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TitleThe Transformation of Governance in the European Union
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Table of Contents
                            BOOK COVER
HALF-TITLE
TITLE
COPYRIGHT
CONTENTS
FIGURES AND TABLES
CONTRIBUTORS
PREFACE
PREFACE
ABBREVIATIONS
1 INTRODUCTION
	Notes
2 THE EVOLUTION AND TRANSFORMATION OF EUROPEAN GOVERNANCE
	Why talk about European governance?
	The European Community: a very particular system of governance
	A typology of modes of governance
	When types of governance meet
	Establishing the framework for empirical research
	Notes
3 TRANSFORMATION IN EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE
	Introduction
	The global discursive context of the transformation of European environmental governance
	A new mode of governance in EC environmental policy-making
	The European Community and the governance of the environment in the member states
	Conclusions: patterns and results of transformation processes
	Notes
4 REGULATING GENETIC ENGINEERING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
	Introduction
	EC governance: a post-structuralist approach
	Changing metanarratives and new regulatory policy frames in Europe
	The EC becomes an actor in recombinant DNA regulation
	Local arguments about recombinant DNA regulation
	Policy frame conflicts in the European Community
	The draft goes to the Council and the European Parliament
	Rewriting the EC directives
	Notes
5 EUROPEAN SOCIAL POLICY
	Introduction
	The ‘old patterns’: social policy governance under the EEC Treaty
	Early efforts towards changes in governance in the 1970s and 1980s
	The 1991 IGC: a ‘whip in the window’
	The Maastricht Social Agreement as a change in governance
	Cooperative policy-making under the Social Agreement
	Conclusions: the Social Agreement and the transformation of governance in Europe
	Notes
6 ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION IN EUROPE
	Introduction
	The evidence of transformation
	Governance and ‘path dependency’ in EMU
	‘Core executive’ governance
	Theories of ‘core executive’ governance
	EMU as interlocking ‘core executive’ governance: how EMU governance operates
	Conclusion
	Note
7 PLANES, TRAINS AND AUTOMOBILES
	The new acquis transport: what happened in the 1980s?
	The contours of governance in the 1990s
	The timing and nature of governance transformation
	Conclusion
	Notes
8 GOVERNANCE TRANSFORMATION IN THE PROFESSIONAL SERVICES SECTOR
	Introduction
	‘Unpacking’ governance transformation in the professional services sector: a preliminary assessment
	Three governance systems for professional services in the EC
	Historical institutionalism and the dynamics of embedded intra-sectoral differentiation
	Europe’s regulatory state and market integration ‘by the back door’
	Professional services and the analysis of sectoral governance transformation within the European Community: some concluding…
	Notes
9 NATIONAL PATTERNS OF GOVERNANCE UNDER SIEGE
	Introduction
	The pluralist model: the United States and the European Union
	The clash between the EU’s quasi-pluralist model and the statist and corporatist models of member states
	The differences in policy formulation
	The differences in policy implementation
	Conclusion
	Notes
10 BUSINESS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND THE EU
	The issue and hypotheses
	The governance concepts
	Research design and data
	The empirical evidence
	Conclusions and perspectives
	Notes
11 PERCEPTIONS OF GOVERNANCE IN GREEK STATE RETREAT
	Pressures, convergence, transmission belts and Europeanisation of policy
	Convergence of policy, yes: but what about governance?
	Advocacy coalitions and the paradox of state retreat
	Europeanisation, strength of weakness, and the content of reform
	Propensity to network governance and perceptions of the state
	Chances of corporatism and the relevance of time horizon
	Incrementalism, paradigm shift and policy learning
	Conclusions
	Notes
12 RESHUFFLING POWER
	Reshuffling sectoral governance
	The sectoral governance regime of the German electricity supply industry
	The liberalisation of the EC electricity markets
	The repercussions of EC liberalisation on the German regime
	Conclusion
	Notes
13 DEFENDING STATE AUTONOMY
	Introduction: the theoretical puzzle
	Governance in the European Union: the empirical starting-point for the solution of an analytical puzzle
	Raison d’état as the striving of rational states to maintain external autonomy in a world of states
	International governance as a response of problem-solvers to globalisation and interdependence
	Internal autonomy and the new raison d’etat
	Conclusion
	Notes
14 GOVERNMENT, GOVERNANCE, GOVERNMENTALITY
	Transformation of governance: some diagnostic evidence
	European governance as a project of universalism: federalism as a critical yardstick
	Transformation of governance: critical evaluation
	Notes
15 GOVERNANCE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
	Introduction
	Which mode of governance in the European Community?
	The importance of principles and concepts in EC governance
	EC governance and member state governance: towards convergence or diversity?
	Conclusion
	Notes
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

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Page 2

THE TRANSFORMATION OF
GOVERNANCE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

The Transformation of Governance in the European Union provides a challenging
contribution to the topical, ongoing governance debate. Governance is the new
buzz-word aimed at catching the present-day complexity of political action.
Coordinating actors that are both autonomous and interdependent is a growing
matter of concern for governing within and beyond the nation state. It is of
particular relevance to the EU because of the very properties of this system: highly
sectoralised policy regulation has to be agreed in a multilevel framework.

The book presents a theoretically-informed typology of modes of governance
which is tested in a careful selection of comparative country and policy studies.
At the core is the question of whether the European Union is destined for a network
type of governance and whether and how this type of governance will be translated
into the member states. The individual chapters subject the governing patterns at
European and national level to empirical scrutiny. Drawing on recent research
findings in different issue areas—including monetary union, social affairs,
environment, genetic engineering and market liberalisation in transport, banking,
energy and professional services—the contributions highlight the impact of
European activities in the policy-making process in the member states.

This book will give researchers in political science, European studies,
international relations and policy-making a new perspective on the topical and
controversial issue of governance. It will also be useful to those with a professional
interest in the topic, from lobbyists, national civil servants and MEPs to
Commission officials.

Both the editors are at the University of Mannheim, Germany. Beate Kohler-
Koch is Jean Monnet Chair for European Integration, and Rainer Eising is
Lecturer in the Department of Political Sciences. Beate KohlerKoch has written
widely on matters of international relations and West European integration, and
is co-ordinating the six-year research programme of the German Science
Foundation on ‘EU Governance’.

Page 171

154

Page 172

9
NATIONAL PATTERNS OF

GOVERNANCE UNDER SIEGE
The impact of European integration

Vivien A. Schmidt

Introduction

In recent years, scholars have focused increasing attention on the nature of
European institutions and their impact on those of member states. Scholars
concerned in particular with the structure of EU governance tend to disagree over
whether the EU is best elucidated as a collection of unitary states (Taylor 1991;
Moravscik 1991; Garrett 1992) or as a quasi-federal state (Sbragia 1993:28).
Among those who consider the EU as a quasi-federal governance structure, most
tend to describe a ‘dynamic confusion of powers’ (Schmidt 1997a) instead of the
traditional separation of powers of federal systems, with the legislative function
more the domain of the formal executive than the directly-elected legislature; the
executive function more the purview of the Commission bureaucracy than the
formal executive to which it reports (Hayes-Renshaw and Wallace 1995; Nugent
1995); and the judicial function encroaching on the executive and the legislative
in its judiciary activism (Wincott 1995; Weiler 1991).

When scholars turn to the impact of the EU on member state institutions,
moreover, they see a general loss of autonomy as EU institutions increasingly take
precedence over national ones, and a change in the institutional balance of power
within national governments as EU institutions reinforce the powers of some
national institutions and undermine those of others. For example, scholars find
that although the executive’s autonomy is diminished as a result of EU collective
decision-making (Hayes-Renshaw and Wallace 1995; Scharpf 1994), its power
over other national-level institutions and civil society is enhanced (Moravscik
1993b), although not in all instances (see Schmidt 1997b). In addition, they note
that although the expansion of the powers of the European Court of Justice (ECJ)
has reduced the independence of the national judiciary, national judiciaries
generally have seen a concomitant rise in their powers and autonomy vis-à-vis the
executive, while the lower courts have gained a measure of independence from
higher ones (Burley and Mattli 1993). By contrast, most comment upon a decline
in the powers of national parliaments, despite the reforms related to Maastricht
(see Raworth 1994). Finally, many also see a growth in the powers of subnational

Page 341

Schomberg, R. 80
Sciortino, G. 52
Schmidt, V. 7, 10, 32, 164, 165, 166, 167,

184, 191, 267, 268, 269, 270, 279, 280,
281

Schmitter, P. 22, 88, 92–6, 155, 171, 205
Schneider, V. 189, 267
Seche, J.C. 134
Schubert, K. 171
security networks, domestic 9
Sidenius, N. 10, 171, 175, 176, 177, 179–4,

185–8, 225, 267, 279, 279, 281
Silva, Cavaco see Cavaco Silva
Simon, H. 203
Simonis, G. 235
Single European Act 62, 83, 122, 126, 130,

133, 135, 145, 147, 164, 175–8, 252, 260,
279

Skocpol, T. 242, 246
Smart, B. 59, 60
Smith, T.T. 62, 256
Social Affairs Council 90
social agreement 8, 80, 85–94, 273
social policy, corporatism in 5
Socialist Group of the EP 73
Social Protocol 8, 273, 276
Sotiropoulos, D.A. 200, 205
Spain 7, 46, 47, 52–7
Spaargaren, G. 62
Stasinopoulos, D. 133
state, the 4, 229–47
statism 4, 5, 10
Steinmo, S. 137, 207
Strange, S. 190
Strauss, H.S. 62
Streek, W. 91, 92, 94, 94, 155, 171, 183, 186
sub-systems, societal 3
Suleiman, E.N. 142

Tarrow, S. 166
Taylor, P. 153
Tesier, R. 62
Thatcher, M. 51, 104, 107, 112, 162, 191
Thelen, K. 207
Thomson, J.E. 244, 245
Thompson, G. 138, 260
Tilly, C. 246

Tinbergen, J. 30
Torstendahl, R. 137
Trades Union Congress (TUC) 89
TEN (trans European networks) 128
Transport Council 120, 126, 132
transport policy, common 8, 117–34
transport sector 9
Traxler, F. 94
Treaty of Rome 62, 117, 121, 122, 126, 132,

134, 135, 144, 144,148, 149, 191
Treaty on European Union 43, 87
Tschannen, O. 62
Tsoukalis, L. 190, 257
Turkey, transport policy 124
Tzoannos, J. 133

Ugelow, J. 48, 56
Underhill, G. 135
Unger, B. 187
UNICE 8, 83, 84–9, 88, 89, 91
United Kingdom:

BA 127;
Electricity Association 213;
Employers’ Federation 89;
DOE 68, 78, 79;
DTI 148;
and EMU 104, 106, 112;
environmental policy 7, 47, 50–6;
European integra- tion 161–72;
genetics forum 68;
governance 7, 10, 46;
transport 119

United States 10,24

Val Duchesse social dialogue 83–7
van Binsbergen 146
Van der Straaten, J. 48, 56
Van Schendelen, M.C.P.M. 175, 177, 283
Van Waarden, F. 37, 46, 49, 187, 200, 267
Vedrine, H. 113
Vincent, D. 133
Visser, J. 86
Voelzkow, H. 86, 91, 92, 283

Wagerbaur, R. 62
Waigel, T. 104, 107, 113
Wallace, H. 3, 153, 168, 261, 268, 275, 283

324 INDEX

Page 342

Wallace, W. 12
Waltz, K.N. 235, 237
Weale, A. 47, 50, 51, 68
Weidner, H. 49, 49, 56
Weiler, J. 144, 153
Wendt, A. 236
Werner Report 98
Weild, D. 80
Wessels, W. 279
White, R. 142
Whitelegg, J. 133
White Papers 51, 83
Wildavsky, A. 202
Williams, S. 226, 233, 237, 239
Wincott, D. 153, 279
Winters, L.A. 120
Wolf, K.D. 11, 38, 170, 232, 235, 238, 263,

281, 283
Wolin, S.S. 262
Woolley, J.T. 253
Works Councils Directive 89
World Bank 241, 261
WCED 38
World Society Research Group 246
WWF 53
Wright, D. 62
Wright, S. 67
Wright, V. 38, 189, 194
Wyplosz, C. 191

Young, A.R. 106, 133, 280, 283

Zangl, B. 246
Zinn, K.G. 260
Zinow 215
Zürn, M. 92, 239, 240
Zysman, J. 133

INDEX 325

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