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University of South Florida
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College of Education Publications College of Education

4-1-2002

Theory and research in social education 30/02
National Council for the Social Studies. College and University Faculty Assembly

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(2002). College of Education Publications. Paper 113.
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Page 2

THEORYc'
RESEARCH

IN SOCIAL EDUCATION

Elizabeth Anne Yeager

Stephen J . Thornton

Patricia G . Avery

Linda Levstik
Jeanette Groth

Nancye McCrary

Kevin C . Franck

Heather Oesterreich

Brian K . Marchman

IN THIS ISSUE

From the Editor

Special Issue : , Social Education and Sexual Identity
Introduction and Overview of the Issue

Does Everybody Count as Human?

Theory and Research on Social Education and
Sexual Identity

Political Socialization,Tolerance, and Sexual Identity

Kathy Bickmore How Might Social Education Resist Heterosexism?
Facing the Impact of Gender and Sexual Identity
Ideology on Citizenship

Margaret Smith Crocco



Homophobic Hallways : Is Anyone Listening?

Scary Thing, Being an Eighth Grader : Exploring Gender
and Sexuality in a Middle School U .S . History Unit

Investigating the Use of Narrative in Affective Learning
on Issues of Social Justice

Reflections on Teaching

Rethinking Homophobia : Interrogating Hetero-
normativity in an Urban School

"Outing" Social Justice : Transforming Civic Education
Within the Challenges of Heteronormativity,
Heterosexism, and Homophobia

Teaching about Homophobia in a High School Civics
Course

Book Reviews

Keith C . Barton



Masculinity and Schooling

NinaA .Asher



Straight Talk in the Classroom : Discussing Lesbian and
Gay Issues in School

The Journal of the College and University Faculty Assembly of National Council for the Social Studies

Volume 30 Number 2 Spring 2002

Page 77

about the answer to that question . This is interesting on several levels,
not least of which is that men's voices were represented in the primary
and secondary sources available to the students . The unit did not start
with men nor did the culminating project focus on them, but they
were there-making laws, working with women in reform movements,
leading their families onto the frontier, overseeing the textile mills,
enacting laws, and more . But students perceived the shift in emphasis
as silencing men . Real historians, Arlene said, would "have gone from
the male perspective ." She and a core of other students worried that
this shift in focus was going too far . "Within the last few years," she
said, "women were being treated more equal ." "It shouldn't go too
far either way," Cora explained . "You want to look at it not from some
ratio ." Some of the girls worried, too, that such a shift could be
perceived as "against men"-a dangerous stance among adolescent
girls who spent so much energy on attracting male attention . Others
thought it was dangerous to make women a separate category . "Maybe
it doesn't need to be separate," Eugenie said . "It should be put into
normal everyday curriculum . Women would be emphasized just as
much as men are and their roles would be just as equally important as
men's are ." Jemma agreed, adding that the danger lay in "turning it
into this is women's place in history and this is men's place in history
and that's like dividing them up ." She paused, and ReeJane added
that "separating them makes the problem worse ." "But," she said,
"sometimes it's really hard to blend it altogether because the women
and men did have separate lives ." Eugenie nodded . "Back then," she
said, "it wasn't blended so it's hard to teach it blendedly-I'm making
up words-but if you have to teach it the way it was, then it would
make more sense to teach it [separately] since . . . their roles were
defined ." ReeJane laughed and explained that she thought of it like
"your sitcom type mother . . .I think Pleasantville, you know?" Then, in
the 1960s, Jemma added, "women remembered who they were and
that they had a voice and they deserved to be heard ."

"I Don't Remember Anything about Women" : Noticing Women's
Perspectives

A second point of interest in regard to students' anxiety about
the absence of men is that none of the students could remember asking
where womenwere in any previous classes, even though they agreed
that women had hardly ever shown up in social studies classes prior
to middle school . "You learned that women did work, but you didn't
learn anything beyond that," Kayla said . "And you learned about
slaves, and some of them could be women," Joseph added . Jared shook
his head, saying "I don't remember anything about women or women's
rights coming up until like now ." The other members of his interview
group agreed . They had learned history from men's perspectives, they

Spring 2002



2 4 5

Page 78

said, recalling that the few women who appeared were associated
either with abolition and Civil Rights (Harriet Tubman, Rosa Parks,
and Sojourner Truth) or the American Revolution (Molly Pitcher) .
Brook explained that she had discovered that "there were so many
different kinds of women . . . but [until middle school] we didn't really
think about women much ."

With three exceptions (all female), students wanted to know
more about women's history . "I'd like to know more about women
who were leaders and people looked up to and who were out in the
open and did good stuff," Jemma said . Eugenie wanted to "know more
about women in different cultures because we always hear about how
women were downtrodden and second class, I mean second rate
compared to men . I'd want to know about women in the history of
other cultures because in some of them women were first-class and
you don't hear about that ." Interrupting each other in their eagerness
to explain the importance of cross-cultural comparison, ReeJane and
Eugenie described "having knowledge of other cultures and you bring
that into play, not just American women . You don't have to have
specifically your own perspective ; you can step back and see a big
picture so that other people's ideas, you may not always agree with
them, and you can have an intelligent discussion with them while
disagreeing, but you can understand what they're talking about and
have a good discussion that involves all sorts of things besides your
view and their view and not just like this versus thing ."

"Normal" History : Mainly Focused on the Men
Despite their interest in national and international women's

histories, the eighth graders worried that by pursuing these interests
they would fail to "focus on men's lives"-the actors who had
dominated the stage in most of their previous encounters with
"normal" history . As they developed questions about reform,
westward expansion, and industrialization each class asked about the
activities of men . During interviews, too, four students worried with
Arlene that "we never really got much of the other side of it . How
men felt towards it, like we did know what they thought, but we really
didn't focus on what men's responses were ." In another interview Jake
suggested that they might have gotten some information on women,
but "not that we remember . Somebody may have told us-they may
have but we don't remember!" "Right," Brook said . "I was mainly
focused on the men . It is really amazing to know that women did all
this stuff . I guess I thought the women were all alike . In my project I
really enjoyed that, like there was the housewives and there was the
slaves and there was a mother and they were so different in so many
ways, and that was really neat ." Jerrilyn also raised the issue of the
vast differences among the women she had studied . "I always thought

246



Spring 2002

Page 154

IN SOCIAL EDUCATION

The editor would like to thank the following individuals for the time and
careful attention given to manuscripts they reviewed for TRSE .

Janet Alleman
Michigan State University
Patricia Avery
University of Minnesota
Keith Barton
University of Cincinnati
Linda Bennett
University of Missouri-Columbia
Jane Bernard-Powers
San Francisco State University
Michael Berson
University of South Florida
Kathy Bickmore
OISE/University of Toronto
Jere Brophy
Michigan State University
Margaret Crocco
Teachers College, Columbia University
Letitia Fickel
University of Alaska-Anchorage
Sherry Field
The University of Texas at Austin
Nancy Gallavan
University of Nevada at Las Vegas
S.G . Grant
State University of New York-Buffalo
Carole Hahn
Emory University
Greg Hamot
University of Iowa
Diana Hess
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Neil Houser
University of Oklahoma
Bruce Larson
Western Washington University

3 2 2

Reviewer Acknowledgement

Merry Merryfield
The Ohio State University
Anna Ochoa-Becker
Indiana University
Walter Parker
University of Washington
Jeff Passe
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Dan Perlstein
University of California at Berkley
John Saye
Auburn University
Avner Segall
Michigan State University
Peter Seixas
University of British Columbia
Dawn Shinew
Washington State University- Pullman
Lynda Stone
University of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill
Binaya Subedi
The Ohio State University
Stephen Thornton
Teachers College, Columbia University
Cynthia Tyson
The Ohio State University
Stephanie van Hover
University of Virginia
Bruce van Sledright
University of Maryland
Rahima Wade
University of Iowa

Spring 2002

Page 155

Q-MESEARCH
IN SOCIAL. EDUCATION

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