerodrome.
10.7.1.8 At those aerodromes located near water, the AEP must include as far as practicable, arrangements for water rescue.
10.7.2.1 Records of reviews and exercises including real emergencies must be kept and retained for at least 3 years.
10.7.3 Disabled Aircraft Removal
10.7.3.1 The Disabled Aircraft Removal Plan (DARP) must include a list of equipment and personnel that would be available for timely aircraft recovery and removal.
10.7.3.2 The Plan must identify a coordinator designated to implement the DARP, when necessary.
10.7.3.3 The Plan must be based on the characteristics of the aircraft that may normally be expected to operate at the aerodrome.
Section 10.8: Guidelines for Aerodrome Emergency Plans
10.8.1.1 Aerodrome emergency planning is the process of preparing an aerodrome to cope with an emergency occurring at the aerodrome or in its vicinity. The objective of the planning is to ensure a timely and effective response to an emergency, particu...
10.8.1.2 Examples of aerodrome emergencies are: crash (aircraft accident), bomb scare, disabled aircraft, spillage of hazardous material, fire and natural disaster.
10.8.1.3 The aerodrome emergency plan should be commensurate with the scale and type of aircraft operations, the surrounding geography and other activities conducted at the aerodrome. With the assistance of the Aerodrome Emergency Committee, the aerod...
10.8.1.4 Examples of agencies that could be of assistance in responding to aerodrome emergencies are:
(a) on-aerodrome agencies: air traffic services units, rescue and fire fighting units, airport administration, aircraft operators, security services; and
(b) off-aerodrome agencies: fire brigades, police, medical and ambulance services, hospitals, defence forces, Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB), State emergency services, transport authorities, volunteer rescue services, welfare agencies, Gove...
10.8.1.4A Where a rescue and fire fighting service (RFFS) is established at an aerodrome, the aerodrome operator and the rescue and fire fighting service provider must work together to ensure that they achieve the required outcome identified in MOS Pa...
10.8.1.5 The off-aerodrome responding agencies will have been established to deal with most, if not all, emergency situations occurring in the community. Therefore the aerodrome emergency procedures should have the highest degree of similarity with th...
10.8.1.6 The best understanding of the procedures is achieved through taking part in the planning process and the most workable procedures are the ones derived by those who have to carry them out. Therefore in the development of the procedures, licenc...
10.8.2 Medical Subcommittee
10.8.2.1 On larger aerodromes it is usual to delegate the preparation of the medical plan to a sub-committee. When established, the medical sub-committee should:
(a) plan the deployment of medical personnel called to an aircraft emergency;
(b) develop procedures for triage, emergency treatment and movement of casualties; and
(c) nominate a co-ordinator of crash site medical resources.
10.8.3 Testing Facilities and Reviewing Roles
10.8.3.1 Facilities used in the responses by the various agencies including communications systems should be tested at intervals not exceeding one year.
10.8.3.2 Individual participants in the aerodrome emergency plan should be encouraged to continuously review their roles (for example on a particular day each month) to ensure that they know their responsibilities and that all the information in the p...
(a) people do best in an emergency what they have been trained to do;
(b) emergencies happen with little or no warning; and
(c) emergencies happen to anybody.
10.8.4 Aerodrome Emergency Exercises
10.8.4.1 The minimum frequency of full-scale aerodrome emergency exercises of two years has been set after considering international practice and the cost of mounting such exercises. However, such exercises should be held annually.
10.8.4.2 Speciality emergency exercises aimed at testing and reviewing the response of individual responding agencies, such as rescue and fire fighting services, as well as parts of the emergency plan, such as the communications system, should be held...
10.8.4.3 Aerodrome licence holders should conduct ‘table-top’ exercises involving the Aerodrome Emergency Committee annually or whenever there is a change of major participants, provided such exercises do not conflict with the full-scale or speciality...
10.8.4.4 Experience to be gained from exercises should be shared by inviting other aerodrome licence holders to attend as observers. Operators of major aerodromes should notify the relevant pilot and cabin attendant staff associations of each planned ...
10.8.5 Emergency Operations Centre and Mobile Command Post
10.8.5.1 A fixed emergency operations centre and a forward mobile command post should be available for use in an emergency. The fixed emergency operations centre should be a part of the aerodrome facilities and be used to co-ordinate and direct the ov...
10.8.5.2 The aerodrome emergency plan should clearly set out the discrete roles of the emergency operations centre and the forward command post, highlighting the physical location of the police co-ordinator.
10.8.6 Definitions of Command, Control, and Coordination
10.8.6.1 The definitions of ‘command’, ‘control’, and ‘co-ordination’ which have been adopted by the Australian Emergency Management Committee and which should be used in the context of aerodrome emergency planning are given below.
10.8.6.2 Command. ‘Command’ is the direction of members and resources of an organisation in the performance of the organisation’s role and tasks. Authority to command is established in legislation or by agreement with an organisation. Command relates ...
10.8.6.3 Control. ‘Control’ is the overall direction of activities. Authority for control is established in legislation or in an emergency plan and carries with it the responsibility for tasking and co-ordinating other organisations in accordance with...
10.8.6.4 Coordination. ‘Coordination’ is the bringing together of organisations and elements to ensure effective counter-emergency responses, and is primarily concerned with the systematic acquisition and application of resources (organisation, manpow...
(a) vertically within an organisation as a function of the authority to command; and
(b) horizontally across organisations as a function of the authority to control.
10.8.7 Role of the Police
10.8.7.1 The person who initially assumes co-ordination of the situation should hand over the role when police arrive.
10.8.7.2 The police represent the Coroner at a crash site and may be authorised to direct the custody, transport and storage of deceased persons. The Coroner is responsible for determining cause of death and in the case of aviation casualties draws on...
10.8.7.3 The police are required to account for all people on board a crashed aircraft. In discharging this function it will normally be necessary to secure the crash site area and impose control over persons entering and leaving the site.
10.8.7.4 The police may also be given the responsibility of guarding any aircraft wreckage on behalf of ATSB.
Section 10.9: Control of Airside Access Including Vehicle Control
10.9.1.1 Particulars of the procedures for preventing unauthorised entry into the movement area, including the arrangements for controlling airside access, and airside vehicle control, are to be included in the aerodrome manual.
10.9.1.2 At aerodromes catering for air transport operations by aircraft of more than 30 passenger seats, a fence or other suitable barrier must be provided where practicable, around the movement area of the aerodrome.
10.9.2 Airside Vehicle Control
10.9.2.1 Vehicles and ground equipment operated airside must be maintained in a sound mechanical and roadworthy condition, so as to prevent avoidable breakdowns and spillage of fuels, lubricants and hydraulic fluids.
10.9.2.2 In the case of major capital city aerodromes, or aerodromes with significant levels of vehicular traffic, the aerodrome operator must introduce and maintain a permit system for airside operations approval.
10.9.2.3 In the case of major capital city aerodromes, or aerodromes with significant levels of vehicular traffic, the aerodrome operator must establish speed limits for vehicles on the movement area and a regime to enforce them.
10.9.2.4 Vehicles must not be driven under an aircraft or within 3 m of any part of an aircraft except when required for the servicing of aircraft.
10.9.2.5 Vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area by day must be marked in accordance with paragraph 8.10.4.
10.9.2.6 Vehicles operating on the movement area must:
(a) be lit with vehicle warning lights in accordance with paragraph 9.19.1, unless accompanied by a vehicle that is so equipped; and
(b) display dipped headlights at night or in conditions of poor visibility.
10.9.2.7 Aircraft servicing equipment used only on aprons need not comply with paragraph 10.9.2.6. In this case, equipment is deemed to be mobile objects that do not have their own motive power.
10.9.3 Airside drivers
10.9.3.1 Drivers operating vehicles on the airside must be trained and competent to do so.
10.9.3.2 Any person operating vehicles and ground equipment, must:
(a) hold an appropriate licence to operate,
(b) know the terminology used to describe, and be familiar with airside areas,
(c) understand the significance of aerodrome signs and markings, and
(d) where appropriate, be competent in the use of radio communications equipment, and understand radio instructions.
10.9.4 Technical Standards for Electronic Surveillance Equipment Fitted to Vehicles
10.9.4.1 For subparagraph 139.254 (3) (a) (i) of CASR 1998, the technical standards for electronic surveillance equipment fitted to a vehicle that enters, or moves on, the manoeuvring area of a certified aerodrome that is designated as an aerodrome to...
Section 10.10: Aerodrome Works Safety
10.10.1.1 The operator of a certified aerodrome must arrange aerodrome works so as not to create any hazard to aircraft or confusion to pilots. The aerodrome manual must include particulars of the procedures for planning and safely carrying out aerodr...
10.10.1.2 Aerodrome works may be carried out without the closure of the aerodrome, provided safety precautions are adhered to.
10.10.1.3 Aerodrome works may be carried out in the following manner:
(a) where the works are of a nature that they will disrupt aircraft operations, they must be carried out under a proper plan called the method of working plan; and
(b) where works are of a maintenance nature they must be carried out as time-limited works.
10.10.1.4 Where a threshold is required to be temporarily displaced for more than 300 m, due to aerodrome works, the matter must be referred to the relevant CASA office to assess the operational significance of that displacement.
10.10.2 Method of Working Plans
10.10.2.1 At an aerodrome used by aircraft of more than 5,700 kg maximum take-off weight, unless the aerodrome is closed during aerodrome works, or the work is of an emergency nature, the aerodrome operator must not carry out aerodrome works, other th...
10.10.2.2 The MOWP must set out the arrangements for carrying out those works.
10.10.2.3 An MOWP must be prepared in accordance with Section 10.11 to this Chapter.
10.10.2.4 When preparing a MOWP, an aerodrome operator must consult:
(a) commercial air transport operators using the aerodrome;
(b) Air Traffic Control; and
(c) if the MOWP may affect its operations, the Rescue and Fire Fighting Service unit at the aerodrome;
so as to ensure the safety of aircraft operations at the aerodrome.
10.10.2.5 The aerodrome operator must give a copy of the MOWP, and any alteration thereof, to the relevant CASA aerodrome inspector, as soon as possible after the Plan is prepared or altered.
10.10.2.6 Aerodrome works, for which a MOWP is required, must be carried out in accordance with the arrangements set out in the MOWP and any subsequent alteration.
10.10.2.7 An MOWP is not required, if the aerodrome operator closes the aerodrome to aircraft operations while aerodrome works are being carried out. CASA aerodrome inspectors, commercial air transport operators and all organisations and persons likel...
10.10.2.8 The operator must not close the aerodrome to aircraft operations due to aerodrome works, unless a NOTAM giving notice of the closure has been issued not less than 14 days before closure takes place.
10.10.2.9 An MOWP is not required for emergency aerodrome works carried out to repair unforeseen damage to part of the manoeuvring area, or to remove an obstacle, or if the works do not require any restrictions to aircraft operations. Where practicabl...
10.10.3 Time-Limited Works
10.10.3.1 Aerodrome works may be carried out as time-limited works if normal aircraft operations are not disrupted, the movement area can be restored to normal safety standards and any obstacle created by those works removed in not more than 30 minutes.
10.10.3.2 Time-limited works include the following works:
(a) maintenance of markings and lights;
(b) grass mowing;
(c) rolling surfaces;
(d) sweeping pavements;
(e) minor repairs to pavements; and
(f) surveys and inspections.
10.10.3.3 A person must not commence time-limited works that require more than 10 minutes to restore normal safety standards to the movement area and remove obstacles, unless a NOTAM has been issued not less than 24 hours before the commencement, givi...
10.10.4 Restrictions on Carrying Out Time-Limited Works
10.10.4.1 Subject to paragraph 10.10.4.2 time-limited works must not be carried out at night or if visibility is less than 5 kilometres.
10.10.4.2 Paragraph 10.10.4.1 does not apply at a controlled aerodrome or in other cases if the area can be restored to the required safety standards so as to allow aircraft operations to take place without delay.
10.10.5 Restoration of Normal Safety Standards
10.10.5.1 Time-limited works must be stopped and normal safety standards restored, when required to allow an aircraft operation to take place.
10.10.5.2 All reasonable measures must be taken to complete the restoration of normal safety standards not less than 5 minutes before the scheduled or notified time of an aircraft operation.
10.10.6 Resumption of Aerodrome Works
10.10.6.1 At an uncontrolled aerodrome, works that have been stopped to allow the restoration of normal safety standards may be resumed:
(a) if stopped for an aircraft arrival, immediately after the arrival, if the safety of the aircraft is not endangered by the resumption; or
(b) if stopped for an aircraft departure, 15 minutes after the departure has taken place; or
(c) if stopped for an aircraft arrival that does not take place; 30 minutes after the time scheduled or notified for the arrival (when a new ETA is established).
10.10.6.2 At a controlled aerodrome, Air Traffic Control may, at the request of the aerodrome operator, vary the time limits set out in paragraph 10.10.6.1 for restoring normal safety standards or resuming aerodrome works. A variation under this parag...
10.10.7 Management and Control of Aerodrome Works
10.10.7.1 An aerodrome operator must ensure that aerodrome works are carried out in accordance with the standards in this Chapter.
10.10.7.2 An aerodrome operator must appoint a person in writing as a works safety officer for the purpose of ensuring the safe conduct of aerodrome works.
10.10.7.3 Before appointing a person as a works safety officer, the aerodrome operator must be satisfied that the person is able to perform the functions of a works safety officer set out in Section 10.12.
10.10.7.4 A works safety officer must be present at all times if aerodrome works are being carried out and the aerodrome is open to aircraft operations.
10.10.7.4A For time-limited works, a dedicated works safety officer is not required if one of the persons carrying out the time-limited work has been trained to perform the function of the works safety officer.
10.10.7.5 An aerodrome operator must take all reasonable measures to ensure that the works organisation carries out aerodrome works in a manner that will ensure the safety of aircraft operations.
10.10.7.6 Persons, vehicles, plant and equipment required for carrying out aerodrome works, must not be permitted to enter the movement area or remain on it, except for the purpose of carrying out those works.
10.10.7.7 Procedures for entering works areas must be stated in the MOWP.
10.10.7.8 The operator must allow access to works areas only along routes shown in the MOWP.
10.10.8 Markers, Markings and Lights
10.10.8.1 Aerodrome markers, markings and lights required for, or affected by, aerodrome works must be installed, altered or removed in accordance with the appropriate standards.
10.10.8.2 Parts of the movement area that are unserviceable as a result of aerodrome works being carried out must be marked and lit in accordance with the appropriate standards.
10.10.8.3 All obstacles created as a result of aerodrome works being carried out must be marked and lit in accordance the appropriate standards in Chapter 8.
10.10.8.4 Vehicles and plant used in carrying out aerodrome works must be marked in accordance with paragraph 8.10.4.
10.10.8.5 In addition to paragraph 10.10.8.4 requirements, vehicles and plant used in carrying out aerodrome works at night must be lit in accordance with paragraph 9.19.1.
10.10.9 Communication Equipment
10.10.9.1 At a controlled aerodrome, a vehicle used by a works safety officer while supervising aerodrome works must be equipped with a radio for two-way communication with Air Traffic Control.
10.10.9.2 For the purpose of communication with Air Traffic Control, each vehicle used by a works safety officer must be given a call sign.
10.10.9.3 Any vehicle or plant that is not:
(a) marked or lit in accordance with Paragraph 10.10.8; or
(b) if applicable, equipped with a two-way radio;
may only be used in carrying out aerodrome works if it is:
(i) used under the direct supervision of the works safety officer; or
(ii) used only within the limits of appropriately marked and lit works areas.
10.10.10.1 On the completion of aerodrome works and the restoration of normal safety standards to the movement area, the aerodrome operator must cancel any NOTAM issued to advise of those works.
10.10.11 Pavement Overlay Works
10.10.11.1 At the end of an overlay work session, when the runway is to be returned to an operational status, the new and old runway surfaces must not be left with an abrupt vertical surface of more than 25 mm. This will normally require the provision...
10.10.11.2 The longitudinal slope of the temporary ramp described in paragraph 10.10.11.1, measured with reference to the existing runway surface or previous overlay course, must be:
(a) 0.5 to 1.0 per cent for overlays up to and including 5 cm in thickness; and
(b) not more than 0.5 per cent for overlays more than 5 cm in thickness.
10.10.11.3 Where practicable, the direction of pavement overlay must proceed from one end of the runway toward the other end so that based on runway utilisation most aircraft operations will experience a down ramp.
10.10.11.4 Where practicable, the entire width of the runway must be overlaid during each work session. Where the entire width of the runway cannot be overlaid during a work session, then at least the central two-third width of the runway is to be ove...
10.10.11.5 Before a runway being overlaid is returned to a temporary operational status, a runway centreline marking conforming to the specifications in Chapter 8, Section 8.3, Subsection 8.3.3 must be provided.
10.10.12 Works on Runway Strips
10.10.12.1 Works on runway strips must be carried out in the shortest possible time, and where undertaken within 23 m of the edge of the runway or runway shoulder:
(a) works must only be undertaken on one side of the runway at any one time;
(b) the works area at any one time must not exceed 9 square metres, except for machine cut trenches, not exceeding a width of 100 mm and length of 280 m;
(c) materials such as gravel, signs and lights, etc left within this part of the runway strip, must not exceed one metre in height above ground. Any material likely to be affected by propeller wash or jet blast, must be removed; and
(d) plant and vehicles must vacate this area when the runway is in use.
10.10.12.2 Where works are undertaken on a runway strip between 23 m from the edge of the runway or runway shoulder and the edge of the graded runway strip, similar restriction must be applied within this area of the runway strip, as for paragraph 10....
10.10.12.3 Where works are to be undertaken in the vicinity of navigational or landing aids located within the runway strips, care must be taken to ensure that neither the works nor vehicles or plant associated with the works, may affect the performan...
Section 10.11: Method of Working Plans
10.11.1.1 The MOWP must be presented in sections in the following sequence:
(a) title page
(b) works information
(c) restrictions to aircraft operations
(d) restrictions to works organisation
(h) distribution list.
10.11.2 Title Page
10.11.2.1 Each MOWP must be given a reference number, consisting of the code used to identify the aerodrome in the En Route Supplement Australia, the last two digits of the year and the number given to the MOWP by the aerodrome operator.
10.11.2.2 MOWPs issued in relation to the same aerodrome must be numbered consecutively in the order of their issue.
10.11.2.3 The MOWP number, the date of issue, and the date and number of any amendment are to be set out in the top right hand corner of the title page.
10.11.2.4 The title must indicate the location of the work and give a short description of the project, for instance “[name of aerodrome]: runway 07/25 repairs”.
10.11.2.5 The date of approval of the MOWP, the date of commencement and the date of expiry of the MOWP, and the date of completion of the works are to be set out on the title page.
10.11.2.6 The title page must include a list of the sections of the MOWP.
10.11.3 Works Information
10.11.3.1 The MOWP must:
(a) include an outline of the full scope of the works and state which aerodrome facilities are affected.
(b) provide the planned date and time of commencement, the duration of each stage and the time of completion.
(c) contain the following sentence:
“The actual date and time of commencement will be advised by a NOTAM, to be issued not less than 48 hours before work commences”.
10.11.4 Restrictions to Aircraft Operations and Issue of NOTAMs
10.11.4.1 This section of the MOWP must be in a form that allows its separate issue to aircraft operators and permits those operators to have easy reference to the information as it affects them.
10.11.4.2 This section of the MOWP must state each restriction and each aircraft type affected by that restriction.
10.11.5 Work Stages
10.11.5.1 Any restrictions to aircraft operations on the manoeuvring area, or in the approach and take-off areas must be listed and shown on drawings of each stage of the works.
10.11.5.2 When complex works are being undertaken, a table showing the restrictions applicable to each stage of the works and for each type of aircraft operation must be included.
10.11.5.3 The table must outline the various work stages with start and completion dates and have a remarks column to list details of special restrictions and the issue of NOTAMs for the information of a pilot before a flight.
10.11.6 Emergencies and Adverse Weather
10.11.6.1 The MOWP must outline details, if any, of special arrangements to be made during works if emergencies or adverse weather conditions occur.
10.11.7.1 The full text of all planned NOTAMs associated with the aerodrome works must be included.
10.11.8 Restrictions to Works Organisations
10.11.8.1 The MOWP must provide any restrictions on the organisation carrying out of aerodrome works and requirements for the restoration of normal safety standards.
10.11.9 Personnel and Equipment
10.11.9.1 When personnel and equipment are required to vacate the movement area for certain operations, specific mention of this fact must be made, e.g. “All personnel and equipment will clear runway strip 11/29 for air transport operations”.
10.11.10.1 The MOWP must identify the routes to and from the works area and the procedures for entering the works areas within the movement area.
10.11.10.2 Particulars of routes to and from the works area must be shown in drawings attached to the MOWP.
10.11.11 Aerodrome Markers, Markings and Lights
10.11.11.1 Details of arrangements for the installation, alteration and removal of aerodrome markers, markings and lights in the work areas and other areas affected by the aerodrome works must be shown in drawings attached to the MOWP.
10.11.12 Protection of Electrical Services
10.11.12.1 The MOWP must set out procedures for ensuring that electrical services and control cables are not damaged.
10.11.13 Special Requirements
10.11.13.1 The MOWP must provide details of any special requirements arising during or on completion of aerodrome works, for example, arrangements for leaving pavement surfaces swept and clean before evacuation of the works area.
10.11.14.1 The MOWP must provide the name of the project manager appointed by the aerodrome operator and the means of contact, including the means outside normal working hours.
10.11.14.2 The MOWP must provide the names of the works safety officer or officers appointed by the aerodrome operator and the means of contact, including the means outside normal working hours.
10.11.14.3 The MOWP must provide the name of the works organiser (where appropriate) and the means of contact, including the means outside working hours.
10.11.15.1 Each MOWP must contain the following statement: “All works will be carried out in accordance with the MOWP”.
10.11.15.2 Each MOWP must set out its expiry date, and any alteration of that date.
10.11.15.3 Each MOWP must be signed, immediately after paragraph 10.11.15 (this paragraph), by the aerodrome operator or the project manager.
10.11.16.1 Drawings must be attached, which provide a visual reference for each stage of the works. The drawings must contain specific details such as works area, restrictions to aircraft, location of radio navigational aids, exact location of visual ...
10.11.17 Distribution List
10.11.17.1 The distribution list of the MOWP must include at least the following persons and organisations:
(a) the project manager,
(b) the works safety officer;
(c) the aerodrome security manager, if any;
(d) the works organiser;
(e) the CASA aerodrome inspector;
(f) ATC and the Rescue and Fire Fighting Service Unit for the aerodrome;
(g) the air transport aircraft operators using the aerodrome at which the aerodrome works are to be carried out; and
(h) fixed-base operators using the aerodrome at which the aerodrome works are to be carried out.
Section 10.12: Functions of a Works Safety Officer
10.12.1 Works Safety Officer
10.12.1.1 The Works Safety Officer performs the following responsibilities.
(a) Ensure the safety of aircraft operations in accordance with the standards for aerodrome works and the applicable MOWP;
(b) Ensure that, where applicable, the aerodrome works are notified by issue of a NOTAM and that the text of each NOTAM is exactly as set out in the applicable MOWP;
(c) Supply the air-traffic controller, on a daily basis, with whatever information is necessary to ensure the safety of aircraft operations;
(d) Discuss with the works organisation, on a daily basis, any matters necessary to ensure the safety of aircraft operations;
(e) Ensure that unserviceable portions of the movement area, temporary obstructions, and the limits of the works area are correctly marked and lit in accordance with Paragraph 10.10.8, and the applicable MOWP;
(f) Ensure that the vehicles, plant and equipment carrying out aerodrome works are properly marked and lit or are under works safety officer supervision or within properly marked and lit works area;
(g) Ensure that all other requirements of the directions and MOWP relating to vehicles, plant, equipment and materials are complied with;
(h) Ensure that access routes to work areas are in accordance with the applicable MOWP and clearly identified and that access is restricted to these routes;
(i) Ensure that excavation is carried out in accordance with the MOWP and, in particular, so as to avoid damage or loss of calibration to any underground power or control cable associated with a precision approach and landing system or any other navig...
(j) Report immediately to the air-traffic controller and the aerodrome operator any incident, or damage to facilities, likely to affect air-traffic control services or the safety of aircraft;
(k) Remain on duty at the works area while work is in progress and the aerodrome is open to aircraft operations;
(l) Ensure that the air-traffic controller is kept informed of the radio call signs of the vehicles used by the works safety officer;
(m) Require the immediate removal of vehicles, plant and personnel from the movement area where necessary to ensure the safety of aircraft operations;
(n) Ensure that the movement area is safe for normal aircraft operations following removal of vehicles, plant, equipment and personnel from the works area;
(o) In the case of time-limited works, ensure that the works area is restored to normal safety standards not less than 5 minutes before the time scheduled or notified for an aircraft movement; and
(p) Ensure that floodlighting or any other lighting required for carrying out aerodrome works is shielded so as not to represent a hazard to aircraft operations.
Section 10.13: Aircraft Parking
10.13.1.1 This Section is applicable only at aerodromes where apron congestion is a problem.
10.13.1.2 The aerodrome operator must include in the aerodrome manual particulars of the procedures for aircraft parking control, on those aprons, to ensure the safety of aircraft during ground manoeuvring.
10.13.2 Apron Congestion
10.13.2.1 Appropriate apron safety procedures must be developed by the aerodrome operator in conjunction with relevant organisations such as the airlines, ground handlers and caterers; and monitored for compliance, on a regular basis. Written agreemen...
10.13.3 Apron Safety Management
10.13.3.1 Aerodrome operators must ensure that, irrespective of who is responsible for aircraft parking, procedures are in place and documented for aircraft docking, ground servicing, engine start and push back operations.
10.13.3.2 Apron safety management procedures must:
(a) ensure that people involved are appropriately trained and experienced; and
(b) ensure that people engaged in these activities are provided with appropriate equipment such as communications, high visibility garments and fire extinguishing equipment suitable for at least initial intervention in the event of a fuel fire.
10.13.3.3 If apron operational activities are undertaken by organisation(s) other than the aerodrome operator, then the aerodrome operator must ensure the apron safety management procedures are followed.
Section 10.14: Bird and Animal Hazard Management
10.14.1.1 The aerodrome operator must monitor and record, on a regular basis, the presence of birds or animals on or in the vicinity of the aerodrome. Monitoring personnel must be suitably trained for this purpose.
10.14.1.2 Where regular monitoring confirms existence of a bird or animal hazard to aircraft operations, or when CASA so directs, the aerodrome operator must produce a bird or animal hazard management plan, which would be included as part of the Aerod...
10.14.1.3 The management plan must be prepared by a suitably qualified person such as an ornithologist or a biologist, etc.
10.14.1.4 The management plan must address:
(a) hazard assessment, including monitoring action and analysis;
(b) pilot notification;
(c) liaison and working relationships with land use planning authorities;
(d) on-airport bird and animal attractors which provide food, water or shelter;
(e) suitable harassment methods; and
(f) an ongoing strategy for bird and animal hazard reduction, including provision of appropriate fencing.
10.14.1.5 The bird and animal hazard management plan must be reviewed for effectiveness, on a regular basis, at least as part of each technical inspection.
10.14.1.6 Where the presence of birds or animals is assessed as constituting an ongoing hazard to aircraft, the aerodrome operator must notify the AIS in writing, to include an appropriate warning notice in the ERSA.
10.14.1.7 Where a bird or animal hazard is assessed as acute, of short term or seasonal nature, additional warning must be given to pilots by NOTAM.
Section 10.15: Pavement Maintenance
10.15.1 Pavement Cleanliness
10.15.1.1 All paved runway, taxiway and apron surfaces must be kept clear of foreign objects or debris that may cause damage to aircraft.
10.15.1.2 All runways, taxiways and apron pavement used by air transport jet aircraft with reference code numbers 3 or 4, must be cleaned of foreign objects on a regular basis.
10.15.2 Runway Surface Friction
10.15.2.1 The aerodrome operator must maintain runways with sealed, asphalt or concrete surfaces, in accordance with the surface texture standards specified in Chapter 6.
10.15.2.2 The Aerodrome Technical Inspection of runway surfaces must confirm that the texture standard is being met.
10.15.2.3 From January 2006, designated international aerodromes with runways serving code 4 jet aeroplanes, conducting international air transport operations, will be required to use an ICAO accepted continuous friction measuring device with self-wet...
10.15.2.4 Runways must be evaluated when first constructed or after resurfacing to determine the wet runway surface friction characteristics.
10.15.2.5 Friction measurements must be taken at intervals that will ensure identification of runways in need of maintenance or special surface treatment before the surface conditions deteriorate further. The time interval between measurements will de...
10.15.2.6 When conducting friction tests on wet runways there is a drop in friction with an increase in speed. However, as the speed increases, the rate at which the friction is reduced becomes less. The macro texture of the surface affects the relati...
10.15.2.7 The results of measurements will be used as follows:
(a) to verify the friction characteristics of new or resurfaced sealed, asphalt or concrete surfaced runways, using the Design objective for new surface values in Table 10.15-1.
(b) if the measured friction level falls below the relevant Maintenance planning level values in Table 10.15-1, the aerodrome operator must initiate appropriate corrective maintenance action to improve the friction.
(c) if the measured friction level falls below the relevant Minimum friction level values in Table 10.15-1, the aerodrome operator must promulgate by NOTAM, that the runway pavement falls below minimum friction level when wet. Additionally, corrective...
10.15.3 Deterioration of Runway Grooves
10.15.3.1 When a runway pavement surface has been grooved, the aerodrome operator should periodically check the condition of the runway grooves in accordance with the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) advice set out in the FAA Advisory Circular...
10.15.4 Surface Irregularities
10.15.4.1 Aerodrome operators must maintain the surface of paved runways in a condition such as to preclude excessive bouncing, pitching, vibration or other difficulties with control of aircraft.
10.15.4.2 Paved runway surfaces should be maintained so that standing water is neither formed nor retained. Birdbath depressions should be repaired at the earliest opportunity.
10.15.5 Standards for Natural and Gravel Surface Runways
10.15.5.1 Surface standards for natural and gravel surface runways and runway strips are the same as those set out in Table 6.2-4A. However, the runway surface must not have irregularities which would adversely affect the take-off or landing of an air...
Section 10.16: Maintenance Around Navigational Aids
10.16.1.1 Aerodrome operators must document procedures for the maintenance of the areas around navigation aids serving the aerodrome. This would include navigational aids located on or off the aerodrome, either owned by the aerodrome operator or by ot...
10.16.1.2 The arrangements for ground maintenance around these installations must include details of consultation with the telecommunication service provider to avoid interference with operation of the aid.
10.16.1.3 Ground maintenance carried out around navigational aids must be in accordance with the agreement with the telecommunications service provider.
10.16.1.4 If there is no agreed specification with the telecommunications service provider, ground maintenance around new facilities is to be in accordance with manufacturers instructions, and for pre-existing facilities where manufacturers instructio...
(a) elimination of grass at the base of towers, fence lines and foundation of buildings, for a distance of 500 mm;
(b) fenced areas to be kept free of grass, shrubs or other growth exceeding 300 mm in height; and
(c) within fenced areas, or at unfenced sites within the aerodrome boundary:
(d) The maintained areas described above must not be otherwise used or treated, for example by ploughing or cropping.
10.16.1.5 Ground maintenance procedures around navigational aids must include the provision and enforcement of appropriate signage.
Section 10.17: Aerodrome Safety Procedures during Conditions of Reduced Visibility or Low Cloud
10.17.1.1 The operator of a controlled aerodrome must establish low visibility procedures (LVP) in accordance with paragraph 10.17.2.1 to ensure the safety of aircraft operations in conditions of reduced visibility or low cloud.
10.17.2 Development of Low Visibility Procedures
10.17.2.1 LVP must:
(a) be the subject of proper consultation with any party likely to be affected by them, including ATC and aerodrome service providers; and
(b) take into account local conditions; and
(c) as a minimum, address the following matters:
10.17.3 Implementation of Low Visibility Procedures
10.17.3.1 When meteorological conditions are such that all or part of the manoeuvring area cannot be visually monitored from the control tower, the aerodrome operator must co-operate with ATC to initiate measures in accordance with the aerodrome’s LVP.
10.17.3.2 The aerodrome operator must co-operate with ATC to ensure that LVP are fully implemented before:
(a) for approach operations — the earlier of the following:
(b) for take-off operations — the reported visibility or RVR on the runway to be used falls below 550 m.
10.17.3.3 The aerodrome operator must advise ATC when all aerodrome operator preparations relevant to LVP are complete.
10.17.4 Review of Low Visibility Procedures
10.17.4.1 Each aerodrome operator, in consultation and co-operation with local ATC and other persons or organisations involved in relevant LVP operations must regularly review the LVP to ensure their relevance and effectiveness.
Section 10.18: Aerodrome Technical Inspections
10.18.1.1 Aerodrome technical inspections must be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the regulations.
10.18.1.2 Aerodrome technical inspections must be carried out at intervals of not more than 12 months and when required as a result of the findings of the aerodrome serviceability inspections.
10.18.1.3 Parts of an aerodrome technical inspection may be carried out at different times from the other parts. Each part of the technical inspection must be carried out at intervals of not more than 12 months.
10.18.1.4 The technical inspection should identify any shortcomings, or areas for improvement.
10.18.1.5 The technical inspection must include a plan(s) for corrective action.
10.18.1.6 CASA audit activity will include follow-up on the progress achieved on previous reports and plans for corrective action.
Section 10.19: Runway Visibility Assessments by Ground Personnel
10.19.1.1 An aerodrome operator may appoint a person (the appointed RV assessor) to conduct runway visibility (RV) assessments at the aerodrome in accordance with this section.
10.19.1.2 Appointment of an RV assessor must be made in writing and the name of each assessor holding an appointment must be included in the aerodrome manual.
10.19.1.3 The appointed RV assessor must:
(a) before and after appointment — satisfy each of the requirements mentioned in subsection 10.19.3; and
(b) follow the procedures set out in subsection 10.19.4.
10.19.1.4 For subparagraph 120 (1) (b) of CAR 1988, the appointed RV assessor is approved by CASA for an operator or pilot in command of an aircraft to use the assessor’s RV assessment to determine if the required visual reference for a landing, or th...
10.19.2 Facilities and Procedures
10.19.2.1 For runway visibility assessments, the aerodrome operator must:
(a) establish a system for using visibility markers or counting runway lights (or both) for assessing runway visibility; and
(b) establish and mark fixed locations from which assessments are to be conducted; and
(c) if runway markers are to be used:
(d) (d) produce a visibility markers chart that includes:
(e) if assessments are made by counting runway lights, produce a conversion chart based on the actual spacing of the runway lights; and
(f) include in the aerodrome manual:
10.19.3 Appointed Persons Conducting Runway Visibility Assessments
10.19.3.1 An appointed RV assessor must, before appointment, and at all time after appointment, have the following attributes and qualifications:
(a) a distant visual acuity of 6/12 or better in each eye separately and 6/9 or better binocular (with or without correcting lenses);
(b) a certificate of proficiency in aeronautical radio telephony;
(c) the competence to operate on the manoeuvring area of the aerodrome;
(d) demonstrated competence in the following:
10.19.4 Procedures for Conducting a Runway Visibility Assessment
10.19.4.1 Runway visibility assessments must be conducted without using any optical devices to enhance normal distance vision.
10.19.4.2 The appointed RV assessor conducting the runway visibility assessment must:
(a) make the assessment from a nominated observation point; and
(b) carry out the observation by:
(c) not report any weather phenomena that are reducing the runway visibility unless he or she is authorised by the Director of Meteorology as a meteorological observer, or approved for the purpose by CASA; and
(d) limit reports to the following range of values:
10.19.4.3 An RV assessment may only be provided to a pilot if the assessment was conducted within the previous 20 minutes.
Chapter 11: Standards for Other Aerodrome Facilities
Section 11.1: General
188.8.131.52 This Chapter contains standards on aspects of aerodrome design and operations that are not covered elsewhere in this Manual.
11.1.2 Traffic Control Towers
184.108.40.206 Standards for designing, siting, constructing, equipping and maintaining air traffic control (ATC) facilities are contained in CASR Part 172.
11.1.3 Standards For Siting and Clearance Areas for Airways Facilities on Airports
220.127.116.11 Airways facilities at an airport permit the safe navigation of aircraft within the airspace of an airway, and include; navigation aids along the airway and for approach and landing at aerodromes, communication facilities, meteorological facil...
18.104.22.168 The airways facilities for the safe, efficient operation of aircraft in the terminal area surrounding an airport and on the airport manoeuvring area need, in most instances, to be located on or at the perimeter of the aerodrome. Some of these...
22.214.171.124 The standards herein set out:
(a) The general requirement for sites, and the specific site and clearance area dimensions (for those types of facilities for which it is possible to specify such), for existing facilities; and
(b) The responsibilities of the aerodrome operator for preservation of sites and their clearance areas for planned or existing facilities.
126.96.36.199 For new facilities follow the manufacturers instructions.
188.8.131.52 Airways facilities at an aerodrome may include any or all of the following:
(a) navigation aid facilities
(b) radar sensor sites
(c) air/ground and point-to-point communications systems including radio bearer systems and satellite communications sites
(d) air traffic services centres
(e) fire stations (and satellite fire station); and
(f) ATC towers.
11.1.4 General Siting Requirements
184.108.40.206 The siting criteria define the minimum requirements for uncompromised performance of each facility. Non-compliance or infringement of the site criteria and associated clearance areas does not always result in a particular facility being unser...
220.127.116.11 The general requirements for airways facilities are a finite site for their physical installation, i.e. shelters, foundations, towers, antennae plus a reasonable service area around the physical features. In many instances, there is also a re...
18.104.22.168 The responsibilities of the aerodrome operator in complying with the requirements of this standard include:
(a) the controls on the erection of structures, e.g. buildings, hangars, fences, roads within specified distances and height limitations, of existing or planned airways facilities;
(b) control on vehicles or aircraft entering, traversing or parking within specified clearance areas; and
(c) ensuring that Airservices Australia is consulted on the effect of proposed aerodrome works or developments on the airways facilities. Even temporary construction works such as stockpiling of materials may have an effect, particularly on precision ...
22.214.171.124 Paragraphs 11.1.6 to 126.96.36.199 in this section set out the standards for siting requirements for Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) facilities used for aircraft guidance and air traffic control. They include specified siting req...
188.8.131.52 The standards for the CNS facilities are generic in that they are based on known areas for acceptable operation at all locations under normal conditions. However, it is known by the Part 171 provider of the CNS facilities that, depending on t...
184.108.40.206 An aerodrome operator may proceed with a proposed aerodrome development that infringes any of the standards for CNS facilities set out in paragraphs 11.1.6 to 220.127.116.11 inclusive if the aerodrome operator has the written authorisation of CASA...
18.104.22.168 If the proposed development is acceptable to CASA, having regard to the assessment by the Part 171 provider and any applicable standards in MOS 139, CASA must authorise the development and provide the aerodrome operator with a copy of the ass...
22.214.171.124 Paragraphs 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52 do not affect the requirement for any proposed aerodrome development to comply with Chapter 7, Obstacle Restriction and Limitation. Additionally, under paragraph 184.108.40.206, leased federal aerodromes need to comp...
11.1.4A Siting of Equipment and Installations on Operational Areas
11.1.4A.1 Unless its function requires it to be there for air navigation purposes, equipment or an installation must not be located:
(a) on a runway strip, a runway end safety area, or a taxiway strip, if it would endanger an aircraft; or
(b) within the area specified in Table 6.3-5 as the minimum separation distance between the centreline of a taxiway (including an apron taxiway) and a building, structure, vehicle, wall, plant, equipment, parked aeroplane or road, if it would endanger...
(c) on a clearway, if it would endanger an aircraft in the air.
11.1.4A.2 Equipment or an installation required for air navigation purposes must be frangible and mounted as low as possible if it is located on any of the following:
(a) that portion of a runway strip within:
(i) 75 m of the runway centreline — where the runway code number is 3 or 4; or
(ii) 45 m of the runway centreline — where the runway code number is 1 or 2; or
(b) a runway end safety area or a taxiway strip; or
(c) within the distances specified in Table 6.3-5 between a taxiway centreline and a paragraph 220.127.116.11 (c) object; or
(d) on a clearway.
11.1.4A.3 Unless its function requires it to be there for air navigation purposes, for a precision approach runway Category I, II or III, equipment or an installation must not be located within the following distances:
(a) 240 m from the end of the runway strip;
(b) 60 m from the extended centreline — where the runway code number is 3 or 4; or
(c) 45 m from the extended centreline — where the code number is 1 or 2.
11.1.4A.4 Equipment or an installation required for air navigation purposes must be frangible and mounted as low as possible if it is located on or near the runway strip of a precision approach runway Category I, II or III, and it is:
(a) situated on that portion of the strip within 77.5 m of the runway centreline — where the code number is 4 and the code letter is F; or
(b) situated within 240 m from the end of the strip and within:
(i) 60 m of the extended runway centreline — where the code number is 3 or 4; or
(ii) 45 m of the extended runway centreline — where the code number is 1 or 2; or
(c) penetrating the inner approach surface, the inner transitional surface or the balked landing surface.
11.1.5 Navigation Aid Facilities
18.104.22.168 The location of the radio navigation aids is largely determined by the air route or approach path on which they are to be used; they cannot normally be moved without some consequential change to or restriction placed on the approach path or a...
22.214.171.124 These facilities are not to be compared with radio, television or mobile radio facilities. Except for NDBs, radio navigation aids are more complex in terms of the transmitting equipment, the antenna design and the electromagnetic fields whic...
126.96.36.199 For the facility to remain a useful part of the airways system, these environmental characteristics have to be maintained and any proposals for change need to be carefully examined.
188.8.131.52 The development constraints set out herein provide guidance to activity and development restrictions in the vicinity of radio navigation aids. In cases where a proposed or planned development is of a significant size, unusual nature or exceed...
11.1.6 VOR Facilities
184.108.40.206 Vehicle movements. Aerodrome roadways, taxiways, public roads, tramways and railways shall not be closer than a 300 m radius. Vehicles used by aerodrome maintenance staff are not to be parked within a 300 m radius.
220.127.116.11 Restricted area. All unauthorised personnel and vehicles must be kept clear of the facility within a 300 m radius. Wooden signs or wooden fencing only may be used to clearly define the restricted area. The movement of vehicles between the V...
18.104.22.168 Site maintenance. Grass and scrub within 150 m of the site must be mown or cut regularly. Grass cutting equipment is not to be parked within a 300 m radius of the VOR building.
22.214.171.124 Services. All cables (e.g. power and telephone) are to be placed underground within 300 m radius of a VOR facility. Cables can be run above the ground from 300 m to 600 m radius from a VOR, if they are aligned radially to the VOR.
126.96.36.199 Clearance zone. No structure, building, trees, fences, towers or power lines is permitted within 600 m radius of the VOR if they will extend above an elevation angle of one degree as seen from the VOR site.
11.1.7 DME Facilities
188.8.131.52 Vehicle movements. No restriction.
184.108.40.206 Restricted area. No restricted areas.
220.127.116.11 Site maintenance. There is no requirement for grass or scrub clearing, however, trees within a radius of 300 m must not be allowed to grow above the height of the DME antenna mounting point on the DME mast.
18.104.22.168 Services. Overhead LV power and control lines are allowable in the vicinity of the DME site provided the clearance requirements of Paragraph 22.214.171.124 are met. Overhead 2 kV-22 kV HV lines must be at least 400 m distant, while HV lines in exce...
126.96.36.199 Clearance zone. Small structures, small buildings, overhead lines and fences are allowable adjacent to the DME antenna location within a 600 m radius, providing that they do not project above the mounting point of the DME antenna to the DME m...
188.8.131.52 Larger obstructions such as multi-storey buildings, hangers, bridges, etc, may interfere with DME system performance and any proposal to erect large structures above a one degree elevation angle as seen from the DME antenna within a 5 km radi...
11.1.8 Instrument Landing System
184.108.40.206 An instrument landing system (ILS) has the following components:
(a) VHF localizer equipment;
(b) UHF glide path equipment;
(c) VHF marker beacons or distance measuring equipment (DME);
(d) monitor systems, remote control and indicator equipment.
220.127.116.11 Each component performs specific functions, and is separately located along the longitudinal axis of, or alongside, the runway.
11.1.9 Protection of ILS Installations
18.104.22.168 An aerodrome operator must consult with the relevant aeronautical telecommunications service and radio navigation service provider to establish adequate arrangements for ensuring that ILS installations are not adversely affected by:
(a) electromagnetic interference; or
(b) the presence or construction of buildings; or
(c) the presence of temporary or permanent structures.
11.1.10 Critical and Sensitive Areas
22.214.171.124 An aerodrome operator must consult with the relevant aeronautical telecommunications service and radio navigation service provider to establish and define appropriate:
(a) critical areas for each ILS installation; and
(b) sensitive areas for Categories II and III ILS installations.
126.96.36.199 An aerodrome operator must ensure that the boundaries of each critical area are marked by suitable signs and visual markers to prevent unauthorised access from vehicles and persons.
188.8.131.52 An aerodrome operator must place signs at each road access point to an ILS critical area to warn drivers and pedestrians against entering the critical area without authority.
184.108.40.206 An aerodrome operator must not permit:
(a) vehicles and plant to enter, or remain in, an ILS critical area while the ILS is in use; or
(b) construction access or variation to such access within a critical or sensitive area unless the construction access or variation has been coordinated with the relevant aeronautical telecommunications service and radio navigation service provider.
220.127.116.11 Where access to a critical area is required for a particular purpose, an aerodrome operator must arrange for the ILS to be temporarily removed from service and a NOTAM issued to inform pilots. Any subsequent related access to the critical ar...
18.104.22.168 If low visibility procedures are in effect, an aerodrome operator must not permit vehicles or plant to enter, or remain in, an ILS sensitive area unless ATC has given the operator a specific clearance for the vehicles or plant to enter or re...
11.1.11 Obstructions around Marker Beacons
22.214.171.124 None of the following may extend above an elevation angle of 30 degrees from a point 1.5 m above ground level at the location of a marker beacon antenna:
(a) a building;
(b) a power line;
(c) a telephone line;
(d) a tree or a clump of trees.
11.1.12 Locator Beacons
126.96.36.199 All requirements as for non-directional beacons below.
11.1.13 Non-Directional Beacons (NDB)
188.8.131.52 Obstructions. The immediate surrounding area within a radius of 150 m of the antenna should be free of buildings exceeding 2.5 m in any dimension, vegetation should be kept below a height of 0.6 m. Small buildings of substantially non-metall...
184.108.40.206 Overhead power and telephone lines serving the NDB should be kept at least 150 m clear of the antenna. Steel towers and masts should subtend elevation angles less than 3 degrees measured from ground level at the centre of the NDB antenna sys...
220.127.116.11 Vehicular movements. With the exception of authorised vehicles no vehicle shall approach the antenna within a distance closer than 60 m.
18.104.22.168 Services. Power and telephone cables should be underground to a depth of 0.45 m within 150 m of the antenna.
22.214.171.124 Restricted area. No special requirements. Where necessary, fencing should be provided to keep cattle and horses clear of the earthmat area.
126.96.36.199 Site maintenance. No special requirement other than to keep undergrowth from exceeding a height of 0.6 m and to maintain a neat appearance of the site. Ploughing is not permitted over any portion of the earthmat area. Grazing of sheep is per...
11.1.14 Radar Sensor Sites
188.8.131.52 Site requirements. The site requirement for existing types of radar sensors is a rectangular area about 50 m by 40 m, including sufficient space for a crane to manoeuvre and an antenna maintenance pad.
184.108.40.206 For new sites, the above dimensions may be reduced, depending on whether or not standby power generation are co-located. However, the antenna maintenance space in which a crane can manoeuvre may be the limiting factor.
220.127.116.11 Clearance requirements. Radar transmission clearance requirement are intended to prevent the following:
(a) Holes in the coverage by new constructions blocking line of sight between radar and aircraft. Any construction, which geometrically intrudes above the existing skyline as seen by the radar, will have an affect.
(b) Interference with near fields of the antenna, which may disturb the antenna pattern in the far field. This applies within 500 m of most radars.
(c) Diffraction and bending of signals by edges and thin objects which can cause incorrect radar determined location, loss or confusion of radar tracks etc. Likely hazards in this regard are poles such as lighting poles.
(d) Reflections of the radar signals from fixed or mobile surfaces. Reflections cause aircraft to appear on radar screens in more than one location.
18.104.22.168 The following clearance requirements are to be maintained:
(a) No intrusion within 1 km of the radar into a height surface 5 m below the bottom of the antenna. No intrusion between the radar and the possible location of any desired targets, i.e. roughly speaking above 0.5 degrees elevation at any distance.
(b) No metallic or other electrical reflective surfaces anywhere which subtend an angle of more than 0.5 degrees when viewed from the radar, eg. fences, power lines, tanks as well as many buildings. All overhead power lines within 1 km must be aligned...
(c) No radio interference emitters within 2 km having any component of transmission in the radar bands, eg. welders and electrical transmission lines. No electrical transmission lines within following specified distances:
(d) Other electronic equipment may be affected by the radar transmissions. Such equipment should not be located where the radars may interfere with their performance.
22.214.171.124 Precautions against Exposure of Personnel to Radio Frequency Radiation from Radar Systems. The primary surveillance radar transmitters on airports radiate high power beams of radio frequency energy. In close proximity to a surveillance radar...
11.1.15 Communication Facilities
126.96.36.199 Site requirements. The physical site requirements will vary significantly depending on the type of communications facility, and it is therefore not possible to specify a general requirement (other than for Satellite ground station sites).
188.8.131.52 Clearance requirements. Reliable VHF/UHF communications require a clear line-of-sight path between the base station and aircraft and vehicles using the facilities. The construction of buildings, towers, etc. may prevent reliable communications.
184.108.40.206 Satellite Ground Stations. The site requirement is a square area of dimension 25 m by 25 m. The clearances required around satellite ground stations are shown in Figure 11.1-4.
220.127.116.11 Rescue and Fire Stations. Location of airport fire stations (or satellite fire stations) involves compliance with MOS 139 subpart H requirements on RFFS response times, and therefore generally need to be reasonably centrally located with res...
11.1.16 Ground Earthing Points
18.104.22.168 Where required, the provision of a ground earthing points must be made in agreement with the fuelling agent.
22.214.171.124 Where ground earthing points are provided, the resistance to earth must not exceed 10,000 ohms.
126.96.36.199 Where ground earthing points are provided, they must be maintained in accordance with the procedures set out in paragraphs 188.8.131.52 to 184.108.40.206.
11.1.17 Testing of Ground Earthing Points
220.127.116.11 Each ground earthing point must be tested for its electrical resistance, both as part of the initial installation (or any replacement), six months after the installation (or any replacement), and also thereafter as part of the Aerodrome Tech...
18.104.22.168 Where testing shows that the earthing points are sound, they must be marked with a 15 cm diameter circle, painted white.
11.1.18 Inspection of Ground Earthing Points
22.214.171.124 The ground earthing points must be inspected as part of the quarterly technical inspection to ensure that:
(a) the ground earthing point is firmly connected to the earthing rod and seated on the pavement;
(b) the earthing rod is firmly embedded in the ground;
(c) the fins used for making electrical connections are free from dirt, grease paint, or any other substances; and
(d) no ground earthing points have been buried or removed.
11.1.19 Remedial Action
126.96.36.199 When the resistance to earth exceeds 10,000 ohms and the ground earthing point cannot immediately be repaired or replaced, the head of the ground earthing point must either be removed or marked with a 15 cm diameter circle, painted red, to s...
11.1.20 Compass Swinging Site
188.8.131.52 Aircraft compass calibration may be conducted by using approved compass calibration equipment or by aligning an aircraft on known magnetic headings for the purpose of determining the degree of error in the magnetic compass, commonly referred...
184.108.40.206 Guidance information for the establishment of a compass swinging site is provided in the Advisory Circular (AC).
11.1.21 Automatic Weather Information Stations
220.127.116.11 The location and configuration of the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) provided weather information station sites and their dial-up phone numbers, and, as relevant, the VHF broadcast frequencies, are set out in the MET section of ERSA.
18.104.22.168 Current weather information from the site is also available by accessing the BoM internet site at: www.bom.gov.au.
11.1.22 Light Aircraft Tie-Down Facilities
22.214.171.124 Light aircraft tie-down facilities may be provided to secure aeroplanes against possible damage if they are blown off their apron parking position by strong winds.
126.96.36.199 Where provided, tie down facilities must be of adequate strength for the aircraft type being secured. The design of the tie-down facilities should be determined in consultation with an engineering consultant or manufacturer. The tie-down fac...
Chapter 12: Operating Standards for Registered Aerodromes
Section 12.1: General
188.8.131.52 Unlike a certified aerodrome where the aerodrome operating procedures are regulated through an aerodrome manual, the procedures for a registered aerodrome are simpler.
184.108.40.206 The operator of a registered aerodrome is required to:
(a) Ensure that the aerodrome operational information which he or she has provided and published in ERSA and RDS is current;
(b) When it is not, promptly advise pilots, through the NOTAM system. of changes which may affect aircraft operations; and
(c) Submit to CASA an aerodrome safety inspection report conducted by an approved person, annually or at a timing as agreed by CASA.
220.127.116.11A For paragraph 18.104.22.168A, for each non-compliant facility:
(a) the following details must be recorded in an appropriate manual and kept up-to-date:
(b) the details mentioned in subparagraph (a) must be included in each aerodrome safety inspection report mentioned in subparagraph 22.214.171.124 (c).
126.96.36.199B For paragraph 188.8.131.52A, Standards means the standards set out in the version of the MOS, RPA, AEI, APEI, API or other aerodrome facility standard that applied to the facility when it was first introduced or last upgraded (as the case may be).
184.108.40.206 To ensure that the aerodrome information provided is current, means that the aerodrome facilities must be maintained to the standard when the aerodrome was registered or if a facility is upgraded to a new standard, to that standard.
220.127.116.11 To be able to promptly advise changes, operators of registered aerodromes need to have personnel and procedures to conduct timely serviceability inspections, identify changed circumstances and make reports.
18.104.22.168 Although formal documentation of all facets of aerodrome operations are not required, it is in the interest of the operator of a registered aerodrome to be able to demonstrate that he or she is discharging the duty of care in providing a safe...
22.214.171.124 If a registered aerodrome fails to meet safety requirements, CASA may suspend or cancel the registration. CASA Aerodrome Inspectors may conduct scheduled or unscheduled inspections of the aerodrome to assess whether a registered aerodrome is ...
126.96.36.199 The standards and procedures of this Chapter are intended to assist operators of registered aerodromes to meet on-going aerodrome safety requirements.
12.1.2 Aerodrome Reporting Officer
188.8.131.52 The operator of a registered aerodrome must have in place, experienced or appropriately trained persons, known as reporting officers, to carry out the aerodrome safety functions. Attributes required include:
(a) Knowledge of the standards that the aerodrome has to be maintained to;
(b) Mature self-starter who can be relied on to conduct regular serviceability inspections of the safety elements of the aerodrome;
(c) Having the written and oral communication skills to initiate NOTAM or to communicate aerodrome condition status to ATC, pilots and other aerodrome users.
184.108.40.206 Reporting officers are normally directly under the employ of the operator of the aerodrome. However, at an aerodrome where aerodrome operator’s employees may not be available at all times, other persons may be nominated as reporting officers,...
220.127.116.11 Reporting officers must be provided with appropriate radios in their vehicles so they can maintain a listening watch of aircraft activities on and in the vicinity of the aerodrome during working hours.
12.1.3 Aerodrome Serviceability Inspections
18.104.22.168 Aerodrome serviceability inspections are visual checks of elements of the aerodrome which may impact on aircraft safety. A checklist of contents of the inspection must be developed, commensurate with the size and complexity of the aerodrome.
22.214.171.124 The checklist must encompass at least the follow areas:
(a) Surface condition of the movement area, including cleanliness
(b) Surface condition of the runway, particularly the usability of unsealed pavements in wet conditions;
(c) Markings, markers, wind direction indicators and aerodrome lighting systems;
(d) any obstacles which may infringe the approach, take-off, transitional, inner horizontal or other surfaces nominated by the procedure designer;
(e) Animal or bird activities on and in the vicinity of the aerodrome;
(f) Check fences or other devices that prevent persons and vehicles getting on the movement area;
(g) Check currency of any outstanding NOTAM initiated.
12.1.4 Frequency of Serviceability Inspection
126.96.36.199 At an aerodrome with daily regular public transport operations, serviceability inspections must be carried out daily, preferably before the scheduled operations.
188.8.131.52 Additional serviceability inspections must be conducted after significant weather phenomena such as strong wind gust or heavy rain.
184.108.40.206 At an aerodrome without daily regular public transport operations, serviceability inspections may be reduced to before each regular public transport operation or not less than 2 per week, whichever is more.
12.1.5 Record of Inspections and Remedial Actions
220.127.116.11 The operator of a registered aerodrome must maintain an inspection logbook to demonstrate that inspections have been carried out. Beside recording the inspections, the logbook should also record significant aerodrome upgrading or remedial wor...
18.104.22.168 The logbook must be kept for at least 12 months or the agreed period of the aerodrome safety inspection, whichever is longer. The logbook must be made available to a CASA Aerodrome Inspector conducting inspection of the aerodrome and to the q...
12.1.6 Reporting Changes
22.214.171.124 Where a change in the aerodrome conditions requires a NOTAM to be issued this must be done in accordance with Section 10.3.
126.96.36.199 Record of NOTAM initiated should be kept for at least a year or the agreed period of safety inspection, whichever is longer.
12.1.7 Aerodrome Works
188.8.131.52 Aerodrome works must be arranged so as not to create any hazard to aircraft or confusion to pilots.
184.108.40.206 Aerodrome works may be carried out without closing the aerodrome provided safety precautions are adhered to.
220.127.116.11 Where aerodrome works are carried out without closing the aerodrome, the aerodrome works safety procedures specified in Chapter 10: Section 10.10 for certified aerodromes are equally applicable to registered aerodromes.
12.1.8 Safety Inspection Report
18.104.22.168 CASR Part 139 requires a registered aerodrome used by aircraft, with more than 9 passenger seats, to prepare and submit to CASA annually, or at a periodicity as agreed by CASA, a safety inspection of the aerodrome. Matters to be addressed in ...
22.214.171.124 The report must provide a true picture of the state of the aerodrome in its compliance with applicable standards. Where corrective action or necessary improvements are identified, the aerodrome operator must provide a statement of how the cor...
126.96.36.199 For aerodromes used by aircraft with not more than 9 passenger seats, the approach and take-off area would still need to be checked on a regular basis, preferably at least once a year for tree growth or new tall objects. Where another obstac...
12.1.9 Reporting of Obstacles
188.8.131.52 If the aerodrome is served by an instrument approach procedure, any obstacles, or proposed construction, that may infringe the obstacle limitation surface of the aerodrome, or other areas nominated by the designer of the instrument approach p...
Section 12.2: Sample Aerodrome Report Form
Chapter 14: Radio Communication Facilities Provided by an Aerodrome Operator
Section 14.1: General
184.108.40.206 Subpart F of CASR Part 139 prescribes the provision of certain types of radio communication facilities at particular aerodromes for the purpose of enhancing the safety of air navigation. The radio communication facility required may be either...
220.127.116.11 This Chapter specifies the requirements and the standards for the provision of the above two types of radio communication services.
14.1.2 Definitions and Abbreviations
18.104.22.168 When the following terms or abbreviations are used in this Chapter, they have the meaning given:
AAIS: Automatic Aerodrome Information Service means a service that provides current, routine information to aircraft arriving at or departing from an aerodrome by means of repetitive broadcasts on a discrete frequency.
AFRU: Aerodrome Frequency Response Unit.
Certified Air/Ground Radio Operator (CA/GRO): A person certificated under regulation 139.430 as a CA/GRO.
CTAF: Common Traffic Advisory Frequency
Frequency Confirmation System means a ground radio system for an aerodrome that, if it receives a transmission from an aircraft on the MBZ frequency or the CTAF for the aerodrome, sends a signal or message to the aircraft confirming that the transmiss...
MBZ: Mandatory Broadcast Zone
Relevant Traffic: Aircraft that the CA/GRO knows to be operating within the MBZ and that may constitute a hazard to a broadcasting aircraft.
VHF: Very High Frequency
Section 14.2: Certified Air/Ground Radio Services
14.2.1 Application to be a CA/GRO
22.214.171.124 To perform the functions of a CA/GRO, the operator must hold a CA/GRO certificate issued by CASA (CASA Form 716).
126.96.36.199 The primary purpose of a CA/GRS is to enhance the safety of air transport aircraft operations by the provision of relevant traffic information. This aspect of the service requires CA/GROs to have had specialised training and experience. There...
188.8.131.52 The application form for a CA/GRO certificate is CASA Form 715. Completed application forms should be sent to the CASA Area Office (attention Licensing Officer) closest to the applicant’s place of residence.
184.108.40.206 After receiving an application, before issuing a CA/GRO certificate, CASA must:
(a) confirm the applicant’s identity; and
(b) confirm that the applicant meets the appropriate pre-requisite licence qualification.
220.127.116.11 If the applicant meets the licence qualification, CASA will issue the applicant with a Certified Air/Ground Radio Operator Certificate (CASA Form 716).
18.104.22.168 A CA/GRO Certificate is valid for 10 years from the date of issue.
14.2.3 CA/GRS Operating Standards and Procedures
22.214.171.124 A CA/GRS must provide the following services to aircraft within airspace designated as an MBZ area in which the aerodrome is located:
(a) advice of relevant air traffic in the MBZ airspace or on the aerodrome;
(b) aerodrome weather and operational information, including:
126.96.36.199 A CA/GRO may also provide other information requested by pilots.
188.8.131.52 The decision to use, or not to use, information provided by a CA/GRO rests with the pilot in command.
184.108.40.206 A permanent CA/GRS must be provided with the following facilities and documentation:
(a) a suitable work area that provides the operator with a full view of the manoeuvring area and circuit area;
(b) two-way VHF radio communications;
(c) an AAIS;
(d) a telephone;
(e) a means of receiving NOTAM;
(f) instrumentation that meets Bureau of Meteorology and ICAO Annex 3 standards for aviation use, to provide the following meteorological information:
(g) current aeronautical documentation, NOTAM, and charts appropriate to IFR and VFR operations within the MBZ;
(h) the Aerodrome Emergency Plan (AEP) for the aerodrome.
220.127.116.11 A CA/GRO must use the standard aviation communication techniques and phraseology set out in AIP.
18.104.22.168 A CA/GRS call-sign will be the location name of the aerodrome followed by the word ‘Radio’.
22.214.171.124 The aerodrome operator must provide NOTAM advice to AIS of the establishment of, or any changes to, a CA/GRS.
14.2.4 Broadcasting of Aerodrome Information on AAIS
126.96.36.199 Aerodrome Information must be broadcast on the AAIS in the following order:
Section 14.3: Frequency Confirmation System
14.3.1 Requirement for Frequency Confirmation System
188.8.131.52 At all non-controlled aerodromes located in an MBZ, and at those non-controlled aerodromes in CTAF areas which are used not less than 5 times per week by aircraft engaged in air transport operations that have a maximum passenger seating capac...
(a) a certified air/ground radio service (CA/GRS); or
(b) an aerodrome frequency response unit (AFRU); or
(c) a Unicom service.
14.3.2 Aerodrome Frequency Response Unit (AFRU)
184.108.40.206 The AFRU is an electronic, ground based, aviation safety enhancement device, intended for use on the CTAF or MBZ frequency at non-controlled aerodromes. It is essentially an internally controlled VHF transceiver with a pre-recorded message tr...
220.127.116.11 An AFRU may also have an optional facility incorporated to operate the runway lights during hours of reduced light and darkness.
14.3.3 Use of the AFRU
18.104.22.168 The AFRU will be suitable for installation at non-controlled aerodromes. It may also be utilised at those aerodromes which are controlled during busier traffic hours, and which become an MBZ after hours during control tower closure. (In this ...
14.3.4 Operating Performance Requirements of AFRU
22.214.171.124 When an aircraft operating in radio range of the AFRU makes a transmission (radio broadcast or unmodulated carrier burst) on the aerodrome frequency, the AFRU must be able to detect the presence of aircraft VHF carrier transmissions of 2 seco...
(a) A pre-recorded short voice message, (normally taking the form of the aerodrome location) if there has been no other received aircraft transmissions in the previous 5 minutes; or
(b) A short (300 ms) tone burst if any aircraft transmissions have been received in the previous 5 minutes.
126.96.36.199 In addition, the AFRU must also be able to detect and respond to any aircraft transmissions which consist of three sequential carrier bursts over a five second period, with the pre-recorded voice message as at (a) above, regardless of radio t...
14.3.5 AFRU Technical Specification
188.8.131.52 Australian Communications Authority (ACA) Type Approval: Units must meet the technical requirements of, and be certified as complying with, the Australian Communications Authority Equipment Compliance Requirement ECR 203A for Amplitude Modula...
184.108.40.206 Frequency Coverage: 118.000 – 136.975 MHz
220.127.116.11 Frequency Selection: Front panel pre-selectable channels for receiver and transmitter with frequency readout of each channel. All frequencies in the range to be selectable in 25 kHz steps.
18.104.22.168 Channel Separation: 25 kHz.
22.214.171.124 Modulation: Amplitude Modulation; depth of modulation to be set at 85% for voice transmissions; 10% for tone burst transmissions.
126.96.36.199 Operating Temperature Range: -10 to +65 degrees Centigrade.
188.8.131.52 Carrier Frequency Stability: Better than or equal to 0.002%.
184.108.40.206 Receiver Sensitivity: S/N ratio > 10 dB for input signal of 2 μV (-101 dBm). Receiver sensitivity to be adjustable between 2 μV and 5 μV.
220.127.116.11 Receiver Selectivity: Unit to operate satisfactorily for all received carrier frequencies within 0.005% of any selected frequency.
18.104.22.168 Transmitter Radiated Power Output: Minimum 2 watts ERP, adjustable to achieve 75 μV/m (-109 dBW/m2) field strength at the limit of the required coverage area (20 NM line of sight). Maximum power output shall not exceed 5 watts ERP.
22.214.171.124 RF Polarisation: Vertical.
126.96.36.199 Transmitter Recorded Voice Message: 8 seconds minimum capacity. Audio transmissions to be clear and intelligible. Length of carrier transmission not to exceed the recorded voice message time, i.e. carrier must not continue after the voice mo...
188.8.131.52 Annunciation Timing: The timing of the commencement of the transmitted recorded voice message or the tone burst is to be less than 0.5 second after the end of the aircraft transmission.
184.108.40.206 Transmitter Beepback Tone: 1000 Hz, 300 millisecond tone burst.
220.127.116.11 Power Supply: 220–240 V AC 50 Hz power source shall automatically changeover to internal or external battery stand-by power capable of operating the unit without interruption for 24 hours assuming the load is two voice responses per hour dur...
18.104.22.168 Fault Detection/Timeout and Alarm: In the event of an internal fault condition that results in continuous (jammed) transmission of the VHF carrier, the unit shall internally detect the continuous transmission within one minute and shut down ...
22.214.171.124 Remote Activation: The unit shall be capable of remote activation by an external control function such as a timing device. The external function shall be connected via socket connection. The stand-by batteries of the unit shall remain fully ...
126.96.36.199 Reliability: Design reliability level of the unit shall be in keeping with its safety enhancement function. Design MTBF is to be a minimum of 10000 hours. The AFRU shall consist entirely of solid-state components, with the exception of switc...
188.8.131.52 Maintainability: The unit shall be constructed so that fault restoration can be carried out in the field by module/circuit card replacement. Design MTTR shall be less than 72 hours.
184.108.40.206 Construction: Units shall be robustly constructed for either rack mounting, panel mounting or stand-alone bench mounting. All status indicators shall be front panel mounted. Controls, adjustments (other than pre-set adjustments), recording c...
220.127.116.11 Mains Connection Approval: Units shall be approved for connection to single-phase 240 VAC power supply by an Australian electrical supply authority. (This does not apply if units are powered by DC sourced from a separate power supply).
18.104.22.168 Installation, Operation and Maintenance Handbook: Each unit shall have an accompanying Handbook which provides clear instructions covering all aspects of the Installation, Operation, Routine Maintenance, and Fault Finding requirements. The O...
22.214.171.124 Maintenance: Aerodrome operators are required to carry out routine maintenance of the AFRU in accordance with the maintenance instructions in the Installation, Operation and Maintenance Handbook.
14.3.6 AFRU with PAL Features
126.96.36.199 Optional Additional AFRU Function - Pilot-Activated Lighting Control: Optional additional functionality may be provided with the AFRU unit to provide for aircraft actuated operation of the aerodrome lights at the aerodrome at which the AFRU i...
188.8.131.52 The Pilot Activated Lighting (PAL) option includes a light sensor mounted remotely from the AFRU. During the time the light sensor detects that the natural light intensity is less than a preset level (adjustable on the AFRU unit), and on rece...
14.3.7 Technical Specifications for Optional Pilot-Activated Lighting Control
184.108.40.206 Fail-safe Relay Output Switching of Runway and Windsock: Fail-safe switching of runway and windsock outputs to be provided. Outputs to be relay controlled, +12 VDC, for driving remote lighting circuits. (Other configurations to match aerodrom...
220.127.116.11 Ambient Light Sensor: The ambient light sensor device is to be infinitely adjustable from full darkness to bright daylight. Preset control to be located in the AFRU unit, or in the sensor housing.
18.104.22.168 Operation: The PAL output will activate on receipt of 3 correct PTT bursts (as per standard AFRU). If ‘dark’ =< pre-set darkness level, the normal MBZ/CTAF response message will be transmitted, followed by one of two messages: “runway lights ...
22.214.171.124 Timing: Timings shall emulate the existing PAL system in use, i.e. 30 or 60 minutes preset for lights on, windsock lighting flashes at 1 second rate for the last 10 minutes, and shall be microprocessor controlled within the AFRU unit. Timings...
14.3.8 AFRU+PAL Commissioning Flight Test
126.96.36.199 A flight check of the AFRU and the optional PAL function shall be to the satisfaction of a CASA inspector. The flight test will ensure the functionality of the AFRU and optional PAL at appropriate points on the aerodrome and out to the limits...
188.8.131.52 On the ground:
(a) check activation of AFRU and PAL from the parking apron(s) of the aerodrome.
(b) check all specified functionality of the AFRU and PAL option.
184.108.40.206 In the air:
(a) check proper performance of AFRU at line of sight distances out to 20 NM radius of the aerodrome at altitudes of 3,000 to 5,000 feet AGL.
(b) check that AFRU Receiver sensitivity and Transmitter power levels are adjusted to ensure that the AFRU does not activate, and does not transmit, beyond approx 30 NM radius.
(c) check that voice and tone responses are clear and legible. Check that three microphone clicks of 1 second ON, 1 second OFF within 5 second period will activate voice response. (Tolerance on 1 second ON or OFF is 0.5 seconds).
(d) ensure that the AFRU does not trigger falsely during aircraft transmissions. Ensure that no interruptions occur to aircraft transmissions by false triggering of the AFRU during the aircraft transmission.
(e) check and ensure proper operation of the PAL option as follows:
Section 14.4: Unicom Services
220.127.116.11 Unicom (Universal Communications) services are non-ATS radio communication services provided on an MBZ frequency or CTAF to enhance the value of information normally available about a non-controlled aerodrome. A Unicom service is not a Certif...
18.104.22.168 The primary function of the frequencies (MBZ/CTAF) used for Unicom services is to provide the means for pilots to exchange traffic information for separation purposes. Unicom services, being a secondary use of these frequencies, must not inhi...
22.214.171.124 Participation in Unicom services by an aerodrome operator, whether for the purposes of a frequency confirmation system or otherwise, is to be limited to the exchange of radio messages concerning:
(a) confirmation of the CTAF/MBZ frequency selected by aircraft;
(b) general aerodrome weather reports;
(c) aerodrome information;
(d) estimated times of arrival and departure;
(e) passenger requirements;
(f) aircraft refuelling arrangements;
(g) maintenance and servicing of aircraft including the ordering of urgently required parts;
(h) unscheduled landings by aircraft.
126.96.36.199 General aerodrome weather reports provided by a Unicom operator are to be limited to simple, factual statements about the weather, unless the Unicom operator is authorised by CASA to make meteorological observations.