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TitleThe Superdeep Well of the Kola Peninsula
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LanguageEnglish
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Page 1

EXPLORATION
OF THE
DEEP CONTINENTAL
CRUST
Edited by

H.-J. Behr, Gottingen
C. B. Raleigh, Palisades

Advisory Board

R. N. Anderson, Lamont
K. Fuchs, Karlsruhe
W. S. Fyfe, London (Canada)
H. Rischmiiller, Hannover
W. Schreyer,. Bochum
M. Zoback, Stanford

Page 2

The Superdeep Well
of the
Kola Peninsula
Edited by Ye.A. Kozlovsky

In Collaboration with
N. I. Andrianov M. I. Vorozhbitov D. M. Guberman
V. I. Kazansky E. W. Karns V. S. Lanev E. B. Nalivkina
RA. Sumbatov

With 190 Figures

Springer-Verlag
Berlin Heidelberg New York
London Paris Tokyo

Page 282

Subsurface Waters of the Pechenga Subartesian Basin 273

SG3 well

200

-200

-fOOO

-1800

-2600

-3400

-4200

-5000

-680°1 ~

-7600 ffi
-86001 a
-fOool ~~~

KS-2 NE

Fig. 1.77. Generalized hydrogeological section
of the SG-3 well testing ground. 1 zones of nega-
tive temperature anomalies; 2 zones of intensive
fissuring; 3 highly mineralized waters; 4 reser-
voir rocks of fracture-vein and fracture types; 5
zone of intensive micromovements; 6 boundary
between III and IV volcanogenic-sedimentary
sheets; 7 temperature, °C; 8 wells

500 - 1500 m from each other. Beyond these zones rocks are practically imperme-
able (10- 5 _10- 6 mD). Intervals of increased fissuring are grouped in large zones
500 - 800 m thick, each containing two or three local maxima of fissuring.
Waters of a fissured-vein type are confined to these zones (Fig. 1.77). However,
judging by the intensity of water manifestations, the permeability and formation
pressures of these zones are comparatively low.

Down to a depth of 4.5 km, three such zones have been recognized in inter-
vals of 300 - 620, 1050 - 1840 and 230 - 2870 m. Below a depth of 4.5 km, the
thickness of individual fissure zones does not increase, and the distance between
them shortens. Foliation becomes the predominate feature of the rocks, and the
main direction of the fissures changes. All these facts are evidence of the differ-

Page 283

274 Hydrogeological Essay

ent nature of the aquiferous fissure zones occurring above and below a depth
mark of 4.5 km.

The lower part of the section was named by Bezrodny (1979) a zone of region-
al tectonic foliation, although it seems that a zone of regional disaggregation
would be a more suitable name. The lower boundary of this zone descends to a
depth of 9 km, and its total thickness exceeds 4 km. The zone is saturated by free
(gravity) water; the permanent inflow of water into a borehole during the drilling
process supports the above conclusion (on the basis of the OS data processing).

The hydrogeological phenomenon described was discovered for the first time
in drilling the Kola super deep well. According to results of hydrodynamic test-
ing, a coefficient of rock filtration in the aquiferous zone at a depth of
6170 - 6470 m is equal to 10 -7 m day -1; this value exceeds the permeability value
determined in a core sample 10 by one or two orders. This fact is of primary im-
portance, because in the past metamorphic rocks occurring at such depths were
considered to be impermeable to waters beyond the limits of tectonic faults in
conditions of the actual existing gradients of the water head, which were identi-
fied in the course of field investigations. In the present case, the gradient of the
water head was raised to 100 m m -1 in the course of field investigations and to
10- 40,000 m m -1 during laboratory studies. Simultaneously, it was established
that the formation pressure here approaches the geostatic pressure. This is the
main cause for the inflow of a considerable amount of subsurface waters into the
borehole, despite generally low rock permeability.

Below a depth of 8.9 - 9 km, the number and thickness of fissure zones con-
taining free subsurface waters abruptly decrease. These thin (10 - 20 m) and
rather intensive zones are most probably of local occurrence; this conclusion pro-
ceeds from the observation that water inflow ceases very rapidly as soon as these
zones are penetrated by the well. However, the great intensity of water inflows
indicates that the permeability of these zones is rather high.

All fissure zones discovered in the well section contain free (gravity) water,
and they can be readily recognized on drilling through them by changes in the
various indices of the drilling fluid which are analyzed in the course of the opera-
tive supervision.

1.9.2 Chemical Composition of Subsurface Waters

Chemical and gas composition of subsurface waters from a zone of exogenous
fissuring of the Pechenga subartesian basin have been studied in detail. It was es-
tablished that mainly ultra-fresh and fresh waters of calcium hydrocarbonate
composition circulate in fissured rocks of varying genesis. Their mineralization
rarely reaches 0.5 g 1-1. Waters of calcium sulphate composition, with mineral-
ization reaching 2 g 1-1 and higher, are confined to areas composed of rocks con-
taining sulphides. These waters usually occupy a part of the section, but at places
they fill the entire zone of exogenous fissuring. The formation of these waters is

10 In laboratory conditions permeability was determined in a vertical direction and in field conditions
in horizontal direction, i.e. in the direction of the predominant fissure development.

Page 564

558 References

Markov GA (1977) Tectonic stresses and rock pressure in mines of the Khibiny massif. Nauka,
Leningrad

Medvedev RV, Kuznetsov YI (1982) Rock mass properties as determined by deep drilling. Nauka,
Novosibirsk

Neymark AS (1975) On the problem of determination of anisotropic parameters of orthotropic
materials. Izv Vuzov Mashinostroyeniye No 6

Neymark AS, Danelyants SM, Fayn GM (1979) Drill string assembly for super-deep holes. Mashiny i
Neftyanoye Oborudovaniye No 6

Paus KF (1973) Drilling muds. Nedra, Moscow
Shcherbyuk NO, Yakubovsky NV (1974) Thread joints of oil drill pipes and downhole motors.

Nedra, Moscow
Sinyavsky VS (1977) Corrosion and protection of aluminium alloys. Metallurgy, Moscow
Timofeyev NS, Vugin RB, Yaremeychuk RS (1971 a) Hole wall fatigue strength. Nedra, Moscow
Timofeyev NS, Vorozhbitov MI, Simonyants LY (1971 b) Problems, methods and possible solutions

in drilling and operation of super-deep holes. Vnezhtorgizdat, Moscow
Tumanov AG, Kvasov FI, Fridlyander IN (eds) (1972) Aluminium. Physical metallurgy, treatment

and application of aluminium alloys (translated from English). Metallurgiya, Moscow
Turchaninov lA, Markov GA, Kasparyan EN (1977) Fundamentals of rock mechanics. Nauka,

Moscow
Turchaninov lA, Markov GA, Ivanov VI et al (1978) Tectonic stresses in the earth crust and stability

of mine workings. Nauka, Leningrad
Vorozhbitov MI, Golubev GR (1976) Determination of rational distribution of deviation intensity in

deep well intervals. Neftyanoye Khozyaistvo No 5
Vorozhbitov MI, Guberman OM, Ivannikov VI (1975) On the problem of assessment of major

parameters of drilling super-deep holes within a specified period of time. Trudy VNIIBT, issue 34

Page 565

Springer-Verlag
Berlin Heidelberg New York
London Paris Tokyo

Observation of the
Continental Crnst through
Drilling I
Proceedings of the International Symposium held in
Tarrytown, May 20-25, 1984

Editor: B. Raleigh

1985.211 figures. IX, 364 pages. (Exploration of the
Deep Continental Crust). ISBN 3-540-15873-1

Contents: Review of National Drilling Programs. -
Thermal Regimes. - Geochemistry and Mineral
Resources. - In Borehole Measurements. - Advances
in Drilling and Logging Technology. - Recent Results
from Scientific Drilling. - Deep Structures of Conti-
nents.

The Tarrytown International Symposium was the first
to bring experts from around the world to present their
national scientific drilling programs and results. These
papers discuss major scientific problems in the earth
sciences that can only be addressed by drilling, such as
the nature of the fluid convection system in hydro-
thermal areas, the origins of hydrothermal ore-bodies,
and earthquakes, active magmatic intrusion into the
crust, the age and constitution of the North American
craton and the structure of the Atlantic continental
margin. An important component of a scientific drilling
program, the down-hole measurements, is reviewed
and the technology oflogging and drilling in high-
temperature rock, one of the scientifically more inter-
esting targets, is considered.
This volume, the first in the new series Exploration of
the Deep Continental Crnst, represents a landmark in
international scientific cooperation. Its publication
coincides with the initiation of several national drilling
programs, and the attempt by those nations to share
information throughout the course of the program.

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