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TitleTRANSFORMING A MUNICIPAL GOLF COURSE TO URBAN AGRICULTURE IN BALTIMORE ...
LanguageEnglish
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Table of Contents
                            Acknowledgements
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments ii
Table of Contents iii
List of Figures v
List of Tables viii
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
The History of American Golf Industry 2
Current State of Golf Industry 5
Environmental Impacts of Golf Courses 10
Chapter 2: Precedent Studies 13
Macatawa Greenspace, Holland, MI 14
Forest Beach Migratory Preserve, Holland, MI 15
Bloom Montgomery Village, Montgomery, MD 17
Riverview Gardens, Appleton, Wisconsin 19
Grow Dat Youth Farm – New Orleans 23
Chapter 3: Urban Agriculture 26
Food Security 26
Role of Urban Agriculture in Food Security 29
Urban Agriculture in Baltimore 33
Design Objectives 38
Chapter 4: Methods 39
Site Selection 39
Historical Influence 44
Demographics 48
Soils 49
Climate 51
Hydrology 53
Existing Infrastructure 55
Preliminary Program 57
Chapter 5: Design Response 58
Site Plan 58
Main Entrance 61
Farmers Market 63
Community/Education Center 64
Demonstration Greenhouses 65
Children’s Nature Playscape Area 67
Public Garden Areas 69
Pick-Your-Own-Orchard 71
Naturalized Flood Plain Area 72
Orchard and Tree Nursery 76
Working Farm Areas 80
Greenhouses and High Tunnels 84
Irrigation Pond 88
Row Crops 89
Cut-Stem Flowers 90
Alley Crops 91
Food Forest 92
Farm Yields 93
Chapter 6: Conclusions 97
Bibliography 101
	CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
	In the nearly 140 years since it was first introduced to the United States, the game of golf has gone through a series of growth periods, taking it from a “gentleman’s” game played primarily by the elitist few in the early 1900’s, to one that over 30...
	More recently though, the golf industry has been experiencing a steady decline that can be attributed to many different factors from economic downturns, decreasing interest and participation, to an oversaturated market of courses. As a result of thes...
	Because golf courses were often constructed in populated areas, these properties remain valuable and interest among developers has been to replace courses with homes.  In an effort to preserve the large pieces of open space, a trend in repurposing has...
	In Baltimore City growing concern over food accessibility in low-income neighborhoods has prompted a call from Mayor Stephanie Rawlings Blake to increase the amount of affordable, locally grown fresh produce.  Urban agriculture has been recognized as...
	In an effort to help alleviate the food desert conditions in Southwest Baltimore, this design thesis explores how an underused municipal golf course can be transformed into an urban agriculture hub. A thorough investigation of local community demogra...
	Current State of Golf Industry
	Macatawa Greenspace, Holland, MI
	Bloom Montgomery Village, Montgomery, MD
	Grow Dat Youth Farm – New Orleans
	CHAPTER 3: URBAN AGRICULTURE
	Role of Urban Agriculture in Food Security
	Urban Agriculture in Baltimore
	Design Objectives
	CHAPTER 4: METHODS
	Historical Influence
	Demographics
	Soils
	Climate
	Hydrology
	CHAPTER 5: DESIGN RESPONSE
	Site Plan: Carroll Urban Agriculture Park
	Existing road and trail infrastructure on the golf course was used to help define the circulation routes of both farm equipment and pedestrians. The main loop, which is the primary road for farm equipment, is highlighted red in Figure 44. In sections,...
	Main Entrance
	Farmers Market
	Community/ Education Center
	Children’s Nature Playscape Area
	Public garden areas
	Naturalized Flood Plain Area
	Working Farm Areas
	CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS
Bibliography
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

ABSTRACT




Title of Document: MOWING TO GROWING:
TRANSFORMING A MUNICIPAL GOLF
COURSE TO URBAN AGRICULTURE
IN BALTIMORE CITY

Nathan Allen MLA 2016

Directed By: Dr. Byoung-Suk Kweon, Department of
Plant Sciences and Landscape
Architecture




This thesis demonstrates how landscape architects can transform underused golf

course facilities located within cities for urban agriculture (UA). In the last decade

more than 1000 golf courses have closed in the United States. Municipal golf

courses represent some of the largest pieces of open space in cities and because of

their inherent infrastructure they can provide the ideal location to support large-

scale UA. In Southwest Baltimore large food deserts are a serious health concern

and represent a lack of access to healthy food options for residents. Carroll Urban

Agriculture Park is a design response resulting from a detailed analysis of the

existing Carroll Park Golf Course and the surrounding community of Southwest

Baltimore. The design will create an urban farm in a park-like setting to provide

readily accessible healthy food options and various educational opportunities, and

to support current and future urban agriculture related businesses in Baltimore.

Page 2

MOWING TO GROWING:

TRANSFORMING A MUNICIPAL GOLF COURSE TO URBAN
AGRICULTURAL IN BALTIMORE CITY




By



Nathan Allen







Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Maryland, College Park, in partial fulfillment

of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Landscape Architecture

2016










Advisory Committee:
Dr. Byoung-Suk Kweon, Chair
Dr. Christopher Ellis
Dr. Lorraine Clarke

Page 58

48

Demographics

When compared to Baltimore City and Maryland as

a whole, Southwest Baltimore is significantly

below average socio-economically. Southwest

Baltimore is comprised of 76% African Americans,

17% white, and 4 % Hispanic (figure 33). Baltimore

city is similarly comprised of 63% African

Americans, 28% White, and 4% Hispanic. The state

of Maryland, on the other hand, is 55% white, 29%

African American, and 8% Hispanic.

Unemployment in Southwest Baltimore in 2010

was more than double that of Baltimore City and

almost four times that of Maryland as a whole

(figure 33). The median household income of the

study area, on the other hand, is more than ten

thousand dollars less than the city-wide income and

more than twenty thousand dollars less than the

state-wide income.









Figure 33. Demographic data for SW
Baltimore, Baltimore City, and
Maryland

Page 59

49



Soils
One of the most significant factors in any agricultural production is soil quality.

The ability to which a certain type of soil can support healthy crop production depends

greatly on the physical, chemical and biological character of the soil. The Cornell Soil

Health Assessment Training Manual states that healthy soils should have these 10

characteristics:

• Good soil tilth
• Sufficient depth
• Sufficient but not excess nutrient supply
• Small population of pathogens and pests
• Good soil drainage
• Resistant to degradation
• Free of chemicals and toxins that may harm the crop
• Resilience when unfavorable conditions occur
• Large population of beneficial organisms



The site proposed at Carroll Park Golf Course is comprised of various types of soils with

a range of physical and chemical traits that will help when deciding what types of crops

can be grown and where. Soil type is a term typically used to explain the physical

Fig 34. Unemployment and income for Southwest Baltimore, Baltimore City, and Maryland

Page 116

106

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