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TitleVirtual and Augmented Reality Applications in Manufacturing
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LanguageEnglish
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Page 1

Virtual and Augmented Reality
Applications in Manufacturing

Page 2

Springer-Verlag London Ltd.

Page 196

186 11 Teleportal Augmented Reality System

uid-crystal-displays (LCDs) as the micro-displays. The HMPD is thus equivalent
to two small LCD projectors, one for each eye. Two unique components distin-
guish the HMPD technology from conventional HMDs and stereoscopic projec-
tion displays such as CAVE: (1) the use ofhead-mounted projection optics instead
of eyepiece optics in the case of conventional HMDs, or the room-mounted pro-
jectors in the case of CA VE environments; and (2) the use of phase-conjugate pro-
jection material as opposed to diffusing projection screen material conventionally
utilized in CA VEs. A simple form of phase-conjugate material is retro-reflective
material made of silver micro-beads, which appears as a gray to silver fabric that
can be bent, formed, and placed anywhere in a physical environment, or micro-
corner cubes that can also be made to conform to various shapes. With the HMPD,
two stereoscopic images are projected towards the retro-reflective material, and
because the material is a bendable, inexpensive fabric or even painted, any com-
plex surface can become the location for 3D information, including animations,
labels, 3D textures, or full3D objects such as models. For example, the ball shown
in Figure 11.2 may be painted. In addition, Figure 11.1(c) shows a complex shape,
an anatomical mandible, which we have painted with custom-made retro-reflective
paint from metallic powder.

Figure 11.1. (a) User wearing a T-HMPD. (b) Image ofthe user's face through one ofthe
two side mirrors and side-mounted lipstick video cameras. (c) Anatomical mandible ofthe
Visible Human Dataset made from fast-prototyping and painted with custom-made retro-
reflective paint. (Greyscale images are shown here; however, the system captures and dis-
plays colour images)

A key property of the retro-reflective material is that any ray hitting the surface
at any wide range of angles is reflected back on itself in the opposite direction to-
ward its source. In addition, in our optical configuration, each source of reflected
light is directed appropriately to the right and left eye of the user, which are con-

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11.2 T -HMPD: Components and Characteristics 187

jugate to the exit pupils of the projeetion opties via a beam splitter. Consequently,
the pereeption of the image shape and loeation is ideally independent of the shape
and loeation of the retro-refleetive material. In praetiee, depending on the speeifies
of the retro-refleetive material and its loeation with respeet to the opties, some
small dependenee may be observed (Hua et al. 2000), and image quality may be
limited by optieal diffraetion (Martins and Rolland 2003).

Figure 11.2. T-HMPD and distributed communication

The HMPD design provides a number of desirable features für manufaeturing
applieations. The usage of projeetion opties allows for larger FOV (i.e., >500
diagonal) and less optieal distortion « 2.5% at the edge ofthe FOV) than the eon-
ventional eyepieee-based optieal see-through HMDs, for an equivalent weight.
Sueh eharaeteristies result from the loeation of the exit pupil of the optieal system
loeated within the opties instead of outside the opties as eneountered in eyepieee
opties. The loeation of the exit pupil also explains why the opties do not seale up
in size, and thus weight, with inereased FOV, as shown in Seetion 11.4. It is also
quite straightforward to limit the distortion further to less than 1 % in HMPDs, if
required by the applieation.

A unique feature of HMPDs is that they eliminate the "ghost" effeets of tradi-
tional see-through HMDs, where virtual objeets eontinue to be visible when fore-
ground objeets, sueh as one's hands, pass in front of them. The eombination of
projeetion and retro-refleetion provides eorreet oeclusion of eomputer-generated
virtual objeets by real objeets, as shown in Figure 11.11 (d). This oeeurs as a natu-
ral eonsequenee of having light aetually travel between the eyes of the user and
the retro-refleetive material.

Page 391

Scene graph, 69, 72, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88,
89,90,91,92,93,94,210,212,213,
241,354,355
manipulator, 91, 92, 93

Semantic networks, 248
Shape Control Points, 19

SCP,19
Shockwave Director, 67
Silicon Graphics, 81, 288

SGI, 33, 79,93
Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

SME,237
Solidmodelling, 7,15,16,17,19,20,

30,32,34,36,39,41,42,43,46
SPAAM algorithm, 241, 321
Speech control, 250, 252
State of Activities, 75

SOA, 75, 77, 78
Static Objects, 76, 176

SO, 47, 76
Stereo camera, 265
Stereo-lithography Apparatus

SLA, 191
Stereoscopic vision, 260, 312
Stud welding, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337,

338,339,341,343,346,347,348,
357

Synthetic computer graphics, 327

Taguchi, 258, 268, 269, 272, 275
Technical Documentation Editor

TDE, 220, 221
Teleconferencing, 73, 196, 200
Teleportal, 183, 184, 185, 191, 194, 197,

198,200,201
Teleportal Head Mounted Projection

Display
T-HMPD, 185, 186, 187, 188, 190,

197, 199,201
TEREBES, 367, 371
Timed Petri Net, 88
Time-to-market, 1, 5, 170
Toolbox,31,36,37
Toolkit, 16, 18,41,57,149
Trackballs, 215
Tracking, 3,4, 8, 57,99, 101, 113, 116,

117,118,123,124,129,130,131,
133, 134, 136, 137, 138, 139, 142,
143, 144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150,
158,163,164,173,175,176,177,
180,207,210,211,213,214,218,

Index 387

224,226,230,231,232,233,235,
239,240,241,244,245,258,266,
279,289,293,295,297,301,302,
305,306,307,308,312,313,329,
336,337,338,339,340,341,343,
346,347,349,350,351,355,357,
358,359,360
algorithm, 131, 134, 139, 142, 175,

176,338
system, 116, 117, 118, 158, 176, 180,

213,218,289,312,313,336,346
Transformation technique, 71

User State, 75, 76
US, 75, 201, 202

VHD++, 130, 131, 132, 133, 142, 143,
145

Video camera, 185, 186, 192,219,264,
289,312

Video streaming, 185, 197
Video Window, 286

VW, 286, 288, 289,291
Virtual, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, 10, 16,

19,20,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,49,
53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,65,
66,67,68,69,71,75,79,80,81,82,
84,85,87,93,97,98,99,101,102,
105, 108, 112, 114, 116, 117, 118,
121,125,130,131,132,134,142,
143, 150, 152, 153, 154, 155, 158,
162,164,170,172,173,174,175,
177,179,180,183,184,185,187,
188, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197,
198,199,201,202,203,207,208,
209,212,215,216,217,218,219,
223,228,229,231,238,239,244,
253,254,255,257,258,259,270,
272,274,283,286,289,291,303,
311,312,313,315,329,339,341,
349,350,351,352,354,357,358,
359,360,365,372,376
Cell,65,67, 72, 75
Environment, 10,41,43,67,68,82,

83,99, 102, 104, 109, 111, 125,
144,165,201,203,235,258,275,
308,329

Object, 69, 72, 162, 165, 181, 183
prototyping, 2, 192
Reality, 1, 10, 11, 15, 19,43,65,69,

82,83,97, 109, 110, 112, 124,

Page 392

388 Index

129,165,166,167,181,202,203,
212,235,236,239,240,254,275,
308,312,329,330

VC, 67, 73, 76, 80
VE,69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77,80,

99,112,113,114,115,117,118,
123

VO,69
VR, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, 15, 16, 17,

19,20,23,27,30,32,34,36,38,
39,40,43,44,45,55,66,67,68,
69,70,71,72,73,75,76,82,83,
84,87,91,92,93,94,98,101,
102, 112, 113, 116, 123, 124, 129,
130,132,133,144,145,196,202,
207,208,209,210,211,212,213,
214,215,216,217,218,219,226,
227,228,232,233,234,239,241,
257,258,274,312

VR kernel, 210
Virtual Reality environment for the

simulaTion of critical industrial
processes involving hUman
intervention
VIRTUE,98,99, 104, 105, 108, 109

Virtual Reality Markup Language, 241

VRML, 67, 85, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95,
105,136,176,177,179,241

ViRtue Software Package, 101
VSRP,97, 101, 102, 104, 108

Vision-based tracking, 150,241,244
Vision-kinaesthetic errors, 239
Volume sculpting, 45
Voxels, 217
Voxmap,45

Wearable computers, 249, 250,334
Web-based,2,83,93,94, 115, 116,240,

254
Welding machine, 361, 363, 364, 365,

370,371,372,373
Welding torch, 370, 376, 377
Windows, 56, 123, 158,230,231,241,

259
WITNESS, 170
W orld Coordinate System, 69

WCS, 69
WorldView,93

X3D,67
Xybernaut, 223, 236

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