Download Traditional Coping Strategies of Rural People Living in Flood Prone Areas in Northwest Bangladesh PDF

TitleTraditional Coping Strategies of Rural People Living in Flood Prone Areas in Northwest Bangladesh
LanguageEnglish
File Size2.9 MB
Total Pages89
Table of Contents
                            1.2.1.1. Topography
1.2.1.2. The Climate
1.2.1.3. River Systems and Wetlands
The major river is Brahmaputra and its tributaries. The other rivers are Dharla, and Tista. The tributaries are Dudhkumar, Phulkumar, Gangadhar, Jinjiram Sonaburi, Gangadhar, Halhali and Jalchira. etc.
The rivers serve as the main source of water for irrigation and as the principal arteries for commercial transportation. The rivers also provide sweet-water fish, an important source of livelihood for many fishers in the area. On the other hand, these...
Besides these extensive river networks, there are some water bodies which used as reservoir of water during dry seasons– the sources of irrigation– and also provide sweet-water fish.
1.2.1.4. Agriculture and Economy
	3.1.1. the Study Area - Kurigram District
	3.1.1.2. Ecological Features
	Roumari was once a big char Island in the vast Brahmaputra riverbed, say more than 400 years ago. The eastern branch of Brahmaputra forming the natural boundary with present Meghalaya dried up gradually as a result of changing course of the river for...
	3.1.1.3. Agriculture and Economy
	The economic activities are very limited in the area due to the poor transport system with the main land of Kurigram. Business is not well developed in this upazila and therefore most of the peoples are dependent on the agriculture and fishing for the...
	3.1.1.4. Infrastructural Scenario
	As it is geographically isolated from the main land of Kurigram therefore water transport system e.g. boat, ferry, is the only way for communication within the area. The communication with Raumari to Dhaka and Chittagong is developed recently. There i...
	3.1.2. the Study Area - Lalmonirhat District
	3.1.2.2. Ecological Features
	The area is under Tista floodplain Unit (Rashid, 2005). The main rivers are Tista, Trimohoni and Dharla and some other rivers like Sharnamati and Marashati are silted and almost dead. There is slight depression along the area. The main depressions are...
	Along the Tista rivers, Dharla and Dudkhumar rivers brown loamy soils are available for cultivation.
	3.1.2.3. Agriculture and Economy: Main crops are Paddy, jute, wheat, potato, mustard seed, onion, garlic, sugarcane, sesame etc. The people are migrating in the off agric season for income. The people are usually worked as day laborer in the agric fie...
                        
Document Text Contents
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i




A
TRADITIONAL COPING STRATEGIES

OF RURAL PEOPLE LIVING IN
FLOOD-PRONE AREAS IN NORTH-

WEST BANGLADESH






HASAN SHAFIE
SIDDIQUR RAHMAN









Development Frontiers
Dhaka, 23 January 2009

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ii



TTRRAADDIITTIIOONNAALL CCOOPPIINNGG SSTTRRAATTEEGGIIEESS

OOFF RRUURRAALL PPEEOOPPLLEE LLIIVVIINNGG IINN FFLLOOOODD
PPRROONNEE AARREEAASS IINN NNOORRTTHHWWEESSTT

BBAANNGGLLAADDEESSHH








HASAN SHAFIE
SIDDIQUR RAHMAN
















TTHHEE RREESSEEAARRCCHH TTEEAAMM
Senior Programme Analyst : Kazi Sunzida Lisa
Programme Analyst : Hasina Akter Mita
Research Associate : A. S. M. Masudul Hasan
Research Assistant : Mosharraf Hossain

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leave their house at the morning they come home at night. Most males mentioned that they become bore
and worried about how to run their families at that time. They go to nearby market centers to find ways to
fight this situation. With no money in the pocket, sometimes they escape their lunch.

Social gatherings for women during afternoons in the yards are common in two villages. They informed
when they have leisure times, they usually come to the yard to gossip, talk and have fun. However, during
flood when they have waist- deep water around them it becomes impossible. They mentioned that they
remain worry about their children’s safety and become more vigilant to protect their houses from venomous
snakes and other poisonous animals.

44..22..11..44.. SSOOCCIIAALL CCAAPPIITTAALL

Social capital means the social networks that individual establish through formal or informal social organiza-
tions. The term capital is of importance and these arrays of social networks can also be utilized to accele-
rate individual life chances in the existing livelihoods. At times of flood these social capital appear to be
strong form of assets for many individuals. The amount and nature of social capital vary for each individual.
However, social capital from formal organizations such as family is very important in any hazards. Affilia-
tions to other social organizations such as school, religious organizations, clubs, NGOs also become very
important during flood situations. In terms of vulnerability of flood, these social capital remain strong to
overcome the situations. Indeed, this form of assets is an important coping mechanism for the individuals.

44..22..11..55.. EEDDUUCCAATTIIOONN

Most villages have schools at least for the primary level. However, access to quality educational institutions
are not the same across social categories. The children of poor and low income families are less prepared
to get in to the quality educational institutions. The schools if not under water remain open at times of flood.
School attendance during flood is lower and it becomes very difficult especially for the children to attend
school. Lack of roads and adequate transportation during flood are main reasons for low attendance.
Parents also are little bothered if their children cannot go to school. However, interview with the school
authorities revealed the fact that they try to keep schools open as per government instructions but like
others they also mentioned that it is a difficult journey indeed for the children to come to school when there
is water everywhere. At times of heavy flooding, these educational institutions play an important role in
terms of seeking shelters for those who are forced to evacuate their homes.

44..22..22.. MMUULLTTIIMMEEDDIIAATTIINNGG PPRROOCCEESSSSEESS AANNDD IINNSSTTIITTUUTTIIOONNAALL FFEEAATTUURREESS

Government of Bangladesh (GoB) always plays a comprehensive role for maintaining social harmony
through distribution of resources towards the disadvantaged groups as well as playing important roles in
mitigating the local people’s sufferings trough alleviating miseries of vulnerable poor or those at risk of
being poor due to any physical or economic shocks. In this connection Government has taken some
measures which are observed in the study areas. Local government institutions execute the Government’s
initiatives collaboration with NGOs. NGOs also play an important role to implement the interventions.
Community based organizations also take some measures for the community.

44..22..22..11.. SSAAFFEETTYY NNEETT PPRROOGGRRAAMMMMEESS AANNDD GGOOVVEERRNNMMEENNTT IINNTTEERRVVEENNTTIIOONNSS

Social Safety Net Programme (SSNP) has been taken by the Government of Bangladesh for maintaining
human productivity, preventing long-term damages due to severe malnutrition in early childhood, the failure
of orphans or street children to attend school, or the sale of household assets such as land or livestock at
the time of crises. The existing SSNP in the study areas are- Female Secondary Education Stipend
(FSSAP), Vulnerable Group Development (VGD), Gratuitous Relief (GR), Vulnerable Group Feeding (VGF),

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Rural Maintenance Programme (RIDP), Test Relief (RIMP), Old Age Allowances, Allowances for Widow
Distress Women, Char Livelihood Programme (CLP), Allowances for Retarded Disabled Persons, Disaster
Affected Farmers’ Fund, Community Nutrition Programme, Fund for Hard Core Poor for Employment
Generation.

SSAAFFEETTYY NNEETT PPRROOGGRRAAMMMMEESS
IINN RROOUUMMAARRII,, HHAATTIIBBAANNDDHHAA

AANNDD AADDIITTMMAARRII
PPUURRPPOOSSEE IIMMPPLLEEMMEENNTTIINNGG AAGGEENNCCIIEESS NNAATTUURREE AANNDD VVAALLUUEE OOFF TTHHEE BBEENNEEFFIITT

Vulnerable Group Feeding
(VGF)

Provide food and other
emergency assistance
to disaster victims

Ministry of Food
and Disaster
Ministry

1. Entitlement depends on the amount
of work done.

2. Food support monthly 10 kg rice for 1
to 3 months per each VGF cardhold-
er.

Gratuitous Relief (GR) Provide food and other
short-term emergency
assistance to disaster
victims

Ministry of Food
and Disaster
Ministry

1. Entitlement depends on the amount
of work done.

2. Food Support: Monthly 10 to 20 Kg
rice during scarcity of food per each
selected poor family.

3. Provide saree, lungi, blanket,
biscuits and dry foods among the
affected people.

Female Secondary
Education Stipend
(FSSAP)


Increasing female
student enrolment at
secondary schools
and reducing of under
age marriage

Directorate of
Secondary and
Higher
Education, MoE

1. Stipend Tk. 300 (G6), 360 (G7), 420
(G8), 720 (G9 & 10).

2. Free tuition & examination.
3. Book allowance benefit conditional

on attendance, examination and
marriage criteria.

Rural Maintenance
Programme (RMP)

Empowerment of
women and maintain-
ing rural infrastructure


LGED,
CARE
Bangladesh

1. Tk. 51.00 per day

Vulnerable Group
Development (VGD)

Developing life skills
for women through
training

MoWCA,
Directorate of
Relief Rehabili-
tation

1. 30 Kg of wheat per month.
2. Training totaling about 150 hours.
3. On graduation beneficiaries can

access BRAC’s micro credit pro-
gramme

Test Relief (RIMP) Employment
generation for the
people in poverty
stricken areas and
developing as well as
maintaining rural
infrastructure

MoF&DM 1. 6 Kg. of rice per day’s work

Old Age Allowances Livelihood support to
the elderly people

Department of
Social Services,
MoSW

1. Tk. 180 per month
2. Cash is transfered by public banks.

Allowances for Widow
Distress Women

Livelihood support to
the elderly people

Department of
Social Services,
MoSW

-

Allowances for Retarded
Disabled Persons

Providing subsidence
allowance to fully
retarded persons

Department of
Social Services,
MoSW

1. Tk. 200 per month per person

Char Livelihood Pro-
gramme (CLP)

Livelihood support to
the poor people &
raising plinth of house

DFID 1. Raising plinth of house
2. Provide livestock for alternative

livelihood
Community Nutrition
Programme

To achieve sustaina-
ble improvements in

MoHP&FW 1. Reduce the severe and moderate
PEM in children under 2, to improve

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