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Table of Contents
                            Contents
Executive summary
SECTION 1 Introduction
SECTION 2 Helmets
SECTION 3 Clothing
SECTION 4 Hearing protection
SECTION 5 Respiratory protective equipment
SECTION 6 Footwear
SECTION 7 Gloves
SECTION 8 Elbow and knee protection
SECTION 9 Eye and face protection
SECTION 10 Fall arrest
SECTION 11 PPE Ensembles
SECTION 12 Summary
SECTION 13 References
SECTION 14 Appendix 1 - List of representative chemical, biological and radiological materials
SECTION 15 Appendix 2 - Normative references
SECTION 16 Appendix 3 - Glossary
SECTION 17 Appendix 4 - ASTM F1001 chemicals: Emergency Response Exposure Guidelines (EREGs)
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Urban search and rescue
personal protective equipment specification for
high dust and chemical, biological, radiological,
nuclear environments

Fire Research Report: 7/2010

Page 2

Urban search and rescue
personal protective equipment specification

for high dust and chemical, biological,
radiological, nuclear environments





Fire Research Report: 7/2010



Health and Safety Laboratory
December 2010

Department for Communities and Local Government

Page 60

Table 5.1 - List of chemicals for resistance testing of visor assemblies

Chemical Concentration
weight %

Temperature of
chemical
°C (± 2°C)


Sulphuric acid 30 (aqueous) 20

Sodium hydroxide 10 (aqueous) 20

p-Xylene Undiluted 20

Butan-1-ol Undiluted 20

n-Heptane Undiluted 20


Note: these chemicals are, in tabled order, representative of an acid, a base, a
cyclic organic solvent, an aliphatic organic solvent and organic solvents found
in transport fuels.


Details of the chemicals used for any test should be given in the information
provided by the manufacturer with the PPE.

5.6.2.2 TEST METHOD

EN 14458:2004 clause 6.10 contains a suitable sequence for applying the
chemicals to the visor. This text can be adapted for a face mask visor as
follows:

“Test chemicals shall be at a temperature of (20±2) °C. The chemical shall be
applied with the visor assembly mounted in the in-use position, oriented as
though being worn by a standing subject.

100 ml (or the appropriate amount, see 5.6.2.1) of the test chemical shall be
poured onto the visor and any exposed parts of the means of fixing. The
chemical shall be poured along the upper exposed edges of the visor assembly,
moving from one side to the other using half the amount of chemical, and the
rest going back, thus covering the assembly twice. This operation shall take
(10± 3) seconds.

Five minutes after having applied the chemical, residues shall be removed
(using any appropriate method such as rinsing in clean water and drying). The
device shall then be subjected to examination and testing as required.”

5.6.3 Faceblank or hood material chemical resistance test

EN 14325:2004 clause 4.11 calls on either:


- the test method in EN 374-3:2003; or

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- test methods A or B in EN ISO 6529:2001.

These methods need to be modified from their use for clothing materials to their
use for faceblank/hood materials. Procedures similar to those used for glove or
footwear materials may be appropriate.

Table 5.1 is a good example of a basic list of chemicals for such testing.

Chemicals from the list in Appendix 1 can be used for this test where it is
considered appropriate.


Note: There is no specific clause in BS 8468 covering degradation by
chemical exposure – it is geared towards CWAs only, whereas our remit is
much broader. BS 8468 concentrates on protection against CWAs: if severe
degradation occurred during BS 8468 tests, it is likely that the equipment
would fail the protection tests.


5.6.4 Facepiece visor impact test

EN 166:2001 clauses 7.2.2 and 7.3.4 both invoke the test method in EN
168:2001 clause 9.

EN 403:2004 clause 6.17.2 invokes the test method in EN 403:2004 clause 7.5.

5.6.5 Test method for dust induced malfunction of (filters),
valves and connections

Based on 13274-8:2002 Dolomite dust clogging with a suitable means of
measuring in-facepiece dust concentration.

5.6.6 Test method for performance of demand valve at high
dust levels

Based on 13274-8:2002 Dolomite dust clogging.

5.6.7 Test method for performance of warning system at high
dust levels

Based on 13274-8:2002 Dolomite dust clogging.

5.6.8 Test method for liquid penetr ation of (filters), valves and
connections

Based on spray test described in EN 468:1994.

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Page 119

Substance CAS EREG value Comments

Hydrogen chloride 7647-01-0 5 ppm

Hydrogen cyanide 74-90-8 6 ppm Skin notation

Hydrogen fluoride 7664-39-3 3 ppm Corrosive

Hydrogen sulphide 7783-06-4 10 ppm

Methanol 67-56-1 800 ppm Skin notation

Methyl chloride 74-87-3 150 ppm Skin notation

n-Hexane 110-54-3 500 ppm

Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 5 ppm Skin notation

Phosgene (carbonyl
chloride)

75-44-5 0.1 ppm

Sodium hydroxide
(50%)

1310-73-2 2 mg/m3

(as NaOH)

Corrosive

Sulphur dioxide 7446-09-5 5 ppm

Sulphuric acid (93%) 7664-93-9 1 mg/m3 Corrosive

Tetrachloroethylene 127-18-4 150 ppm

Tetrahydrofuran 109-99-9 200 ppm Skin notation

Toluene 108-88-3 75 ppm Skin notation

VX 50782-69-9 0.0003 mg/m3 Skin notation



The Emergency Response Exposure Guideline (EREG) represents an airborne
concentration that, according to available information, could be tolerated for a
single 2 hour period without causing significant health effects or substantial
discomfort, with no impairment in the ability to effectively carry out emergency
procedures and would not cause serious longer term adverse health effects.

Genotoxic (mutagenic) chemicals have been flagged in the list. Additionally, one
chemical with possible carcinogenicity concerns on single exposure has been
flagged. For these chemicals there may be a conceptual possibility of a low, but
unquantifiable, risk of genetic damage/carcinogenicity following exposure at or
below the EREG. A skin notation has been assigned to chemicals that have the

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