Download TOEFL - Structure 3.0 PDF

TitleTOEFL - Structure 3.0
TagsVerb Style (Fiction) Onomastics Morphology Syntactic Relationships
File Size234.2 KB
Total Pages11
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Participial phrases  Participial phrases generally occur after nouns.generally occur after nouns.
They are actuallyThey are actually reducedreduced (shortened)(shortened) relativerelative
clauses. Present participlesclauses. Present participles (which always end in(which always end in --
ing)ing) are used to reduce adjective clauses thatare used to reduce adjective clauses that
contain active verbs.contain active verbs.

* Minnesota,* Minnesota, which joined the Union inwhich joined the Union in 1858,1858,

became the thirty-second state.became the thirty-second state.

(adjective clause with active verb)(adjective clause with active verb)

* Minnesota,* Minnesota, joining the Unio joining the Union inn in 1858, became1858, became

the thirty-second state.the thirty-second state.

(participial phrase with a present parti(participial phrase with a present participle)ciple)

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12. Amber is a hard, yellowish-brown ______ of years12. Amber is a hard, yellowish-brown ______ of years
ago.ago.

 ______  ______ (A) substance form(A) substance formeded

 ______  ______ (B) to form a s(B) to form a substanceubstance

 ______  ______ (C) substance h(C) substance has formedas formed

 ______  ______ (D) forming a (D) forming a substancesubstance

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