Download The Structure of Surfaces II: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Structure of Surfaces (ICSOS II), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 22–25, 1987 PDF

TitleThe Structure of Surfaces II: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Structure of Surfaces (ICSOS II), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 22–25, 1987
File Size21.1 MB
Total Pages637
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Springer Series in
Surface Sciences


Editor: Gerhard Ertl

Page 2

Springer Series in Surface Sciences
Editors: Gerhard Ertl and Robert Gomer

Volume 1: Physisorption Kinetics
By H.J. Kreuzer, Z. W. Gortel

Volume 2: The Structure of Surfaces
Editors: M. A. Van Hove, S. Y. Tong

Volume 3: Dynamical Phenomena at Surfaces, Interfaces and
Editors: F. Nizzoli, K.-H. Rieder, R.F. Willis

Volume 4: Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions, DIET II
Editors: W. Brenig, D. Menzel

Volume 5: Chemistry and Physics of SoHd Surfaces VI
Editors: R. Vanselow, R. Howe

Volume 6: Low-Energy Electron Diffraction
Experiment, Theory and Surface Structure Determination
By M. A. Van Hove, W. H. Weinberg, C.-M. Chan

Volume 7: Electronic Phenomena in Adsorption and Catalysis
By V. F. Kiselev, o. V. Krylov

Volume 8: Kinetics of Interface Reactions
Editors: M. Grunze, H. J. Kreuzer

Volume 9: Adsorption and Catalysis in Transition Metals and their
Oxides III
By o. V. Krylov, V. F. Kiselev

Volume 10: Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces VII
Editors: R. Vanselow, R. Howe

Volume 11: The Structure of Surfaces II
Editors: J. F. van der Veen, M. A. Van Hove

Page 318

Si(100)2x1 two-domain

surface Brillouin zones

[01 I)

domain a

Ja b

Jil Kb

_ ...... !._ ... J... , ,

, , ,


! , , , , , ,

r lJb


, ,

J' a

T"'''' -_ .. ---- --- ... , -- --- -- -- ..... -_ ...

domain b




Fig, 1 Superimposed 2x1 surface Brillouin
zones for the two-domains present on the
Si(100) surface.



.... "".



Si(100)2x1 clean



:~. ~

I .....

' .
. ..... --..J ...


. )..../'.. "'-~
.... ./ ....... I

. .... --... ,,. ......... .
. 16.8

-6 -4 -2 0


Fig.2 (a) Angle-resolved photoemission spectra obtained at three different photon energies (21,2,
16,8 and 15.0 eV) for normal light incidence. Structures A, B, and D correspond to surface state
emission from the J'symmetry point. (b) Photoemission spectra for the mono hydride phase
showing two hydrogen induced peaks at - 4.8 eV and - 5,6 eV, The surface states A and Bare
completely removed while the surface state D is still present on the Si(1 00)2x1 :H surface,

However, up to now only part of the information provided by angle-resolved photoemission has
been utilized in the comparisons with calculated surface state bands. Besides the dangling-bond and
the surface resonance state, three other surface state structures have been reported along the r-J
line in the [010) direction, but so far no satisfactory explanation of these three surface states has
been given.

2 Experimental Results

The angle-resolved photoemission study presented in this paper was performed using both a reso,
nance light source (He I and Ne I) and synchrotron radiation. The sample was an n-doped Si(1 00)
single crystal (p -2 Ocm , P ) which was cleaned by an etching procedure before insertion into the
vacuum-chamber [19). Spectra obtained in the [010) direction for three different photon energies

(15.0, 16.8 and 21.2 eV) are shown in Fig 2 a. Equivalent kll points are probed for the two do-

mains along this direction which should result in identical surface state contributions in the photo-


Page 319

emission spectra from the two domains. The emission angles were chosen such that the structures
in the region 0-2 eV below EF correspond to emission from, or close to, the J'ab point. Since nor-

mal light incidence was used the dangling-bond emission (A) is suppressed in these spectra due to
the dominating Pz character of this surface state. Besides the dangling-bond peak two prominent

structures, Band D, are observed.

Structure B has been observed in all photoemission studies in which the [010] direction was
probed [2,11-14,16-20] except for the study by VAN HOOF and VAN DER WIEL [10]. This latter
study differs from the rest in that the surface state intensity was rather low which might be the
reason why structure B was not observed. It has been suggested that the existence of 2x2 recon-
structed domains could explain the presence of structure B [3]. In the case of a 2x2 reconstruction
the Jab point would correspond to a r-point in the second 2x2-SBZ and thus the B structure would

then correspond to the dangling bond state at f. In this study and in other photemission studies
where structure B is well resolved [11,14,18], its energy position is found to be significantly
lower (-0.2 eV) than the dangling-bond energy at r. Structure B also shows a dispersion with a
minimum at J' ab (see Fig. 3) [14,18]. The difference in energy position and dispersion of struc-
ture B rules out the explanation in terms of a 2x2 reconstruction or any explanation in terms of
scattering from the high density of states region close to r to the outer regions of the SBZ (near J).

Single-domain Si(100)2x1 surfaces have been studied in order to obtain further information
about the surface electronic structure of Si(1 00)2x1 [15,16]. In the study by BRINGANS et al.
[15] the dispersion of the dangling-bond state (A) along the r-J and r-J' lines was unambiguosly
determined, and found to confirm the earlier results on two-domain surfaces [11]. In this study
along the symmetry lines [15] it was concluded that structure B was not present at the J point
along a [011] symmetry direction. In a later study [20] where also the [01 OJ-direction was
studied, structure B was observed at Jab just as clearly as for the two-domain Si(1 00)2x1 sur-


Considering all the information about structure B we find that it most likely corresponds to a
surface state band intrinsic to Si(100) surfaces showing a 2x1 LEED pattern .

The third structure (D) is observed in the projected bulk band gap around the Jab point. The

dispersion which was found to be identical for the three photon energies used (15.0, 16.8 and 21.2
eV) is shown in Fig. 3. The dispersion we find in our experiment is in good agreement with that
found in Refs. 12 and 13 for the same structure. The energy location in the bulk band gap and the
invariant dispersion with different photon energies strongly supports a surface state interpretation
of structure D. Since the surface has a different periodicity than the bulk one also has to consider
possible surface umklapp processes when analyzing the origin of structure D. Bulk structures
appearing at k// values close to J' along the [011] or the [01 1] directions can in principle also be
observed close to J' in the [010] direction if a surface umklapp process is involved. Because of the
steep dispersion, structure D would in such a case have to correspond to direct bulk transitions
moved in kll space by the surface umklapp process. We find that an interpretation in terms of a

bulk direct transition is unlikely since the dispersion is identical for the three photon energies used
in the experiment. We interpret structure D as due to a surface state in accordance with the assign-
ment in Refs. 12 and 13.

Hydrogen chemisorption studies were also performed in order to obtain further information by
selective quenching of different surface states. For the monohydride phase, Si(1 00)2x1 :H, one ex-
pects that the dangling bond state is removed due to the formation of Si-H bonds, and for the di-
hydride phase, Si(1 00)1x1 :2H, one expects that also the dimer-bond is removed since two hydro-
gen atoms are supposedly bonded to each silicon atom and the dimer-bond is broken up. The results


Page 636

Index of Contributors

Alkemade, P.F.A. 443
Allan, G. 105
Allen, L.R. 514
Allen, R.E. 399
Allison, W. 575
Altman, M.S. 137
Andriamanantenasoa, I.

Aono, M. 581
Atrei, A. 214

Baberschke, K. 174
Badziag, P. 316
Balkenende, R 443
Bardi, U. 147,214,404
Bartelt, N.C. 475
Bartolini, A. 132
Bastasz, R. 250
Bauer, E. 53
Behm, R.J. 207,225,261
Belin, M. 71
Benedek, G. 618
Besenbacher, F. 195
Bevk, J. 412
Bickel, N. 19,201
Bienfait, M. 559
Blanchard, D.L. 514
Bonzel, H.P. 612
Brower Jr., W.E. 601
Bursill, L.A. 588

Carriere, B. 368
Carter, J.N. 320
Chang, S.-L. 231
Christmann, K. 201
Christopoulos, A.S. 26
Coenen, F.P. 612
Comsa, G. 488,502
Conrad, E.H. 514
Copel, M. 110
Copperthwaite, RG. 384
Crapper, M.D. 189

D'Amico, K.1. 509
Daimon, H. 334
Daley, RS. 75

David, R 488
David, R 502
Davis, H.1. 152
Daw, M.S. 125
Del Sole, R 309
Demuth, J.E. 282
Denier van der Gon, A.

Derby, G. 463
Derks, H. 496
Derry, T .E. 384
Dev, B.N. 340
Deville, J.P. 368
Dutta, P. 564
Dwyer, V.M. 320

Ehsasi, M. 201
Einstein, T.1. 475
Eklund, E.A. 75
Ellis, J. 575
Ellis, W.P. 250
Eng,1. 595
Engel, T. 514
Ercolessi, F. 132
Ertl, G. 207
Estrup, P.J. 137
Evans, J.W. 231

Fabre, F. 520
Fasolino, A. 458
Feidenhans'l, R 292,352
Feldman, L.C. 412
Fenter, P. 110
Foiles, S.M. 125
Fortuin, H. 443
Frenken, J.W.M. 545
Freyer, N. 606

Gardiner, T.M. 183
Gauthier, S. 10,71
Gossmann, H.-J. 412
Gradmann, U. 426
Grey, F. 292,340,352
Giintherodt, H.-J. 595
Gustafsson, T. 110

Habraken, F.H.P.M. 443

Hamaguchi, I. 58
Hamers, R.J. 282
Hammer, L. 201
Hanbiicken, M. 368
Hansen, J.O. 384
Hansson, G.V. 303
Harris, P.E. 384
Hasegawa, S. 334
Hasegawa, T. 43
Hashiguchi, G. 298
Heiland, W. 496
Heinz, K. 19,201
Henzler, M. 431
Hibma, T. 419
Hidber, H.R. 595
Higashiyama, K. 346
Hinch, B.J. 575
Hiraki, A. 378
Holland, B.W. 320
Horn, T.C.M. 83
Hosokawa, Y. 58
Huang, J.H. 75
Huber, M. 570
Hughes, G.J. 509

Ichinokawa, T. 58
Ikarashi, N. 43
Ino, S. 334
Ishikawa, Y. 58
Ito, T. 378

Jacobsen, K.W. 118
Jiang, P. 100
Johansson, L.S.O. 303
Johnson, RL. 292,340,352
Jona, F. 90,100
Jones, R.G. 189,238
Jost, D. 618
Jupille, J. 463

Kaiming, Zhang 357
Kang, M.H. 160
Kato, Y. 378
Kawamura, T. 298
Kern, K. 488,502
Ketterson, J.B. 564


Page 637

Khater, A. 142
King, D.A. 463
Kirschner, J. 58
Kjrer, K. 352
Klein, J. 10,71
Kleinle, G. 207
Kleyn, A.W. 83
Kobayashi, K. 43
Koch, N. 595
Kono, S. 346
Kosterlitz, J.M. 470

Lacharme, J.P. 363
Landskron, H. 19
Lannoo, M. 105
Lapujoulade, J. 520
Le Lay, G. 368
Legrand, B. 167
Levi, A.C. 530
Li, Zheyin 327
Liang, K.S. 509
Lin, B. 564
Lin, Rongfu 375
Liu, Huizhou 327
Loxton, C.M. 256

MacDonald, R.J. 256
Macdonald, J .E. 438
Maglietta, M. 214
Maier, M. 480
Marcus, P.M. 90,100
Materlik, G. 340
Matsumoto, H. 334
Maurice, V. 570
McCartney, M.R. 588
McConville, C.F. 189
Mele, E.J. 160
Menon, M. 399
Menzel, D. 65
M'hamedi, O. 393
Mila, F. 142
Moller, J. 496
Moritz, W. 207
Mortensen, K. 195
Miiller, K. 201
Mullins, D.R 244

N$2Srskov, J.K. 118
Nichtl, W. 201
Nielsen, M. 292,352
Nihei, Y. 404
Noonan, J.R 152
Norman, D. 183
Norris, C. 438

O'Connor, D.J. 256
Ohtani, H. 219
Oudar, J. 570
Overbury, S.H. 244


Owari, M. 404
Owen, I.W. 183

Palmari, J.P. 559
Park, C.Y. 346
Pendry, J.B. 14,19
Peng, J.B. 564
Penka, V. 207
Pfniir, H. 480
Phaneuf, RJ. 525
Piercy, P. 480
Pierz, S.J. 601
Pluis, B. 545
Preuss, E. 606
Proix, F. 393
Przybylski, M. 426
Purcell, K.G. 463

Read, M.N. 26
Reimer, W. 207
Reining, 1. 309
Reiss, C. 352
Richardson, C.H. 183
Ritter, E. 261
Robinson, I.K. 137
Roelofs, 1.D. 475
Rohlfing, D.M. 575
Rosenthaler, L. 595
Ross, P.N. 147
Rous, P.J. 14,19
Rousset, S. 10,71
Rovida, G. 147,214

Sebenne, C.A. 363,393
Sacks, W. 10,71
Sahu, D. 470
Sakamoto, K. 298
Sakamoto, T. 298
Salanon, B. 520
Saldin, D.K. 19,32
Sanders, D.E. 231
Santucci, A. 147
Sawatzky, G.A. 271
Scandella, L. 595
Segeth, W. 271
Sellschop, J.P.F. 384
Seymour, D.L. 189
Shaoping, Tang 357
Singh, N.K. 238
Sinha, S.K. 509
Sirota, E.. 509
Skinner, H.B. 183
Skottke, M. 207
Skov Pedersen, J. 292,352
Smith, D.J. 588
Somorjai, G.A. 219
Souda, R 581
Spadacini, R 530
Staufer, U. 595

Stensgaard, I. 195
Szeftel, J. 142

Takahashi, N. 298
Takayanagi, K. 43
Tamura, K. 404
Tang, Jing Chang 38
Telieps, W. 53
Tersoff, J. 4
Thiel, P.A. 231
Thornton, G. 183
Tlomak, P. 601
Toennies, J.P. 545
Tommei, G.E. 530
Tonini, M. 214
Tosatti, E. 132,458,535,554
Treglia, G. 167
Trayanov, A. 554
Tromp, R.M. 282
Tuck, R.A. 183

Uhrberg, RI.G. 303
Unertl, W.N. 509

Vanderbilt, D. 276
van der Veen, J.F. 438,545
van der Weg, W.F. 443
Van Hove, M.A. 219
van Loenen, E.J. 282
van Santen, R.A. 267
Vlieg, E. 438
von Allmen, M. 595

Wadsworth, P.J. 183
Wang, C.Z. 458
Wang, Hongchuan 375
Wang, Xun 375
Weber, H.P. 618
Wendelken, J. 463
Wesner, D.A. 612
Wiesendanger, R 595
Wijngaard, J.H. 271
Williams, E.D. 525
Williams, R.S. 75
Willis, RF. 450,575
Wintterlin, J. 225
Woll Ch. 545
Woodruff, D.P. 189

Xide, Xie 357
Xu, Geng 327

Yagi, K. 43
Ying, S.C. 470

Zanazzi, E. 214
Zeppenfeld, P. 488,502
Zinke-Allmang, M. 412

Similer Documents