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                            Walden University
Transformational Leadership for Virtual Teams in an Information Technology Organization
	Russell Thomas Hogue
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Walden University

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies
Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies



Transformational Leadership for Virtual Teams in
an Information Technology Organization
Russell Thomas Hogue
Walden University

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participants because all participants were keenly aware of the technology required to

participate (Brown et al., 2007).


The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between TLB and the

success of virtual teams in an IT organization. For this purpose, no other instrument has

demonstrated the level of reliability and validity that the MLQ has. Out of 45 questions,

20 items focused on transformational leadership. The subcomponents and questions are

broken down as follows: attributed idealized influence (4), behavior idealized influence

(4), inspirational motivations (4), intellectual stimulation (4), and individualized

consideration (4). Nine items focused on the criteria extra effort (3), effectiveness (4),

and satisfaction (2).

Leadership data were gathered by administering the MLQ 5X. As outlined in the

literature review, the MLQ 5X is based on a long history of leadership research,

culminating with the 2002 Avolio and Bass construct. The current leadership model has

been shown to be one of the most reliable instruments for measuring TLB (Antonakis et

al., 2003). Participants rated their direct report leaders on all 45 items on a 5-point Likert

scale ranging from 0 (not at all) to 4 (frequently, if not always). The TLB responses for

each subscale were averaged to score the MLQ. The transformational leadership scale

consisted of idealized attributes, idealized behaviors, inspirational motivation, intellectual

stimulation, and individual consideration.

The MLQ 5X leverages three leadership behavior styles: transformational,

transactional, and laissez-faire. For purposes of the present study, only the

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transformational leadership style was of interest. Unfortunately, many other research

projects have attempted to use the MLQ in a self-report form; however, this method of

testing has caused suspicious results. The primary weakness of self-report tests remains

the same: In a self-report test, perceived behavior, or, in some cases, behavior perceived

to be desirable, may be reported instead of actual behavior. For instance, in a self-report

test, a leader may believe that he or she provides employees with intellectual stimulation

and thus answer the question affirmatively. However, the direct report employees of the

leader may have a different perspective. Self-report tests cannot be said to measure actual

There are a number of potential risks for researchers conducting quantitative data

analysis (Lowe et al., 1996). Issues with reliability, for example, are concerned with

whether the instrument scores accurately each time it is administered. Validity concerns

whether the instrument measures the variable that needs to be measured. Avolio and Bass

(2004) reported that the MLQ achieves .76 to .92 for reliability measures, and subsequent

research has supported the general reliability of the instrument (Creswell, 2003). The


ranging from .74 to .94, once again substantiated by Creswell (2003). At the heart of the

discussion, reliability and validity are essential for research projects because they allow

for researchers to identify accurate conclusions from data due to some factors controlled

by the study (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995). The researcher took special care to select an

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Appendix B: Survey Demographic Questions

What is your gender?

1 = male, 2 = female

What is your age?

_____ years

What is your ethnicity? (Indicate all that apply)

1 = African American, 2 = Asian, 3 = Caucasian, 4 = Hispanic/Latino,

5 = Native American, 6 = Pacific Islander, 7 = Other ___________

What is your highest level of education?

1 = did not graduate high school, 2 = high school graduate or equivalent,

6 = graduate degree, 7 = postgraduate degree

What is your relationship status?

1 = single, 2 = in a committed relationship (not married), 3 = married,

4 = living with spouse, partner, significant other, 5 = none of the above

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