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                            THE STATE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 2003-2004
	Contents
	Foreword
	Preface
	Acknowledgements
	Glossary
	Explanatory note
Part I: AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
	SECTION A: FRAMING THE DEBATE
	1. Can biotechnology meet the needs of the poor?
	2. What is agricultural biotechnology?
	3. From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution
	SECTION B: THE EVIDENCE SO FAR
	4. Economic impacts of transgenic crops
	5. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops
	6.Public attitudes to agricultural biotechnlogy
	SECTION C: MAKING BIOTECHNOLOGY WORK FOR THE POOR
	7. Research and research policy for the poor
	8. Capacity building for biotechnology in food and agriculture
	9. Conclusions: meeting the needsof the poor
Part II: WORLD AND REGIONAL REVIEW
	1. TRENDS IN UNDERNOURISHMENT
	2.  FOOD EMERGENCIES AND FOOD AID
	3.  CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
	4.  WORLD CEREAL SUPPLY SITUATION
	5.  INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY PRICE TRENDS
	6.  AGRICULTURAL TRADE
	7.  EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE TO AGRICULTURE
	8.  AGRICULTURAL CAPITAL STOCK
	9.  FISHERIES: PRODUCTION, DISPOSITION AND TRADE
	10.  FORESTRY
Part III: STATISTICAL ANNEX
	Notes on the annex tables
References
Special chapters of The State of Food and Agriculture
Selected publications
	THE STATE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 2003-2004
		Contents
		Foreword
		Preface
		Acknowledgements
		Glossary
		Explanatory note
	Part I: AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
		SECTION A: FRAMING THE DEBATE
		1. Can biotechnology meet the needs of the poor?
		2. What is agricultural biotechnology?
		3. From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution
		SECTION B: THE EVIDENCE SO FAR
		4. Economic impacts of transgenic crops
		5. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops
		6.Public attitudes to agricultural biotechnlogy
		SECTION C: MAKING BIOTECHNOLOGY WORK FOR THE POOR
		7. Research and research policy for the poor
		8. Capacity building for biotechnology in food and agriculture
		9. Conclusions: meeting the needsof the poor
	Part II: WORLD AND REGIONAL REVIEW
		1. TRENDS IN UNDERNOURISHMENT
		2.  FOOD EMERGENCIES AND FOOD AID
		3.  CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
		4.  WORLD CEREAL SUPPLY SITUATION
		5.  INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY PRICE TRENDS
		6.  AGRICULTURAL TRADE
		7.  EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE TO AGRICULTURE
		8.  AGRICULTURAL CAPITAL STOCK
		9.  FISHERIES: PRODUCTION, DISPOSITION AND TRADE
		10.  FORESTRY
	Part III: STATISTICAL ANNEX
		Notes on the annex tables
	References
	Special chapters of The State of Food and Agriculture
	Selected publications
	THE STATE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 2003-2004
		Contents
		Foreword
		Preface
		Acknowledgements
		Glossary
		Explanatory note
	Part I: AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
		SECTION A: FRAMING THE DEBATE
		1. Can biotechnology meet the needs of the poor?
		2. What is agricultural biotechnology?
		3. From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution
		SECTION B: THE EVIDENCE SO FAR
		4. Economic impacts of transgenic crops
		5. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops
		6.Public attitudes to agricultural biotechnlogy
		SECTION C: MAKING BIOTECHNOLOGY WORK FOR THE POOR
		7. Research and research policy for the poor
		8. Capacity building for biotechnology in food and agriculture
		9. Conclusions: meeting the needsof the poor
	Part II: WORLD AND REGIONAL REVIEW
		1. TRENDS IN UNDERNOURISHMENT
		2.  FOOD EMERGENCIES AND FOOD AID
		3.  CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
		4.  WORLD CEREAL SUPPLY SITUATION
		5.  INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY PRICE TRENDS
		6.  AGRICULTURAL TRADE
		7.  EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE TO AGRICULTURE
		8.  AGRICULTURAL CAPITAL STOCK
		9.  FISHERIES: PRODUCTION, DISPOSITION AND TRADE
		10.  FORESTRY
	Part III: STATISTICAL ANNEX
		Notes on the annex tables
	References
	Special chapters of The State of Food and Agriculture
	Selected publications
	THE STATE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 2003-2004
		Contents
		Foreword
		Preface
		Acknowledgements
		Glossary
		Explanatory note
	Part I: AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
		SECTION A: FRAMING THE DEBATE
		1. Can biotechnology meet the needs of the poor?
		2. What is agricultural biotechnology?
		3. From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution
		SECTION B: THE EVIDENCE SO FAR
		4. Economic impacts of transgenic crops
		5. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops
		6.Public attitudes to agricultural biotechnlogy
		SECTION C: MAKING BIOTECHNOLOGY WORK FOR THE POOR
		7. Research and research policy for the poor
		8. Capacity building for biotechnology in food and agriculture
		9. Conclusions: meeting the needsof the poor
	Part II: WORLD AND REGIONAL REVIEW
		1. TRENDS IN UNDERNOURISHMENT
		2.  FOOD EMERGENCIES AND FOOD AID
		3.  CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
		4.  WORLD CEREAL SUPPLY SITUATION
		5.  INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY PRICE TRENDS
		6.  AGRICULTURAL TRADE
		7.  EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE TO AGRICULTURE
		8.  AGRICULTURAL CAPITAL STOCK
		9.  FISHERIES: PRODUCTION, DISPOSITION AND TRADE
		10.  FORESTRY
	Part III: STATISTICAL ANNEX
		Notes on the annex tables
	References
	Special chapters of The State of Food and Agriculture
	Selected publications
	THE STATE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 2003-2004
		Contents
		Foreword
	Part I: AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
		SECTION A: FRAMING THE DEBATE
		1. Can biotechnology meet the needs of the poor?
		2. What is agricultural biotechnology?
		3. From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution
		SECTION B: THE EVIDENCE SO FAR
		4. Economic impacts of transgenic crops
		5. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops
		6.Public attitudes to agricultural biotechnlogy
		SECTION C: MAKING BIOTECHNOLOGY WORK FOR THE POOR
		7. Research and research policy for the poor
		8. Capacity building for biotechnology in food and agriculture
		9. Conclusions: meeting the needsof the poor
	Part II: WORLD AND REGIONAL REVIEW
		1. TRENDS IN UNDERNOURISHMENT
		2.  FOOD EMERGENCIES AND FOOD AID
		3.  CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
		4.  WORLD CEREAL SUPPLY SITUATION
		5.  INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY PRICE TRENDS
		6.  AGRICULTURAL TRADE
		7.  EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE TO AGRICULTURE
		8.  AGRICULTURAL CAPITAL STOCK
		9.  FISHERIES: PRODUCTION, DISPOSITION AND TRADE
		10.  FORESTRY
	Part III: STATISTICAL ANNEX
		Notes on the annex tables
	References
	Special chapters of The State of Food and Agriculture
	Selected publications
	THE STATE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 2003-2004
		Contents
		Foreword
		Preface
		Acknowledgements
		Glossary
		Explanatory note
	Part I: AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
		SECTION A: FRAMING THE DEBATE
		1. Can biotechnology meet the needs of the poor?
		2. What is agricultural biotechnology?
		3. From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution
		SECTION B: THE EVIDENCE SO FAR
		4. Economic impacts of transgenic crops
		5. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops
		6.Public attitudes to agricultural biotechnlogy
		SECTION C: MAKING BIOTECHNOLOGY WORK FOR THE POOR
		7. Research and research policy for the poor
		8. Capacity building for biotechnology in food and agriculture
		9. Conclusions: meeting the needsof the poor
	Part II: WORLD AND REGIONAL REVIEW
		1. TRENDS IN UNDERNOURISHMENT
		2.  FOOD EMERGENCIES AND FOOD AID
		3.  CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
		4.  WORLD CEREAL SUPPLY SITUATION
		5.  INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY PRICE TRENDS
		6.  AGRICULTURAL TRADE
		7.  EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE TO AGRICULTURE
		8.  AGRICULTURAL CAPITAL STOCK
		9.  FISHERIES: PRODUCTION, DISPOSITION AND TRADE
		10.  FORESTRY
	Part III: STATISTICAL ANNEX
		Notes on the annex tables
	References
	Special chapters of The State of Food and Agriculture
	Selected publications
	THE STATE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 2003-2004
		Contents
		Foreword
		Preface
		Acknowledgements
		Glossary
		Explanatory note
	Part I: AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
		SECTION A: FRAMING THE DEBATE
		1. Can biotechnology meet the needs of the poor?
		2. What is agricultural biotechnology?
		3. From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution
		SECTION B: THE EVIDENCE SO FAR
		4. Economic impacts of transgenic crops
		5. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops
		6.Public attitudes to agricultural biotechnlogy
		SECTION C: MAKING BIOTECHNOLOGY WORK FOR THE POOR
		7. Research and research policy for the poor
		8. Capacity building for biotechnology in food and agriculture
		9. Conclusions: meeting the needsof the poor
	Part II: WORLD AND REGIONAL REVIEW
		1. TRENDS IN UNDERNOURISHMENT
		2.  FOOD EMERGENCIES AND FOOD AID
		3.  CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
		4.  WORLD CEREAL SUPPLY SITUATION
		5.  INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY PRICE TRENDS
		6.  AGRICULTURAL TRADE
		7.  EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE TO AGRICULTURE
		8.  AGRICULTURAL CAPITAL STOCK
		9.  FISHERIES: PRODUCTION, DISPOSITION AND TRADE
		10.  FORESTRY
	Part III: STATISTICAL ANNEX
		Notes on the annex tables
	References
	Special chapters of The State of Food and Agriculture
	Selected publications
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 111

T H E S T A T E O F F O O D A N D A G R I C U L T U R E 2 0 0 3 – 0 496 A G R I C U L T U R A L B I O T E C H N O L O G Y : M E E T I N G T H E N E E D S O F T H E P O O R ? 97
other legal challenges that have delayed the
commercial release of the products. Some
of the more successful joint ventures are
summarized below, together with some of
the characteristics that they have in common.

The most successful examples of a joint
venture that has been able to spread
biotechnology to poor farmers are the Ji Dai
and An Dai seed companies in China. Ji Dai
is a joint venture between two companies
based in the United States (Monsanto
and D&PL) and the Hebei Provincial Seed
Company in China. An Dai is a joint venture
between the same United States companies
and the Anhui Provincial Seed Company in
China. These joint venture contracts provide
that Monsanto supplies the Bt gene and
D&PL provides the cotton varieties while
Ji Dai and An Dai provide the variety testing,
seed multiplication, and seed distribution
networks in their respective provinces
and beyond. Ji Dai and An Dai sales of Bt
cotton seed now total about 2 000 tonnes
and the total area planted with their Bt
varieties – including farmer-saved seeds
and unauthorized sales by other seed
companies – is over 1 million ha. All of
their seed sales go to small farmers (under
2 ha), although not always to poor farmers.
Approximately two-thirds of the households
that adopted Bt cotton had per capita annual
incomes of less than $360, converted at
official exchange rates (see Chapter 4 for an
analysis of the economic impacts of Bt cotton
in China).

The incentives for participating in these
joint ventures were money and perhaps some
publicity. The United States companies hoped
that the provincial government-owned seed
companies would provide them with the
political weight they needed to ensure that
their GM cotton varieties were approved
by the Biosafety Committee and put into
commercial production. They also hoped
that the provincial seed companies would
provide them with some market power so
that they could charge high enough prices to
make a profit. Their first hope seems to have
been fulfilled as they were able to obtain
approval for their varieties in some (but not
all) provinces. However, their second hope of
gaining market power appears to have been
more difficult to fulfil. The provincial seed
companies were also looking for new money-
making opportunities. Previously, cotton

seed had not been a commercially interesting
enterprise, but introducing the Bt gene
greatly increased the value of the cotton
seed that contained it. They could now
make money from the seed. In addition, the
provincial authorities were able to revive an
important cash crop that had been declining
as a result of severe pest attacks.

Another project that successfully targets
poor farmers is Bt cotton adoption by small
farmers in Makhathini Flats in South Africa.
This land is located in an area that forms
part of a government irrigation project
where all of the growers are small African
farmers and many do not have access to
irrigation. Monsanto, D&PL and Clark11
(the major cotton purchasing and ginning
company in South Africa) made special
investments in technical personnel and other
resources to teach small farmers how to use
Bt cotton profitably. They also worked with
the local government research station and
government extension service, and provided
credit for inputs and labour costs of cotton
production. The money for this credit in the
early years came from the government Land
Bank and the interest rate was fixed by the
government. Virtually all cotton farmers in
Makhathini Flats have adopted Bt cotton and
most appear to have made substantial gains
in income as a result of it (see Chapter 4 for
an analysis of the economic impacts of Bt
cotton in South Africa).

The incentive for private South African
firms to participate in this programme seems
to derive from a combination of political and
social goals. The South African Government
is putting pressure on all private firms to
undertake more social welfare projects.
The success of Bt cotton in Makhathini Flats
has provided excellent publicity for the
companies involved. It is highly unlikely that
the increased income that the project makes
from the sales of Bt seed would cover all the
research and extension resources that the
firms have invested. However, what they are
getting is valuable experience in developing
strategies to work with poor small farmers
in Africa.

Page 112

T H E S T A T E O F F O O D A N D A G R I C U L T U R E 2 0 0 3 – 0 496 A G R I C U L T U R A L B I O T E C H N O L O G Y : M E E T I N G T H E N E E D S O F T H E P O O R ? 97
Examples of successful technology
development
Brazil provides a number of examples of
collaboration in research and technology
development that may be replicable in
other countries with large public and private
research capacity. The joint venture between
Embrapa and Monsanto on transgenic
soybeans, mentioned above, is an example
of collaborative applied research. Embrapa
provides the varieties and some plant
transformation technology and Monsanto
provides the genes and most of the
transformation technology. Monsanto plans
to sell the GM soybeans through its dealer
system and Embrapa will receive royalties
from the sales. A portion of the sales will
go back to a research fund for sustainable
soybean production.

A second type of collaborative research
occurs when private firms or cooperatives
in developing countries hire individual
scientists or rent laboratories at universities
or government institutions in a collaborative
effort. For example, the Cooperative of
Cane, Sugar and Ethanol Producers of
the State of São Paolo (COPERSUCAR)
developed transgenic, virus-resistant sugar-
cane varieties by hiring researchers at the
University of São Paolo at Campinas, the
University of Minnesota and Texas A&M
University to perform specific parts of the
research that they could not do in-house. As
a result of this collaboration, COPERSUCAR
has developed virus-resistant sugar cane that
has been tested by its biosafety regulators
and is ready for production when officially
approved (Pray, 2001).

Several of the smaller but more advanced
NARS have had successful partnerships with
large firms to develop new technology.
Egypt provides one useful example of a
public–private joint venture in research
(Byerlee and Fischer, 2002). In this case the
Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research
Institute (AGERI), an Egyptian public
research institute, and Pioneer Hi-Bred
jointly developed a new Bt gene. In the
collaboration, the Egyptian public system
gains access to expertise to develop the local
strain of Bt (the innovation) and to educate
its staff. The private sector partner pays the
legal costs of patenting the invention and
has access to the new Bt strain for use in
markets outside Egypt.

Another example is the Monsanto and
the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute
collaboration on virus-resistant sweet
potatoes, which began more than a decade
ago. Monsanto provided the gene and
trained a Kenyan scientist in biotechnology.
Virus-resistant varieties are now in field
trials and the commercial release of this
technology is possible in the next few years.

Promising examples of collaboration
For smaller countries with less well-
established NARS, the international research
centres of the CGIAR system or regional
intellectual property holding companies may
be the only source of transgenic technology.
The international centres have entered into
a limited number of joint ventures to secure
access to specific technologies for the poor.
Examples include: the Kenya, CIMMYT and
Syngenta project to develop Bt maize for
eastern Africa; IRRI’s collaboration with
European government laboratories and
Syngenta to develop Golden Rice; and the
international collaboration on rice genomics
led by IRRI (Byerlee and Fischer, 2002).

Recently, several new multicountry
programmes to obtain access to technology
for the poor have been initiated. The
African Agricultural Technology Foundation
(AATF) is a non-profit corporation funded
initially by the Rockefeller Foundation.
It will license and hold technology from
the major biotechnology firms with a
humanitarian use licence and subsequently
provide the technology free to scientists in
poor African countries.12 In addition, the
Australian-based institute, CAMBIA (Center
for the Application of Molecular Biology
to International Agriculture), is making
information about patented technology
more readily available and developing non-
proprietary technologies for biotechnology
researchers in poor countries.13 Another
recent initiative is the proposed IP Clearing-
House programme in the United States,
which has the goal of making intellectual
property from universities and government
research institutes more readily available.
This programme seeks to design a toolbox of

Page 221

01-04 Valuation methods for environmental benefits in
forestry and watershed investment projects
(R. Cavatassi, January 2004)

22-03 Linkages and rural non-farm employment creation:
changing challenges and policies in Indonesia

(S. Kristiansen, December 2003)
21-03 Information asymmetry and economic concentration:

the case of hens and eggs in eastern Indonesia
(S. Kristiansen, December 2003)

20-03 Do futures benefit farmers who adopt them?
(S.H. Lence, December 2003)

19-03 The economics of food safety in developing countries
(S. Henson, December 2003)

18-03 Food security and agriculture in the low income food
deficit countries: 10 years after the Uruguay Round
(P. Pingali and R. Stringer, November 2003)

17-03 A conceptual framework for national agricultural, rural
development, and food security strategies and policies
(K.G. Stamoulis and A. Zezza, November 2003)

16-03 Can public transfers reduce Mexican migration? A study
based on randomized experimental data (G. Stecklov,
P. Winters, M. Stampini and B. Davis, October 2003)

15-03 Diversification in South Asian agriculture: trends and
constraints (K. Dorjee, S. Broca and P. Pingali, July 2003)

14-03 Determinants of cereal diversity in communities and on
household farms of the northern Ethiopian Highlands
(S. Benin, B. Gebremedhin, M. Smale, J. Pender and
S. Ehui, July 2003)

13-03 Land use change, carbon sequestration and poverty
alleviation (L. Lipper and R. Cavatassi, July 2003)

12-03 Social capital and poverty lessons from case studies in
Mexico and Central America
(M. Flores and F. Rello, June 2003)

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