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TitleTHE WEST Encounters and Transformations
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to accompany



Encounters and Transformations
Second Edition

Sharon Arnoult
Midwestern State University

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This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in
teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work
(including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the
accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions
and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these

Instructor's Manual to accompany Levack/Muir/Veldman/Maas, The West: Encounters and Transformations,
Second Edition

Copyright ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Instructors may reproduce portions of this book for
classroom use only. All other reproductions are strictly prohibited without prior permission of the publisher, except
in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.

ISBN: 0-321-42735-1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10–OPM–09 08 07 06

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B. The Control of Nature
The Scientific Revolution increased the belief that humans could control
nature. Some philosophers argued that by gaining knowledge of the laws of nature,
humans could acquire dominion over nature. They began to believe that science and
technology could improve human life.

C. Women, Men, and Nature
The new scientific ideas challenged the ancient and medieval beliefs about
the physical and mental inferiority of women by concluding that both men and
women made an equal contribution to reproduction. But, despite new theoretical
foundation for sexual equality, such as Descartes’s position that there was no
difference between male and female minds, traditional notions about women
continued to dominate.

VI. Conclusion: Science and Western Culture

Uniquely Western, the Scientific Revolution had no counterpart in other parts of
the world, where religious traditions prevented an objective study of the natural world.
Thus, the Scientific Revolution gave the West a new source of identity: modern science.
It also gave the West a science-based technology, which resulted in both power and a
sense of superiority.


1. The “Student Work” section of the Galileo Project (see “Further Resources”
below) includes exercises that allow students to recreate early scientific experiments.

2. The challenge of the “new learning” of empiricism to older ways of thinking is
vividly illustrated in the exercise “Science and the Natural World: Competing
Renaissance Views,” available through the History Net site at

3. Rene Descartes’s Discourse on Method is widely available, relatively brief, and
fairly accessible. Students can read it, and write essays in which they discuss Descartes’s

4. The multimedia presentation “A Brief History of Cosmology” at documents the changes from Ptolomy to

5. Two popular books by Dava Sobel would make suitable class assignments:
Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem
of His Time (1996) and Galileo’s Daughter: A Historical Memoir of Science, Faith, and
Love (2000).

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1. What were the respective roles taken by new intellectual outlooks and new
inventions in the Scientific Revolution?

2. Why did men like Copernicus and Galileo begin to challenge the authority of

3. Why was it that England in particular became such a center of scientific
thinking, inductive reasoning?

4. How did the development of science serve the interests of the ever-
strengthening early modern state?

5. Why did the early scientists not distinguish between “science” and “magic”?


1. Have students research and stage a debate between advocates of "the ancients"
and "the moderns."

2. The year is 1700, and Minerva, goddess of science and wisdom, has filed a
lawsuit against the scientists, living and dead. She claims that men have masculinized
science unfairly, making it an all-male profession, excluding women. She seeks damages
and restoration as the embodiment of knowledge. Encourage your students to have fun
with this “trial,” while learning about early modern gender beliefs as they prepare and
present Minerva’s case and the scientists’ defense.


1. “The Galileo Project” is an outstanding Web site maintained by Rice
University, which provides information and links to Galileo and the Scientific

2. An additional guide to Web sites on the history of science and technology is
offered by The History Net at

3. The Web site contains the
multimedia presentation “A Brief History of Cosmology,” as well as “Britain and the
Rise of Science” by Lisa Jardine.

4. Sir Isaac Newton: The Gravity of Genius (1998) brings to life this pivotal
figure. This 50-minute video is part of the A&E Biography series.

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4. An excerpt of Vaclav Havel’s speech on the end of communism, delivered in
February 1992 at the World Economic Forum, can be found at

5. More information about the poststructuralist theories of Michel Foucault can
be found at

6. Documents from the 1972 SALT Treaty and the ABM Treaty are available at

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