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University of South Florida
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College of Education Publications College of Education


Theory and research in social education 11/02
National Council for the Social Studies. College and University Faculty Assembly

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National Council for the Social Studies. College and University Faculty Assembly, "Theory and research in social education 11/02 "
(1983). College of Education Publications. Paper 38.

Page 2


in Social Education

Vol . :XI No.-2 Summer 1983


Assessing the Relationship between Information
Processing Capacity and Historical Understanding

Tarkins and Puckett Issues in a Relatively Nonrationalized Study :
Suggestions for Interpretive Research


Educational Attainment and Political Attitudes :
An Effect of Schools or Schooling?

Milton and Bickel

Teaching by Exemplar : On the Dialectical Nature
of Social Science


Putting "Community" into Citizenship Education :
The Need for Prosociality

Book Reviews


Long Memory-The Black Experience in America


The Chaneysville Incident






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Table 4 : Ordinary Least Square Regression Estimates of Political Alienation Equations (N = 729)

*Coefficients are twice their standard error .
Variable abbreviations are : Intelli, Intelligence ; SEL, Socioeconomic level ; Track, Curriculum track ; Collpl, College plans, Extrno, Number of extra-
curricular activities ; Polal, Political alienation ; Yrschoo, Years of schooling .
Time points are : 1, 1966 ; 2, 1968 ; 3, 1969 ; 4, 1970 ; 5, 1974 .

Intellil SEL1 Track2 Grades2 Co11p12 Extrno2 Pola13 Pola14 Yrschoo5 Constant R2

Metric .016 .275 .425 - .009 .134 - .165* - .030

Standard error .012 .159 .270 .018 .263 .067 .073

Standardized .061 .076 .076 - .023 .022 - .101 - .020

12 .756 .027

Metric .017 .200 .312 - .008 .234 - .104 .306* .012

Standard error .011 .152 .258 .011 .251 .064 .036 .069

Standardized .061 .055 .056 - .061 .039 - .064 .305 .008

8 .742 .117

Metric .006 .108 .212 - .011 .251 - .078 .102* .374* .007

Standard error .011 .144 .244 .016 .238 .061 .040 .041 .066

Standardized .022 .030 .038 - .026 .042 - .048 .101 .373 .055

8 .040 .210

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racial equality attitudes . Both the 1969 racial equality attitude and the 1970
racial equality attitude have significant and strong effects on the 1974 racial
equality attitude . Here the high school 1969 attitude is a better predictor of
the 1974 attitude than is the post-high school 1970 attitude . This pattern
contrasts with the pattern in Table 4 where the post-high school aliena-
tion was a better predictor of 1974 alienation than was 1969 high school
alienation .

The estimates for the anti-Vietnam war equations in Table 6 show that
the background variables, school-based variables, and earlier anti-Vietnam
war attitude explain 41 % of the variance in the 1974 anti-Vietnam war atti-
tude . Of the four political outcomes, political interest, political alienation,
racial equality attitudes and anti-Vietnam war attitudes, socioeconomic
level only has an effect on anti-Vietnam war attitudes . From Table 6 it is
evident that while this effect is significant in equations one and two it does
not operate in equation three . Intelligence and years of schooling are signifi-
cant in all three equations . Curriculum track is statistically significant in the
first two equations but when 1970 anti-Vietnam war attitude is added into
the third equation, high school curriculum track is no longer significant . As
with political interest and alienation the 1970 anti-Vietnam war attitude is
better for predicting the 1974 attitude than the 1969 attitude .


School and schooling effects vary for the four political attitudes on politi-
cal interest, political alienation, racial equality and the Vietnam war . Some
modest school effects were found for political interest, political alienation
and anti-Vietnam war attitudes . Political interest was affected positively by
college plans and negatively by extracurricular activities . Political alienation
was affected negatively by extracurricular activities . Anti-Vietnam war atti-
tudes were affected positively by curriculum track . Schooling effects were
investigated by estimating the impact of educational attainment, measured
by years of school completed in 1974, on the four political attitudes . Num-
ber of years of school attained did affect political interest and anti-Vietnam
war attitudes but not political alienation or racial equality attitudes .

Beyond the relationships between the political attitudes and the school-
based predictors, relationships among political attitudes were studied . The
political attitudes are distinct and operate differently with respect to the
background factors of intelligence and socioeconomic level . Also, the means
and standard deviations for these scales suggest different across-time trends
for the different political attitudes . For example, the mean for political
interest was relatively stable in comparison to the substantial increases in
the means for political alienation, racial equality attitude and anti-Vietnam
war attitude . The standard deviations show a convergence of racial equality
attitudes and political alienation while anti-Vietnam war attitudes diverged
during the eight-year period . Political interest, political alienation, racial


Page 98

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