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TitleUniversal principles of design: 125 ways to enhance usability, influence perception, increase appeal, make better design decisions, and teach through design
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size11.4 MB
Total Pages271
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Title
Contents
Foreword
Introduction
80/20 Rule
Accessibility
Advance Organizer
Aesthetic-Usability Effect
Affordance
Alignment
Anthropomorphic Form
Archetypes
Area Alignment
Attractiveness Bias
Baby-Face Bias
Biophilia Effect
Cathedral Effect
Chunking
Classical Conditioning
Closure
Cognitive Dissonance
Color
Common Fate
Comparison
Confirmation
Consistency
Constancy
Constraint
Contour Bias
Control
Convergence
Cost-Benefit
Defensible Space
Depth of Processing
Design by Commitee
Desire Line
Development Cycle
Entry Point
Errors
Expectation Effect
Exposure Effect
Face-ism Ratio
Factor of Safety
Feedback Loop
Fibonacci Sequence
Figure-Ground Relationship
Fitts' Law
Five Hat Racks
Flexibility-Usability Tradeoff
Forgiveness
Form Follows Function
Framing
Freeze-Flight-Fight-Forfeit
Garbage In–Garbage Out
Golden Ratio
Good Continuation
Gutenberg Diagram
Hick's Law
Hierarchy
Hierarchy of Needs
Highlighting
Horror Vacui
Hunter-Nurturer Fixations
Iconic Representation
Immersion
Inattentional Blindness
Interference Effects
Inverted Pyramid
Iteration
Law of Prägnanz
Layering
Legibility
Life Cycle
Mapping
Mental Model
Mimicry
Mnemonic Device
Modularity
Most Advanced Yet Acceptable
Most Average Facial Appearance Effect
Normal Distribution
Not Invented Here
Nudge
Ockham's Razor
Operant Conditioning
Orientation Sensitivity
Performance Load
Performance Versus Preference
Personas
Picture Superiority Effect
Priming
Progressive Disclosure
Propositional Density
Prospect-Refuge
Prototyping
Proximity
Readability
Recognition Over Recall
Red Effect
Redundancy
Rosetta Stone
Rule of Thirds
Satisficing
Savanna Preference
Scaling Fallacy
Scarcity
Self-Similarity
Serial Position Effects
Shaping
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Similarity
Stickiness
Storytelling
Structural Forms
Symmetry
Threat Detection
Three-Dimensional Projection
Top-Down Lighting Bias
Uncanny Valley
Uncertainty Principle
Uniform Connectedness
Veblen Effect
Visibility
Visuospacial Resonance
von Restorff Effect
Wabi-Sabi
Waist-to-Hip Ratio
Wayfinding
Weakest Link
Credits
Acknowledgments
About the Authors
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Universal Principles
of Design

William Lidwell
Kritina Holden

Jill Butler

125 Ways to Enhance Usability,
Influence Perception, Increase Appeal, Make Better
Design Decisions, and Teach through Design

Page 135

Inattentional Blindness 137

In a now classic experiment on
inattentional blindness, Daniel Simons
and Christopher Chabris showed
subjects a short video of two teams
of students tossing a basketball and
moving about quickly. Subjects were
instructed to count the number of
times the team in the white shirts
passed the basketball, a challenging
task given all of the movement. In the
middle of the video, a student in a
gorilla costume strolls to the center of
the screen, beats her chest, and then
strolls off the screen. Roughly half of
the subjects in the experiment did not
notice the gorilla.

Page 136

SP-1-UPOD.eps


Interference Effects
A phenomenon in which mental processing is made slower
and less accurate by competing mental processes.

Interference effects occur when two or more perceptual or cognitive processes are
in conflict. Human perception and cognition involve many different mental systems
that parse and process information independently of one another. The outputs of
these systems are communicated to working memory, where they are interpreted.
When the outputs are congruent, the process of interpretation occurs quickly and
performance is optimal. When outputs are incongruent, interference occurs and
additional processing is needed to resolve the conflict. The additional time required
to resolve such conflicts has a negative impact on performance. A few examples of
interference effects include:1

Stroop Interference—an irrelevant aspect of a stimulus triggers a mental process
that interferes with processes involving a relevant aspect of the stimulus. For
example, the time it takes to name the color of words is greater when the meaning
and color of the words conflict.

Garner Interference—an irrelevant variation of a stimulus triggers a mental
process that interferes with processes involving a relevant aspect of the stimulus.
For example, the time it takes to name shapes is greater when they are presented
next to shapes that change with each presentation.

Proactive Interference—existing memories interfere with learning. For example,
in learning a new language, errors are often made when people try to apply the
grammar of their native language to the new language.

Retroactive Interference—learning interferes with existing memories. For
example, learning a new phone number can interfere with phone numbers
already in memory.

Prevent interference by avoiding designs that create conflicting mental processes.
Interference effects of perception (i.e., Stroop and Garner) generally result from
conflicting coding combinations (e.g., a red go button, or green stop button) or
from an interaction between closely positioned elements that visually interact with
one another (e.g., two icons group or blend because of their shape and proximity).
Minimize interference effects of learning (i.e., proactive and retroactive) by mixing
the presentation modes of instruction (e.g., lecture, video, computer, activities),
employing advance organizers, and incorporating periods of rest every thirty to
forty-five minutes.

See also Advance Organizer, Performance Load, Errors, and Mapping.

138 Universal Principles of Design

1 The seminal works on interference effects
include “Studies of Interference in Serial
Verbal Reactions” by James R. Stroop,
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1935,
vol. 28, p. 643–662; “Stimulus Configuration
in Selective Attention Tasks” by James R.
Pomerantz and Wendell R. Garner, Perception
& Psychophysics, 1973, vol. 14, p. 565–569;
and “Characteristics of Word Encoding” by
Delos D. Wickens, in Coding Processes in
Human Memory edited by A. W. Melton and
E. Martin, V. H. Winston, 1972, p. 191–215.

Page 270

LY-1-UPOD.eps


272 Universal Principles of Design

Signal-to-noise ratio, 224–225
Similarity, 226–227
Simplicity, 16, 228
Sinclair ZX81, 169
Size, 148–149, 238
Size constancy, 58
Slips, 82–83
Slot machines, 179
Smaller and Smaller (Escher), 219
see also Self-similarity
SnoWalkers, 143
see also Iteration
Software icons, 157
Sony AIBO, 157
Southwest Airlines, 255
see also Von Restorff effect
Spacing, 148–149
Stair structures, 122–123
Standard normal distribution, 166–167
Statue of Liberty, 233
Stickiness, 228–229
Stimulus-response compatibility, 152
Story, 228
Storytelling, 230–231
Stovetop controls, 153
Stradivarius violin, 115
see also Golden ratio
Stroop interference, 138
Structural forms, 232–233
Super Cow, 205
see also Redundancy
Surface mimicry, 156
Surprise, 228
Surveillance, 70
Symbolic barriers, 70

Symbolism, 48
Symmetry, 234–235
Sympathetic nervous system
(SNS), 110
Taburet Stool, 173
see also Ockham’s razor
Teletubbies, 213
see also Savanna preference
Territoriality, 70
Tesla Roadster, 249
see also Veblen effect
Text blocks, 148–149
Texture gradient, 238
Theme park rides, 189
Threat detection, 236–237
Threat response, 110–111
Three Mile Island, 251
Three-dimensional layering, 146–147
Three-dimensional projection, 238–
239
Throwaway prototyping, 194
Time, 100
Titanic exhibit, 135
see also Immersion
TiVo, 21
see also Aesthetic-usability effect
Top-lighting preference, 240–241
Top-own lighting bias, 240–241
Translation symmetry, 234
Tree structures, 122–123
Truth effect, 86
Two-dimensional layering, 146–147
Typeface, 126, 148–149
Uncanny valley, 242–243
Uncertainty principle, 244–245

Underlining, 126
Uniform connectedness, 246–247
Universal Product Codes, 179
University of Houston billboard, 237
US Airways Flight 1549, 111
Usability needs, 124
Variable Balans, 163
Veblen effect, 248–249
Verification principle, 54
Video games, 239
Visibility, 250–251
Visuospatial resonance, 252–253
Vital few and trivial many rule, 14
Vitruvian Man, 115
see also Golden ratio
Von Restorff effect, 254–255
Wabi Sabi House, 257
Wabi-sabi, 256–257
Waist-to-hip ratio, 258–259
Wall Street Journal, 81, 118

see also Entry point; Gutenberg
diagram

Warnings, 104
Waterfall model, 79
Wayfinding, 260–261
Weakest link, 262–263
Window controls, 153, 197
Yamaha Compact Silent Electric
Cello, 173

see also Ockham’s razor
Z pattern of processing, 118

Page 271

© 2003, 2011 by Rockport Publishers, Inc.
This edition published in 2010

All rights reserved. No part of this book may
be reproduced in any form without written
permission of the copyright owners. All images
in this book have been reproduced with the
knowledge and prior consent of the artists
concerned, and no responsibility is accepted
by producer, publisher, or printer for any
infringement of copyright or otherwise, arising
from the contents of this publication. Every effort
has been made to ensure that credits accurately
comply with information supplied.

First published in the United States
of America by:

Rockport Publishers, a member of
Quayside Publishing Group
100 Cummings Center
Suite 406-L
Beverly, Massachusetts 01915-6101
Telephone: (978) 282-9590
Fax: (978) 283-2742
www.rockpub.com

Library of Congress
Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Lidwell, William.
——Universal principles of design :
a cross-disciplinary reference /
—William Lidwell, Kritina Holden, and
Jill Butler.
————p.––cm.
——ISBN 1-59253-007-9 (paper over board)
——1. Design-Dictionaries. I. Holden, Kritina.
II. Butler, Jill. III. Title.
—NK1165.L53 2003
—745.4’03—dc21 2003009384

CIP

ISBN-13: 978-1-59253-587-3
ISBN-10: 1-59253-587-9

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Design: Collaborated, Inc.
James Evelock
Tony Leone

Printed in Singapore

Digital edition: 978-1-61058-065-6

Softcover edition: 978-1-59253-587-3

www.rockpub.com

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