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TitleTransversal Media Practices
TagsMathematics Archaeology Theory New Media
File Size5.7 MB
Total Pages356
Table of Contents
                            Acknowledgements 9
2005: An Introduction 11
	Dissertation Year 0 11
1 Concerns, Questions, Aims 15
	Structure of the Dissertation 23
2 Media Theory and Media Archaeology:
HIstory,  Materiality, PracticE 28
	Medium/Media Theory: A dispute over materiality? 33
	The Materiality of Network Culture 42
	The Historical Turn of (New) Media Theory 54
		Laws of Media 55
		Transitions between the old and the new 57
	Media archaeology 61
		The New, the Old and the Dead 61
		Deep Time and Topoi of Media 62
		From Dead to Undead 65
		Archives: Discursive and Technical 67
		Media Archaeology and Technological Development 68
	From Negative to Transversal Ontology 78
3   Contexts and Methods 87
	The Alternative Media Context 87
	The Media Art Context 90
	A Practice-based Approach 92
		Practice-based and Artistic-Research 95
	Media- and Communications Research at the Crossroads 100
	Cultural Production and Practice-based Research 104
4  The World’s Last television Studio 111
	Introduction to Case Study I 112
		Structure of the case-study chapter 114
		Case methodology 116
	Excavation 118
		TV-Stop 123
		Institutionalised and Dissolutionised Dissent 126
		“Everyone can make tv- tv” – a manifesto and its  (counter-) publics 129
		From The World’s Last to the World’s Largest: 139
		Everyone Can Make TV (About Bush) and Four More Years 139
		What is to be done? Dilemmas of a TV Station 151
		Discussion: The Vanishing Point of tv-tv 160
	Intervention: TV-Hacknight - Eventualising analogue Switch-Offs and Digital Turn-Ons 167
		Smart encoders and dumb decoders 169
		“Adieu monde analogue, et Bonjour Monde Digitale!” 175
		Convergence from Below: From The to Your New TV-Signal 183
5   The Art of the Overhead 197
	Do’s and Don’ts : An Introduction to Case Study II 198
		Case Methodology 201
	Excavation: Uses and Counter-Uses - A Geneaology of The Overhead Projector 203
		Uses: From Standardisation to Institutionalisation 207
		Counter-uses: Light-Shows and Expanded Cinema 222
	Intervention: The Art of the Overhead Festival 234
		Call for Overheads! 238
		Works produced within and/or presented at The Art of the Overhead 2005-09 247
	Coda to The Art of the Overhead: 262
	Imaginary, Residual, Renewable 262
6   The Media-archaeological generic? 268
	To Take Some Distance of it All 268
	Cybernetics and the doing and un-doing of History 271
	From Generic to Generative 276
7Transversal media practices: Emerging concepts 280
	Excavation: Imaginary, Residual, Renewable 282
	Intervention: Eventualisation and Reverse-Remediation 290
8  Changing the changes: a summary and set
of tools 298
Sammanfattning 306
	Ansats 306
	Kapitel 1: ”Sammanhang, Frågor, Syften” 307
	Kapitel 2: ”Medieteori och Mediearkeologi: Historia, Materialitet, Praktik” 309
	Kapitel 3: ”Sammanhang och Metoder” 312
	Kapitel 4: “The World’s Last Television Studio” 313
	Kapitel 5: “The Art of the Overhead” 315
	Kapitel 6: “Mediearkeologins ‘generiskhet’?” 317
	Kapitel 7 och 8: ”Tvärgående mediepraktiker: Framträdande koncept” och ”Förändring av förändringarna: Sammanfattning och en samling verktyg” 318
References 322
Acknowledgements
2005: An Introduction
	Dissertation Year 0
1 Concerns, Questions, Aims
	Structure of the Dissertation
2 Media Theory and Media  Archaeology: History,  Materiality, Practice
	Chapter Overview
	Medium/Media Theory: A dispute over materiality?
	The Materiality of Network Culture
		Convergence and Divergence
		Media Ecologies
		Protocols
		Heterogeneity
	The Historical Turn of (New) Media Theory
		Laws of Media
		Transitions between the old and the new
	Media archaeology
		The New, the Old and the Dead
		Deep Time and Topoi of Media
		From Dead to Undead
		Archives: Discursive and Technical
		Media Archaeology and Technological Development
			Non-linear histories and microtemporalities
			The Problematic of Technological Development
			Linear and Mono-Medial Appoaches
			Evolutionary Approaches
			Planned Obsolescence
	From Negative to Transversal Ontology
3 Contexts and Methods
	The Alternative Media Context
		Alternative Media Rhizomes
	The Media Art Context
	A Practice-based Approach
		Practice-based and Artistic-Research
			Practice-based Research
			Artistic Research
	Media- and Communications Research at the Crossroads
	Cultural Production and Practice-based Research
		A Practice of Cultural Production
		Case Studies and Cultural Analysis
4 The World’s Last television Studio
	Introduction to Case Study I
		Structure of the case-study chapter
		Case methodology
	Excavation
		TV-Stop
		Institutionalised and Dissolutionised Dissent
		“Everyone can make tv- tv” – a manifesto and its (counter-) publics
			Publics and Counter-Publics
			Tensions between open and closed
		From The World’s Last to the World’s Largest:
		Everyone Can Make TV (About Bush) and Four More Years
			The “Other” tv-tv (TVTV)
			Different Tele-visions
		What is to be done? Dilemmas of a TV Station
			The Tuesday Meeting and its Discontents
		Discussion: The Vanishing Point of tv-tv
	Intervention: TV-Hacknight - Eventualising analogue  Switch-Offs and Digital Turn-Ons
		Smart encoders and dumb decoders
		“Adieu monde analogue, et Bonjour Monde Digitale!”38F
		Convergence from Below: From The to Your New TV-Signal
			Reclaiming the Black Screen
5 The Art of the Overhead
	Do’s and Don’ts : An Introduction to Case Study II
		Case Methodology
	Excavation: Uses and Counter-Uses - A Geneaology  of The Overhead Projector
		Uses: From Standardisation to Institutionalisation
			Proto-overheads
			Leisure Overheads
			Educational Overheads
		Counter-uses: Light-Shows and Expanded Cinema
	Intervention: The Art of the Overhead Festival
		Project Outline
		Works produced within and/or presented at  The Art of the Overhead 2005-09
			Variations on a Standard: The OHP as an institutional medium
			Random Hit
			The Writings on the Wall (Copy their Faith)
			The OHP in a Performative Context
			Around by 170cm
	Coda to The Art of the Overhead:
	Imaginary, Residual, Renewable
Call for Overheads!
6 The Media archaeological generic?
	To Take Some Distance of it All
	Cybernetics and the doing and un-doing of History
	From Generic to Generative
7 Transversal media practices: Emerging concepts
	Excavation: Imaginary, Residual, Renewable
		Imaginary
		Residual
		Renewable
	Intervention: Eventualisation and Reverse-Remediation
		Eventualisation
		Reverse-remediation
8 Changing the changes:  a summary and set of tools
Sammanfattning
	Ansats
	Kapitel 1: ”Sammanhang, Frågor, Syften”
	Kapitel 2: ”Medieteori och Mediearkeologi:  Historia, Materialitet, Praktik”
	Kapitel 3: ”Sammanhang och Metoder”
	Kapitel 4: “The World’s Last Television Studio”
	Kapitel 5: “The Art of the Overhead”
	Kapitel 6: “Mediearkeologins ‘generiskhet’?”
	Kapitel 7 och 8: ”Tvärgående mediepraktiker:  Framträdande koncept” och ”Förändring av förändringarna: Sammanfattning och en samling verktyg”
References
                        
Document Text Contents
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MAlMö uNIvERSITy

205 06 MAlMö, SwEDEN

www.MAh.SE

KRISTOffER GANSING
TRANSvERSAl MEDIA
PRAcTIcES
Media Archaeology, Art and Technological Development

How do media technologies develop over time? This is a basic proble-

matic of technological development. In this context, the dissertation

Transversal Media Practices does not provide any easy answers but

offers the reader a set of tools that points to the imaginary, residual and

renewable dimensions of media in our contemporary network culture.

The study unfolds through two case-studies. In the first, The World’s

Last Television Studio, artists and activists are negotiating the socio-

cultural and material changes of the “old” and institutionalised mass

medium of Television. In the second case study, The Art of the Over-

head, another old medium is engaged: the overhead projector, a quint-

essential 20th century institutional medium here presented as a device

for “reverse-remediation” – of rethinking the new through the old.

The dissertation follows a methodology of integrated theory and

practice where Media archaeology is deployed as an interventionist,

transversal discipline for cultural analysis and production that investi-

gates the problematic of technological development.

978-91-7104-481-5

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176

viewer could easily overview and get in tune with the regularised
scheduling of pre-24 hour and state-monopoly television. But this
synchronisation extended to the technical level as well, analogue
television being based in a so called “symmetrical” system: audio
and video are sent according to specific frequencies, the encoding
of which has to correspond with the technical receivers way of de-
coding, that is a scanning process aided by syncpulses for the hori-
zontal and vertical planes (Gupta, 2006; Bellander, 1969). As Bel-
lander writes about this symmetrical ecology of analogue television
back in 1969:


The heart of the studio <<image department>> is the synchroni-

sation-generator or the syncgenerator as one usually calls it. In

it, the sync-pulses are formed, needed for the synchronisation of

the scanning process of cameras and other apparatus of the

transmitter image-scanning with the corresponding scanning of

the tube in the receiver-system. (Bellander, 1969, p. 22, my

trans.)



This symmetrical relationship between the transmitter and receiver
on the technical side also contributes to the possibility seized upon
by low-tech analogue pirate-TV projects25, that, similar to what
Brecht (1926) already proposed in relation to the medium of radio,
every receiver is potentially also a transmitter. This is different
from the technological foundation of the digital broadcasting era
where the sending and receiving of images and sounds no longer
need to be so linearly synchronised. We can see this shift directly
affecting also the level of use, as in the shift from broadcasting to
so called “narrowcasting” where the viewer can choose to
download podcasts or other media content to be viewed at other
times (and on different convergent platforms) than that of their
“original” transmission.


When analog television was developed, no affordable technology

for storing any video signals existed; the luminance signal has to


25 Such as the “Micro-TV” movement initiated by Japanese artist Tetsuo Kogawa in the 1980s (Ko-
gawa, n.d.).

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177

be generated and transmitted at the same time at which it is dis-

played on the CRT. It is therefore essential to keep the raster

scanning in the camera (or other device for producing the signal)

in exact synchronization with the scanning in the television.
(Analog television, 2013)


The asymmetrical relationship between transmission and reception
of DVB-T digital (television) broadcasting and other associated
digital transmission systems such as DTT is built on a process
which in industry terms goes under the name of “smart encoding /
dumb decoding” (Pic. 4.7). The heart of this process is not the
sync-pulse generator of the analogue TV-Studio, but the Interna-
tional standard for digital video known as MPEG. Developed by
the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG), this is a technology
that allows for the standardised compression and transmission of
sounds and images, hence the common reference to standards such
as these as “codecs”, denoting their double function of compres-
sion and decompression (Mackenzie, 2008; Cubitt 2008) or in
other terms: en-coding and decoding. MPEG, as the standard most
widely adopted in the transition to digital television broadcasting
around the globe, allows through digital compression for the above
discussed function of “multiplexing”. This is the transmission of
several compressed channels of audio and video within the same
(digital) airborn signal, significantly increasing the possible number
of TV-channels and/or the image/sound quality of transmissions.

177

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MAlMö uNIvERSITy

205 06 MAlMö, SwEDEN

www.MAh.SE

KRISTOffER GANSING
TRANSvERSAl MEDIA
PRAcTIcES
Media Archaeology, Art and Technological Development

How do media technologies develop over time? This is a basic proble-

matic of technological development. In this context, the dissertation

Transversal Media Practices does not provide any easy answers but

offers the reader a set of tools that points to the imaginary, residual and

renewable dimensions of media in our contemporary network culture.

The study unfolds through two case-studies. In the first, The World’s

Last Television Studio, artists and activists are negotiating the socio-

cultural and material changes of the “old” and institutionalised mass

medium of Television. In the second case study, The Art of the Over-

head, another old medium is engaged: the overhead projector, a quint-

essential 20th century institutional medium here presented as a device

for “reverse-remediation” – of rethinking the new through the old.

The dissertation follows a methodology of integrated theory and

practice where Media archaeology is deployed as an interventionist,

transversal discipline for cultural analysis and production that investi-

gates the problematic of technological development.

978-91-7104-481-5

T
R

A
N

S
v

E
R

S
A

l
M

E
D

IA
P

R
A

c
T

Ic
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