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TitleTsunamis in the Mediterranean Sea 2000 B.C.–2000 A.D.
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Tsunamis in the Mediterranean Sea 2000 B.C.- 2000 A.D.

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Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research



Wang Ang-Sheng, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric
Physics, Beijing, P.R. China

Gerhard Berz, Munchener Ruckversicherungs-Gesel/schaft, Munchen,

Oscar Gonzalez-Ferran, Departamento de Geologia y Geofisica, Facultad
de Ciencias Fisicas y Mathematicas, Universidad De Chile, Santiago, Chile

Terry Jeggle, Secretariat for the International Decade for Natural Disaster
Reduction, Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland

Cinna Lomnitz, National University of Mexico, lnstituto de Geofisica,
Mexico, D. F. Mexico

Tad S. Murty, Baird & Associates, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Alvin H. Mushkatel, Office of Hazards Studies, Center for Public Affairs,
Arizona State University, Tempe, Az, USA

Joanne M. Nigg, Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware,
Newark, DE, USA

Alexei V. Nikolaev, Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of
Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Paul M. Thompson, Flood Hazard Research Center, Middlesex University,
Enfield, UK

Donald A. Wilhite, International Drought Information Center, University of
Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA

The titles published in this series are listed at the end of this volume.

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the harbour onto the quay where they struck against each other. Near the Island
of Kerkyra, the water went deep onto the dry land for 20 yards during rolling
in, and in receding it left fish on the shore. The oscillations of the level stopped

The water rose for 2 - 3 m (7 - 9 feet) in the town of Kythira on the Island
of Kythira and flooded store- houses in the port. Boats were thrown out onto
the quay where they remained during the low water; oscillations of the level
lasted up to midday. The sea level in Chania (Island of Crete) suddenly rose
and fell by a meter (3 - 4 feet) every 10 - 15 min. Turbulent flows appeared in
the port. The oscillations of the level lasted with a gradually increasing period
and decreasing height till 14h [Perrey, 1870; Schmidt, 1881; Fuchs, 1886;
Sieberg, 1932b; Galanopoulos, 1960a,b; Ambraseys, 1962; Karnik, 1971;
Antonopoulos, 1980a; Caputo and Faita, 1984; Papadopoulos and Chalkis,
1984; Papazachos eta!., 1986].

GP60a, K71: 36 y;o N, 22 !f4° E, I= IX; AS62, AP80a,90: Githio- i = 4, the
Ionian Islands, Crete, Syros- i = 3, Italy- i = 2; CF82: i = 3; CP82, PD93,
PZ: 36.4° N, 22.2° E, I= X, M = 7.1; S89, 90: i max= 4, L/R.

1867, October, the night between October 4 and 5. WG.
Ionian Sea, Greece. An earthquake, which was more or less strong

depending on the actual site, occurred in the region of the gulfs of Laconia and
Messini. Shears appeared in the ground. The sea receded from the coast for
30m leaving fish and cockle-shells on the dry bottom, then it returned with
force and flooded the beach. Githio was flooded by the tsunami wave [Fuchs,

1867, November 19, 21h. AM.
Aegean Sea, Asia Minor, lzmir. The sea level was 1.1 m lower than

usually [Schmidt, 1881].

1868, May 22, 22h. LS.
Northern Italy. A strong earthquake occurred in Riva (del Garda) on Lake

Garda, it was accompanied by a rumble resembling the sounds of a speeding
railway express. Furniture was shaken. The water in the lake rose, and
considerable waves rolled onto the coast. There were seiches in the lake [?]
[Perrey, 1872].

1868, September 5, 02h. CA.
Calabrian Arc, Island of Sicily. Once several flame- coloured tongues and

balls were ejected from the crater of Etna, a strong earthquake that lasted
several seconds occurred in Aci Catena, Acireale, Viagrande, Giarre, Zafferana

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19th CENTURY 111

(Etnea), Macchia, S. Antonio, Sta Venerina, Trecastagni and in other places. It
was weakly felt in Catania, but did not reach Messina. The sea was very excited
3 miles from the little Island of Aci Trezza [Perrey, 1872].

1869, September 9. AS.
Aegean Sea, Greece. More than 30 underground shocks occurred

repeatedly in Edipsos during the day and night. The discharge of a thermal
spring was significantly increased. The sea was very excited during this time
[Perrey, 1872; Fuchs, 1886].

1869, December 28. WG.
Ionian Sea, Island of Levkas. An extremely strong earthquake razed the

main city of the Island of Levkas almost to the ground sparing only 20-25
framework constructions. Buildings of masonry tumbled down completely,
wooden houses -just partially. Only one of the 16 churches in the town of
Levkas stood fast. 15 people were killed. The village of Tsoukalades underwent
similar destructions. The destruction in other settlements was weaker. Building
constructions were damaged on all the other Ionian Islands and on the continent
on the shore of Akamania. The earthquake was felt up to Challis• in the east
and up to Monteleone di Calabria (Calabria, Italy) in the west. The area of
slight damage extended up to Vlore, Preveza and Durres (Durazzo) in Albania
in the north. Three huge tsunami waves were observed in the sea near Vlori!
[Sieberg, 1932b; Galanopoulos, 1952, 1960a,b; Ambraseys, 1962; Ann. Bibl.,
1964, Nos. 372, 859, 1013; Kamik, 1971; Antonopoulos, 1980a, 1990;
Papadopoulos and Chalkis, 1984; Papazachos eta/., 1986].

GP60a, b: 38 %0 N, 20 %0 E, I= XI; AS62, AP80a,90: i = 3; CP82, PC, PZ:
03h10m, 38.8° N, 20.7° E, M = 6.9; S89, 90: i max= 3, P.

1870, June 24, 18h ± 1h. HA.
Hellenic Arc [?]. A powerful earthquake occurred in the vast territory in the

eastern coastal area of the Mediterranean Sea. The earthquake was strong in
Athens where it was noted at 17h54m, in Izmir, it was felt on. the Islands of
Crete, Cyprus, Thira (Santorini), Malta.

Three shocks were noted in Alexandria at 18h25m which seemed to be
directed from south-east to north-west and were accompanied by a hollow
rumble. The first shock of duration 7-8 s was the weakest one; the second shock
occurred several seconds later and was the strongest one. Damage was not
great. The strong shocks were felt in the sea and in the port where ships
underwent "severe" shocks. Three shocks about 5 s long each were also felt in
Ismaila at 18h25m, but they were very strong. Three shocks occurred in Cairo
approximately at 18h30m. The first one was very weak and only a few

Page 255


Villanova•; GR; Rhodes I.; 103
Villebourg (now Lahrat); AG; 118
Villefranche (Yillefranche-sur-Mer); FR; 44
Vis (Lissa, anc. lssa), Island; HR; 112, 113,

143, 187
Vitoula (ref); GR; Peloponnesus; 109
Vitrinitsa (now Tolofon), Bay of; GR; 102
Vitrinitsa (now Tolofon), town; GR; 101
Vlacherna (Ylakherna, Ylaherna); GR; 114
Vlorl! (Alb. Gji-i-Ylort!s), Bay of; AL; 81,

106, 136, 187
Vlorl! (It. Yalona,Jorm. Avlona, anc. Aulon),

city; AL; 81, 89, 104, 105, 106, 111, 119
Vlorl!, Strait; AL; 106
Voghera; IT; 79
Volos (Bolos, Yolo), city; GR; 134, 158, 183
Volos (Bolos, Yolo, Pagasitikos Kolpos), Gulf

of; GR; 158
Volterra (anc. Yolaterrae); IT; 84, 86
Vouraikos (Yourai'kos), River; GR;

Peloponnesus; 100
Vournikas, Mt; GR; Levkas 1.; 134
Vrbnia• (Yrbje ?); HR; 143
Vrbovsko; HR; 143
Vrisnik; HR; 143
Vulcano (anc. Riera), Island; IT; 135, 182


Xilocastro (Xilokastro, Xilokastron); GR;
Peloponnesus; 117

Xirolakkos (Xirolaka), Bay of; GR; 102


Yavne; IS; 35
Ydra (Idhra, Idra, Hydra, anc. Hydrea); GR;

Ydra I.; 140
Yialova (Yalova); TU; 98, 116
Yirka; IS; 36
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk; RU; Sakalin I.; ix

Zadar (It. Zara, anc. ladera); HR; 82
~efat (Safad, Safed, Zafat); IS; 37
Zafferana (Zafferana Etnea); IT; Sicily I.; 75,

Zakynthos (Zakinthos, Zante, Zacynthus),

Island; GR; Ionian Is.; 46, 49, 71, 73, 77,
79, 81, 106, 109, 114, 116, 122, 130, 146,

Zakynthos, town; Gr; Zakynthos 1.; 77, 109
Zarbitza•; GR; Peloponnesus; 109
Zebdani (ref); LE; 112
Zhour (Oued Zhour), River; AG; 94

Page 256

Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research

Series Editor: Prof. Dr. Mohammed I. EI-Sabh, Departement d'Oceanographie,
Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 310 Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec,
Canada G5L 3A 1


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2. J. Nemer;, J.M. Nigg and F. Siccardi (eds.): Prediction and Perception of
Natural Hazards. Symposium Perugia, Italy (1990). 1993

ISBN 0-7923-2355-6

3. M.l. EI-Sabh, T.S. Murty, S. Venkatesh, F. Siccardi and K. Andah (eds.):
Recent Studies in Geophysical Hazards. 1994 ISBN 0-7923-2972-4

4. Y. Tsuchiya and N. Shuto (eds.): Tsunami: Progress in Prediction, Disaster
Prevention and Warning. 1995 ISBN 0-7923-3483-3

5. A. Carrara and F. Guzzetti (eds.): Geographical Information Systems in
Assessing Natural Hazards. 1995 ISBN 0-7923-3502-3

6. V. Schenk (ed.): Earthquake Hazard and Risk. 1996 ISBN 0-7923-4008-6

7. M.l. EI-Sabh, S. Venkatesh, H. Denis and T.S. Murty (eds.): Land-based and
Marine Hazards. Scientific and Management Issues. 1996

ISBN 0-7923-4064-7

8. J.M. Gutteling and 0. Wiegman: Exploring Risk Communication. 1996
ISBN 0-7923-4065-5

9. G. Hebenstreit (ed.): Perspectives on Tsunami Hazard Reduction. Observa-
tions, Theory and Planning. 1997 ISBN 0-7923-4811-7

1 0. C. Emdad Haque: Hazards in a Fickle Environment: Bangladesh. 1998
ISBN 0-7923-4869-9

11. F. Wenzel, D. Lungu and 0. Novak (eds.): Vrancea Earthquakes: Tectonics,
Hazard and Risk Mitigation. 1999 ISBN 0-7923-5283-1

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and Seismic Risk Reduction. 2000 ISBN 0-7923-6390-6

13. S.L. Soloviev, O.N. Solovieva, C.N. Go, K.S. Sim and N.A. Shchetnikov:
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ISBN 0-7923-6548-8

Kluwer Academic Publishers - Dordrecht I Boston I London

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