Download transforming learning into a constructive cognitive and metacognitive PDF

Titletransforming learning into a constructive cognitive and metacognitive
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size1.0 MB
Total Pages121
Table of Contents
                            ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS
INTRODUCTION
FOSTERING CONSTRUCTIVE COGNITIVE AND METACOGNITIVE ACTIVITIES
	Metacognition
	Query Method
		Simple versus Complex Elaboration
	Assessing Cognitive Outcomes in Complex Task Training
		Knowledge Acquisition
		Knowledge Organization
		Instructional Efficiency
		Summary
	Assessing Metacognitive Outcomes in Complex Task Training
		Metacomprehension Accuracy
		Metacognitive Self-Regulation
		Summary
	Metacognition versus Self-Efficacy
	Individual Differences in Learner Aptitudes
	Present Study
	Hypotheses
		Cognitive Processes and Products Hypotheses
		Metacognitive Processes and Products Hypotheses
METHOD
	Participants
	Design
	Materials
		Aviation Training Tutorial (Knowledge Acquisition)
		Query Method
		Module and Tutorial Surveys (Instructional Efficiency/Metacomprehension Accuracy)
		Metacognitive Self-Regulation (Level of Review Effort)
		Card Sort Task (Knowledge Organization)
		Knowledge Assessment Task
		Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire (Metacomprehension Postdiction Bias)
		MSLQ and Aviation Training Effectiveness Questionnaire (Metacognition versus Self-Efficacy)
		Verbal Comprehension Ability
		Time-on-Task
	Apparatus
	Procedure
RESULTS
	Analyses
	Check of Random Assignment
	Effect of Query Method on Cognitive Outcomes
		Knowledge Organization – Card Sort Task
		Knowledge Assessment – Overall Performance
		Knowledge Assessment – Declarative and Perceptual Knowledge
		Knowledge Assessment – Integrative Knowledge
		Instructional Efficiency
	Effect of Query Method on Metacognitive Outcomes
		Metacomprehension Accuracy – Level of Understanding
		Metacomprehension Accuracy – Bias Scores
		Metacomprehension Calibration
		Metacognitive Self-Regulation – Level of Review Effort
		Metacognition versus Self-Efficacy
	Content Analysis of Participants’ Queries
DISCUSSION
	Query Method – Low Level Elaboration
	Query Method – High Level Elaboration
	Metacognition versus Self-Efficacy
	Individual Differences – Verbal Comprehension Ability
	Limitations and Implications for Future Research
TRANSFORMING THE LEARNING PROCESS: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
	Theoretical Implications
		Learning as a Constructive Cognitive Activity
		Elaboration, Learner Control, and Cognitive Load
		Learning as a Constructive Metacognitive Activity
	Practical Implications
		Assessing Cognitive Outcomes
		Assessing Metacognitive Outcomes
CONCLUSION
APPENDIX A: IRB COMMITTEE APPROVAL LETTER AND APPROVED STUDENT INFORMED CONSENT FORM
APPENDIX B: AVIATION TRAINING TUTORIAL SURVEY
APPENDIX C: KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE
APPENDIX D: BIOGRAPHICAL DATA FORM
REFERENCES
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

TRANSFORMING LEARNING INTO A CONSTRUCTIVE
COGNITIVE AND METACOGNITIVE ACTIVITY:

USE OF A GUIDED LEARNER-GENERATED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY
WITHIN COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING








by




HAYDEE MARIA CUEVAS
B.A. University of Central Florida, 1997

A. A. Miami-Dade Community College, 1995




A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

in the Department of Psychology
in the College of Arts and Sciences
at the University of Central Florida

Orlando, Florida




Fall Term
2004





Major Professor: Clint A. Bowers

Page 2

© 2004 Haydee M. Cuevas

ii

Page 60

RESULTS



Analyses

The experimental results were analyzed separately in terms of post-training cognitive

(i.e., knowledge organization, knowledge acquisition, instructional efficiency) and metacognitive

(i.e., metacomprehension accuracy, metacognitive self-regulation) outcomes. When deemed

appropriate, correlations were calculated. An alpha level of .05 was used for all statistical

analyses. Results of these analyses will be presented as follows. The analysis for the check of

random assignment will be presented first. Contrary to predictions, individual differences in

verbal comprehension ability did not interact with the query method to influence post-training

outcomes. However, analysis did show that verbal comprehension ability was significantly

correlated with several of the cognitive measures (refer to Table 1). Accordingly, the next two

sections report the results of the analyses focusing on the main effect of the query method on

post-training cognitive and metacognitive outcomes, respectively, with verbal comprehension

ability treated as a covariate, as appropriate. The fourth section reports the results of the analysis

evaluating the hypothesized differential effect of the query method on task-specific

metacognitive self-regulation and self-efficacy expectations of performance. Finally, results of

the content analysis of the sentences generated by the two query training conditions (LLEQ,

HLEQ) will be presented.

Table 1 lists the intercorrelations for the cognitive and metacognitive measures and

verbal comprehension ability (individual differences variable). Tables 2 and 3 report the

unadjusted means and standard deviations of all relevant cognitive and metacognitive measures,

respectively, for the three training conditions (NQ, LLEQ, HLEQ).

46

Page 61

Table 1

Intercorrelations of Verbal Comprehension Ability and Cognitive and Metacognitive Measures a

Dependent Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


Verbal Comprehension __ .05 .38** .32* .41** .23 -.11 -.12 -.18

Knowledge Organization __ .30* .27 .39** .06 -.19 -.21 -.10

Knowledge Assessment

Total __ .89** .90** .77** -.65** -.53** .10

Declarative __ .68** .52** -.68** -.54** .08

Perceptual __ .61** -.53** -.47** .03

Integrative __ -.40** -.31* .18

Prediction Bias __ .63** -.20

Postdiction Bias __ -.20

Level of Review Effort __


a N = 51.

* p < .05 (two-tailed). ** p < .01 (two-tailed).



47

Page 120

Sorensen, A. G., Brown, K. G., Werner, M. M., & Huntley, J. (2001, April). How do learning

differences arise across media? Poster presented at the 16th Annual Conference of the

Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.

Sternberg, R. J. (1998). Metacognition, abilities, and developing expertise: What makes an

expert student? Instructional Science, 26, 127-140.

Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty and instructional design. Learning

and Instruction, 4, 295-312.

Sweller, J. (1999). Instructional design in technical areas. Camberwell, Australia: ACER Press.

Sweller, J. & Chandler, P. (1994). Why some material is difficult to learn. Cognition and

Instruction, 12, 185-233.

Van Oostendorp, H. & Goldman, S. R. (Eds.). (1999). The construction of mental

representations during reading. Mahwah, NJ: LEA.

Volet, S. E. (1991). Modelling and coaching of relevant metacognitive strategies for enhancing

university students' learning. Learning & Instruction, 1, 319-336.

Weinstein, C. E. & Mayer, R. E. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In M. C. Wittrock

(Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed.) (pp. 315-327). New York: Macmillan.

Winne, P. H. & Hadwin, A. F. (1998). Studying as self-regulated learning. In D. J. Hacker, J.

Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in educational theory and practice

(pp. 277-304). Mahwah, NJ: LEA.

Winne, P. H. & Stockley, D. B. (1998). Computing technologies as sites for developing self-

regulated learning. In D. H. Schunk, & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulated learning:

106

Page 121

107

From teaching to self-reflective practice (pp. 106-136). New York, NY: Guilford

Publications.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Developing self-fulfilling cycles of academic regulation: An analysis

of exemplary instructional models. In D. H. Schunk, & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-

regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice (pp. 1-19). New York, NY:

Guilford Publications.

Similer Documents