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TitleThe Story of the Internet level 5
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Page 2

Pearson Education Limited

Edinburgh Gate, Harlow,

Essex CM20 2JE, England

and Associated Companies throughout the world.

ISBN 0 582 43047 X

First published 20(H)

Second impression 2000

Copyright © Stephen Bryant 2000

Typeset by Ferdinand Pageworks, London

Set in l l / 1 4 p t Bembo

Printed in Spain by Mateu Cromo, S. A. Pinto (Madrid)

Published by Pearson Education Limited in association with

Penguin Books Ltd, both companies being subsidiaries of Pearson Pk

For a complete list of the titles available in the Penguin Readers series please write to your local
Pearson Education office or to: Marketing Department, Penguin Longman Publishing,

5 Bentinck Street, London W 1 M 5RN.

Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Activities

Sputnik

The First Computer Network

To the Internet

The Personal Computer

The World Wide Web

Netscape

Yahoo! -A Guide to Everything

The Future

page

vii

1

3

20

26

41

47

58

65

69

Page 22

Apple Computer was the big success story of the computer
industry in the 1970s. It took a product that was ugly, unfriendly
and difficult to use and turned it into something that could be
found beside televisions and radios in ordinary US homes. But
this was never the intention of Steve Wozniak, who designed the
first Apple computer. Computers were his hobby.

Just like Bill Gates and Paul Allen, Steve fell in love with
computers at school. When he was thirteen, he won a science
competition by building a machine that was like a computer
which could add and subtract. He also spent as much time as he
could with real computers. He lived in Silicon Valley, California,
the home of America's best technology companies. The engineers
at these firms often allowed the teenage Wozniak to use their
computers after work.

Steve — usually called 'Woz' — read computer books in the way
that other children watched television. Every time a new
machine was announced, he asked the company for the book
that described it. Often the companies gave the book to him. He
spent hours in class writing programs for machines he could
never even touch. He was always inventing new programming
tricks — clever ways to fit more and more instructions into a few
lines of a program. He liked his programs to be as small and
powerful as possible.

Woz went to work for the Hewlett-Packard computer
company where he was very happy for a while. He also did some
work for the video-game company Atari, where his school friend,
Steve Jobs, also worked. One evening, Woz was able to feed
himself and a friend on free pizzas - he won them with high
scores on a video game that he had designed himself]

When the Altair appeared, Woz was just as excited as Bill Gates
and Paul Allen. Although the Altair was much less powerful than
the computers he worked with at Hewlett-Packard, he realized

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that this was the way to build his own computer. Woz had always
carried around designs for computers in his head. But when he
saw the Altair, he realized that his own personal computer did
not need to be a big, expensive machine. The Altair proved that a
real computer could be made from cheap, simple parts.

Woz joined the Homebrew Computer Club. People met there
to discuss the Altair and to show each other their programs and
their designs for new machines. Woz made many friends at
Homebrew. The atmosphere was enthusiastic and helpful. When
Woz said that his bosses at Hewlett-Packard would not give him
any chips, one of his friends brought a box of parts for him to the
next Homebrew meeting. Woz began to design his own
computer.

He took many ideas from the Homebrew club. All of the
members of the club were very generous with information. Woz
gradually built his computer, including all of the features that he
learned about at the meetings. But the design was special. Where
other people used two chips, Woz used just one. Every part of his
design was as efficient as possible:

'All the time I try to do designs that use fewer parts than
anyone else,' says Woz today. 'That's my puzzle. I always think,
"How can I do this faster or smaller or more cleverly?" If a good
answer to a problem uses six instructions, I try to do it using five
or three or two. I do tricky things that aren't normal. Every
problem has a better solution when you start thinking of it
differently.'

In the end, Woz had a computer that was as powerful as an
Altair but used fewer parts. His friend Steve Jobs was very excited
about it. Jobs was not as good an engineer as Woz - almost no
one was - but he was a brilliant communicator. He was always
full of energy and ideas. He decided that Woz's machine was
going to change the world.

35

Page 23

Steve Jobs thought that he and Woz should start a business to
sell the machine. At first Woz was not interested. The computer
was a hobby, not work, to him. But Steve Jobs would not give up
and eventually Woz agreed. He sold his calculator and Steve Jobs
sold his Volkswagen bus. They used the money to start Apple
Computer. (Jobs chose this name because he had once had a job
picking apples.) The company's first factory was Steve Jobs's
parents' garage.

While Woz continued to improve his design for the computer,
Steve Jobs began to design a company. He saw from the start that
computers could become part of ordinary life. But the company
that achieved this would need to be a real company, with
professional managers and financial support.

In fact, Steve Jobs was clever enough to see that he was not the
right person to run a big computer firm. He had long hair and
often did not wear shoes, so he was not likely to win the trust of
banks and businessmen. But he persuaded experienced managers
to join Apple. Soon the company - which had not actually sold
anything yet — had a professional team of managers. It also
succeeded in borrowing money to begin making computers.

In January 1977, Apple moved to a small building in
Cupertino, California. Woz worked on his new design - called
the Apple II - while Steve Jobs organized every detail of the
company. Apple employed fewer than ten people, and some of
them were still in school. But Jobs was so enthusiastic that
everyone believed that this tiny company would change the
world.

We're going to do it!' Jobs would say. We're going to build
the best company in the world and make the best product that
has ever been made!'

People at Apple often worked all day and all night. They were
designing a very different computer to the machines that were

36

already for sale. Steve Jobs wanted to sell computers to everyone,
not just engineers. So it was important that the Apple II should
look friendly and be easy to use. He hired an industrial designer
who produced a smooth, narrow plastic case for the machine. At
a time when most computers looked like scientific instruments,
the Apple II was pale brown and all of its screws were hidden.

The Apple II was introduced in April 1977 at a trade fair in
California. This was a very new idea. Before the Altair, no one
paid to visit a computer show. But by the time of the fair, there
were many thousands of people who wanted to find out more
about this new hobby.

At the trade fair, Apple Computer rented two of the best
spaces, near the entrance to the hall. The company also spent
money to make sure that people noticed it. Almost all the other
firms at the show used paper and glue to make their signs, but
Apple paid for professional designers. Big, bright plastic signs
showed the six-colour apple that represented the company.

The first four Apple II computers were finished at one o'clock
in the morning on the day the fair began. So many people came to
the fair that it was difficult for anyone to move. But the first thing
that everyone saw was Apple's shiny sign. Beneath the sign there
was a clever video program running on an enormous screen.

The trade fair's success showed everyone in the computer
business that something new was happening. Computers were
now more than just a hobby. They could soon be big business.
Many companies would take advantage of the excitement about
personal computing. But Apple was the most successful. Brilliant
technology and a friendly design at a price many people could
afford made Apple the star of this new industry. By the end of the
summer, the company was selling equipment worth more than
$250,000 each month. In five years, Apple Computer was valued
at a billion dollars.

37

Page 44

P e n g u i n R e a d e r s F a c t s h e e t s
l e v e l

5

P u b l i s h e d a n d d i s t r i b u t e d b y P e a r s o n E d u c a t i o n
F a c t s h e e t w r i t t e n b y S h a u n T i d d y

F a c t s h e e t s e r i e s d e v e l o p e d b y L o u i s e J a m e s

S t u d e n t ’ s a c t i v i t i e s

© Pearson Education 2001

(g) If the BASIC program hadn’t worked, .......... .

2 Are these sentences true (T) or false (F)?

(a) Bill Gates did not study Computers at university.

(b) Apple made computers more user-friendly.

(c) Steve Wozniak designed his own computer
because he wanted to be rich.

(d) Apple didn’t pay much attention to marketing their
products.

(e) IBM were not interested in personal computers at
first.

(f) The operating system, DOS, made Bill Gates very
rich.

Chapter 5
1 Answer these questions.

(a) Where was Tim Berners-Lee working when he
created the World Wide Web?

(b) Where did he get the idea for his program from?

(c) What is so special about hypertext?

(d) What was Tim’s reason for creating hypertext?

(e) What is HTML?

(f) What was different in the 1990’s about the people
who used the Internet, from those who used it in
the 1980’s?

2 What happened on these dates?

(a) 1856

(b) October 1989

(c) 1980

(d) 1991

(e) March 1989

(f) 1990

Chapter 6
1 Who said the following things?

(a) ‘This kind of computing is dying!’

(b) ‘Have you seen this?’

(c) ‘Do you know any good engineers?’

(d) ‘People are often there for forty-eight hours
without a break, just writing software’

(e) ‘This software’s going to change everything. Soon
everyone will be using it.’

2 Who do the following phrases refer to?

(a) He wrote the program ‘Mosaic’.

(b) He made SGI into a very successful company.

(c) He didn’t like the idea of pictures on the Internet.

(d) He lent Andreesson the money to start his
business.

(e) He changed the law to allow commercial use of
the Internet.

3 Answer these questions.

(a) Why was Marc Andreesson angry with his
university?

(b) Why might the university have been angry with
Marc later?

(c) What was the main problem with the Mosaic
browser?

(d) What did Marc think he could learn from Bill
Gates?

(e) How did Netscape make a profit?

(f) What happened on 9th August 1995?

Chapters 7–8
1 Here are the answers to some questions, write the

questions.

(a) .................... .
They use powerful computers and clever software to
help you find what you want on the Internet.
(b) .................... .
150,000 pages.
(c) .................... .
At Standford University.
(d) .................... .
They looked in a dictionary.
(e) .................... .
AOL
(f) .................... .
$850 million

2 All these sentences contain mistakes. Find the
mistakes and correct them.

(a) Matt Drudge worked for a big newspaper.

(b) Vladimir Levin worked for a bank in Russia.

(c) All software can be downloaded free from the
Internet.

(d) India put stories about Pakistani war crimes on its
own web site.

(e) You cannot prevent children from seeing anything
they want on the Internet.

(f) German engineers often have to travel to see their
colleagues in the USA.

(g) SETI is a project that designs computers for use in
space.

1 Write a report for a newspaper, saying what you think
are some of the advantages and disadvantages of
using the Internet.

2 Visit the Penguin Reader’s web site at:
www.penguinreaders.com

3 If there are some web sites that you visit often, write a
letter or e-mail to a friend giving your top 5 sites, a
description of each and why you like them.

Activities after reading the book

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