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TitleTheories of Person-Environment Interaction: Implications for the College Student. Monograph 10.
LanguageEnglish
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Document Text Contents
Page 1

DOCUMENT RESUME

ED 081 838 TM 003 199

AUTHOR Walsh, W. Bruce
TITLE Theories of Person-Environment Interaction:

Implications for the College Student.,Monograph
10.

INSTITUTION American Coll..Testing Program, Iowa City, Iowa..
Research and Development Div.

REPORT NO ACT-Mono-10
PUB DATE 73
NOTE 229?.
AVAILABLE FROM ACT Publications, P.O..Box 168, Iowa City, Iowa 52240

($3.00)

EDRS PRICE MF-$0.65 HC-$9.87
DESCRIPTORS Behavior Theories; College Students; Cultural

Background; Cultural Environment; *Environmental
Influences; *Interaction Process Analysis;
*Literature Reviews; *Psychological Patterns;
Psychological Studies

ABSTRACT
The basic objective of this monograph is to present

and review a few selected theories of person-environment interaction
which have stimulated meaningful research..Five theoretical
viewpoints are included: Barker's theory of behavior settings, the
subcultural approach, Holland's theory of personality types and Nodel
environments, Stern's need x press=culture theory, and Pervin's
transactional approach. These theories are, for the most part,
psychological in nature, but most of them evidence some
interdisciplinary anchorings..Research related to the theories is
synthesized and the theories are compared. In addition, the
theoretical and applied implications of each theory are discussed and
evaluated. Lists of references and ACT publications conclude the
volume. (Author /KM)

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Page 112

102 THEORIES OF PERSON-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION

TABLE 10

Scale Definitions

1. Aba AbasementAss Assurance: Self-depreciation and self-devaluation as
reflected in the ready acknowledgment of inadequacy, ineptitude, or
inferiority. the acceptance of humiliation and other forms of self-degradation
versus certainty. self-confidence, or self-glorification.

2. Ach Achievement: Surmounting obstacles and attaining a successful
conclusion in order to prove one's worth, striving for success through personal
effort.

3. Ada Adaptability -Dfs Defensiveness: Accepting criticism, advice, or
humiliation publicly versus resistance to suggestion, guidance, direction, or
advice, concealment or justification of failure.

4. Aff Affiliation: Gregariousness, group-centered friendly, participatory
associations with others versus social detachment, social independence, self-
isolation, or unsociableness.

5. Agg Aggression--Bla Blame Avoidance: Indifference or disregard for the
feelings of others as manifested in hostility, either overt or covert, direct or
indirect, versus the denial or inhibition of such impulses.

6. Cha Change--Sam Sameness: Variable or flexible behavior versus repetition
and routine.

7. Cnj ConjunctivityN Disjunctivity: Organized, purposeful, or planned
activity patterns versus uncoordinated, disorganized, diffuse, or self-indulgent
behavior.

8. Ctr Counteraction: Persistent striving to overcome difficult, frustrating,
humiliating, or embarrassing experiences and failures versus avoidance or
hasty withdrawal from tasks or situations that might result in such outcomes.

3. Dfr DeferenceRst Restiveness: Respect for authority, submission to the
opinions and preferences of others perceived as superior versus
noncompliance, insubordination, rebelliousness, resistance, or defiance.

10. Dom DominanceTol Tolerance: Ascendancy over others by means of
assertive or manipulative control versus nonintervention, forbearance,
acceptance, equalitarianism, permissiveness, humility, or meekness.

Page 113

NEED X PRESS = CULTURE THEORY 103

II. E A Ego Achievement (derived from ExOcathection-Intraception): Self-
dramatizing, idealistic social action, active or fantasied realization of
dominance, power, or influence achieved through sociopolitical activities in
the name of social improvement or reform.

12. Emo Emotionality- -Plc Placidity: Intense, open emotional expression
versus stolidness, restraint, control, or constriction.

13. Eny EnergyPas Passivity (derived from Energy-Endurance--
Psychasthenia): High activity level, intense, sustained, vigorous effort versus
sluggishness or inertia.

14. Exh Exhibitionism Int' Inferiority Avoidance: Self-display and attention-
seeking versus shyness, embarrassment, self-consciousness, or withdrawal
from situations which the attention of others might be attracted.

15. F/ A Fantasied Achievement (derived from Ego Ideal): Daydreams ofsuccess
in achieving extraordinary public recognition, narcissistic aspiratipns for
fame, personal distinction, or power.

16. Har Harm AvoidanceRsk Risktaking: Fearfulness, avoidance, with-
drawal, or excessive caution in situations that might result in physical
pa in, injury, illness, or death versus careless indifference to danger, challenging
or provocative disregard for personal safety, thrill-seeking, boldness,
venturesomeness, or temerity.

17. Hum Humanities, Social Science (derived from Endocathection-
Extraception: Social Sciences and H umanities):.The symbolic manipulation of
social objects or artifacts through empirical analysis, reflection, discussion,
and criticism.

18. Imp ImpulsivenessDel Deliberation: Rash, impulsive, 'spontaneous, or
impetuous behavior versus care, caution, or reflectiveness.

t9. Nar Narcissism: Self-centered, vain, egotistical, preoccupation with self,
tic feelings associated with one's own body or personality,

20. Nur Nurturance: Supporting others by providing love, assistance, or
protection versus disassociation from others, indifference, withholding
support, friendship, or affection,

21. Obj ObjectivityPro Projectivity: Detached, nonmagical, unprejudiced,
impersonal thinking versus autistic, irrational, paranoid, or otherwise
egocentric perceptions and beliefssuperstition (Activities Index), suspicion
(Environment Indexes).

[Continued]

Page 224

No. 37 Practices and Outcomes of I 'ocational-Ii.chnical Edited thin in Techni(wl
and Conummity Colleges. by 'I'. G. Gartland. & .1. F. Carmody

No. 38 !lawsuit! C'onsiderat ions in Educathmal 1111brIllathnt hy M. R.
Novick

No, 39 Literaefil'e 10'eltS r)1. AChierell1C11.1 Oriellfauolt lea' hing Style on
Acadende AchhTement. hy G. Domino

No. 4(1 fffthe Structure at Vocational! Interests. by N. S. Cole, .8z G,
R. Hanson

No, 41 //ow /)a Community College Trans.l'er and a.cupational Students
by E...1. h3rue. H. B. Engen. & E. J. Maxey

No. 42 Applications f?I' Bayesian Methods the Prediction of Educational
Pet:liamance. by M. R. Novick. I'. H. Jackson. D. T. Thayer. & N. S.
Cole

No. 43 board More Equitable Divtrilnuion of Co/k''c' Student Aid Funds:
Problems in Assessing Student Financial Need, by M. 1). Orwig

No. 44 ConWrting Test Data to Counseling In/urination, by 1). .1. Prediger

No. 45 AcdUracy of Sell:Report Information Collected on the A CT Test
!tottery: High School Grades and Items of Nonacademic .4chieveuzent,
by E. .1. Maxey. & V..I. Ormsby

Na. 46 Correlates of Student Interest in Social Issues, by 1Z. II. Fcnskc. & .1, F.
(..iirmody

No. 47 The, Impact of College on Students' Competence to Function in a
Learning Society. by M. 11. & R. E. Herriott

No. 48 Enrollment Projection Models for Institutional Planning, by M. 1).
Omit:, P. K. Jones. & 0. T. Lennintt

No. 49 On :1Ieasuring the Vocal/011W Interests (if' Ii!omen, by N. S. Cole

No. 50 Stages in the Development of a Black Identity, by W. S. Hall. R. Erectile.
& E. Cross. Jr.

No. 51 Bias in .SWection, by N. S. Cole

217

Page 225

No. 52 Changes in Goals, Plans, and Background Chaacterkuics of Co llege-
Bound High School Students, by .1. F. Carmody, R. Fenske. & C. S.
Scott

No. 53 7'unurdun Integmthm of Theory am! Method fOr Criterion-Referenced
Tests. by R. K. liambleton, & M. R. Novick

No. 54 College Student Migration, by R. II. Fenske. C. S. Scott. & J. F.
Carmody

No. 55 Predictions of PetiOrmance in Career Education. by M. R. Novick, P. K.
Jones. & N. S. Cole

No. 56 Predictors of 6).c/that/lot/from College, by E. Nicholson

No. 57 Schoo/ing and Subsequent Success: hyluence of Ability. Background,
and Formal Education, by I.. C. Salmon

No. 58 Conat' ni Fa I lac les about Heredity, Environment, and Human Behavior.
by A. Anastasi

No. 59 Study ofthe Cohege Investment Decision, by W. W. McMahon. & A.
I'. Wainer

218

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