Download The state of food and agriculture, 1949 PDF

TitleThe state of food and agriculture, 1949
LanguageEnglish
File Size2.9 MB
Total Pages144
Document Text Contents
Page 1

THE ST ATE 0 F

1949

CON

NiO.S PRO
o

0

RI v rE'S

ERES GRASSE-

ACEI-FES LIVES1

->
>,>

U

R , Z

T S

Washington, D. C., U. S. A.
F E k TEL') PEST

October 1949
trs I'DAS

C H ;OL ES

N

T \if ES--TS -
: V S

An FATs

Food and Agriculture

A SUR VEY OF

World Conditions
and Prospects

Page 2

Food 'and Agriculture Ognization of the United Nations

Australia

Austria

Belgium

Bolivia

Brazil

Burma

Canada

Ceylon

Chile

China

Colombia

Costa Rica

Cuba

Czechoslovakia

Denmark

Dominican Republic

Ecuador

Egypt

El Salvador

Ethiopia

Director-General: NORMS E. DODD

Deputy Director-General: SIR HERBERT BROADLEY, K.B.E.

MEMBER NATIONS

Finland Norway

France Pakistan

Greece Panama

Guatemala Paraguay

Haiti Peru

Honduras Philippine Republic

Hungary Poland

Iceland Portugal

India Saudi Arabia

Iraq Switzerland

Ireland Syria

Italy

Lebr.uon TrIr/r.sy

Union of South Africa

i',1:;(yarg 1.13-f; 7'711,. .(77.-_

s'L'-`11,20

137

ew Zef-land e,2t(-r.nela

;a

Page 72

First. from the standpoint of magnitude, is the United States market, with a con-
sumption of 6.5 to 6.8 million tons. (It should be pointed out parenthetically that
United States per caput consumption has not recovered to the prewar level notwith-
standing the enormous increase in national income, although it is too early to say
whether this represents a change in the national consumption pattern.) Under the
Sugar Act of 1948, definite quantities of the United States market continue to be
reserved to domestic and off-shore producers, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin
Islands, Hawaii, and the Philippines, while Cuba is assigned over 90 percent of the
remaining import requirement. Imports from other areas thus become residual
quantities (70,000 tons out of an import of 4.8 million tons in 1947/48). In point
of fact, United States takings from free market supplies would be even smaller had
no ceiling been placed on domestic production.

The second large trading unit is the British Commonwealth and related territories,
which account for some 3.2 million tons. Because of increased production and ra-
tioned consumption within the United Kingdom, this area is currently taking about
950,000 tons from the free market, compared with nearly 1.3 million tons prewar.
Commonwealth policy, however, aims at gradually achieving greater self-sufficiency
within the area and eliminatinir the need to import so much from outside.

The French Union, which consumes some 1.2 million tons, formerly took 225,000
tons from other sources. Planned increase in production in France itself, as well as
in some colonies, would eliminate that import. Likewise some smaller countries which
import "free" sugar are expanding domestic output.

On the supply side, not only Cuba but other countries, such as Mexico, Brazil,
Poland, Denmark, have increased supplies to offer on the free market. The Philip-
pines plans a much larger export than prewar, though its preferential quota in the
United States market diminishes each year, according to treaty. Java and Taiwan
(Formosa) plan to recover their export business. The inescapable conclusion is that
within a short time a larger than prewar supply of "free" sugar will be placed on a
smaller than prewar "free" market.

Under such a threat of burdensome surplus, it is easy to say that a new Inter-
national Sugar Agreement should be negotiated, but as yet the governments are not
clear- as to what provisions such an agreement should contain. For behind any out-
ward forms there remain the real problems of (a) sharing equitably the burdens of
any readjustments necessary. (b) helping countries to find alternative lines of pro-
duction and export, and (c) progressively stimulating sugar consumption in areas
where it is still very low.

4. FATS AND OILS

EXPANSION OF FATS AND OILS PRODUCTION, already noted in last year's State of Food
and Agriculture, continued through 1949, bringing the total world supply up to about
the prewar level. Improvement has been general, except in Southern Europe. On a
percentage basis, the greatest gains have been made in Indonesia and Africa; on a
tonnage basis, in North America and the U.S.S.R. The progress achieved, however,
has not eliminated substantial differences as between countries or continents. Thus,

68

Page 73

TABLE 32.INDIGENOUS PRODUCTION OF FATS AND OILS, POSTWAR COMPARED
WITH PREWAR

(Calendar year availability as oil)2

Producing area

Whaling (all areas)

Europe:
North and West
Central
South and East

U.S.S.R.

America:
United States and Canada._ .......
Argentina
Other

Africa:
North and South
Other

Asia and Oceania:
China (including Manchuria)
India and Pakistan
Indonesia and Malaya
Philippines
Australia and New Zealand
Japan
Other

TOTAL

69

Prewar 1002
66 69 70

69 81 87
45 48 55
82 99 84

52 64 76

141 146 157
87 70 81

120 127 134

97 103 117
96 105 112

82 86 87

93 93 95
53 65 83

167 130 132
89 94 94
20 37 47
84 98 101
88 94 99

1Some allowance has been made for seasonal movement of oilseeds from farm
to processor and for changes in carryover, particularly in the case of the highly
seasonal olive oil crop.

Me prewar period relates mainly to 3-5 years ending in 1938; for China,
however, 1931-37 has been taken, and for most of the Americas, 1935-39.

only Africa, the Philippines, and the Western Hemisphere (except Argentina) have a
production higher than prewar. In the occupied areas of Central Europe and Japan,
1949 production reaches only half the prewar level.

As a result of the improved supply position, exports in 1949 are likely to increase
by 9 to 10 percent over the 1948 volume. The Western Hemisphere (160,000 metric
tons), Africa (90,000), and Indonesia (90,000) will contribute the most to this in-
crease. Nonetheless, total world trade in fats and oils is still about 30 percent below
the prewar average. Striking differences between the regions emerge; only the Philip-
pines and North America are exporting substantially more than prewar. (U.S.-
Canadian exports now roughly balance their imports.)

China, Manchuria, India, and Pakistan, which together exported 1.2 million
metric tons (oil equivalent) prewar, may in 1949 export about 200,000 tons. Malayan,
Indonesian, and British Pacific exports llave fallen from 870,000 to 510,000 tons over
i he same period, and European exports (mostly to other European countries) from
600,000 to 230,000 tons.

In the "edible, soap" group of fats' the 1949 exports may be 10 percent above
1948 and 74 percent of prewar. Copra exports were slightly above the prewar total;
groundnut exports 57 percent of prewar. On the other hand the tonnages of soybeans,
cottonseed, sesame seed, and sunflower seed and oil likely to be exported in 1949 vary

'This covers all fats and oils except "special technical," i.e., linseed, castor, oiticica, tung, and
perilla.

1947 1948 I 1949

Page 143

Sales Agents for FAO Publications*
GUAILEMALA

José Goubaud
Goubaud & Cía. Ltda.
5a Av. Sur No 6a y 9a
Guatemala

HUNGARY
Grill's Bookshop
R. Gergely, Ltd.
Dorottya Utca 2
Budapest V

INDIA
The Oxford Book & Station-

ery Co.:
Scindia House, New Delhi;
The Mall, Simia;
17 Park Street, Calcutta
Messrs. Higginbothams
Mound Road
Post Box 311
Madras

IRELAND
The Controller
Stationery Office
Dublin

ITALY
Requests for FAO publica-

tions should be addressed
to:

Bureau Régional Européen
de la FAO

Villa Borghese
Rome

LEBANON
Librairie Universelle
Avenue des Français
Beirut

MEXICO
Manuel Gómez Pezuela e Hijo
"Libros Técnicos y Científi-

cos"
Donceles, 12
México, D.F.

NETHERLANDS
N. V. Martinus Nijhoff
Lange Voorhout 9
The Hague

NORWAY
Johan Grundt Tannin. Forlag
Kr. Augustsg,t, 7A
Oslo

PAKISTAN
East: Farcos' Publications
2, Inglis Road
P. B. 13, Ramna
Dacca
West: Ferozsons
60 The Mall, Labore
Variawa Bldg., Karachi;
35 The Mall, Peshawar

PERU
Librería Internacional del

Perú, S.A.
P. 0. Box 147
Lima

PORTUGAL
Livraria Bertrand, S.A.R.L.
73 Rua Garrett, 75
Lisbon

SWITZERLAND
Librairie Payot, S.A.
Lausanne
Hans Raunhardt
Kirchgasse 17
Zurich 1

SYRIA
Librairie Universelle
Avenue Fouad ler
B. P. 336
Damascus

T 1LAND
Requests for FAO publica-

tions should be addressed
to:

FAO Regional Office for Asia
and the Far East
Maliwan Mansion
Bangkok

TURKEY
Librairie Hachette
469 Istiklál Caddesi, Peyoglu
Istanbul

UNION OF SOU'Ill AFRICA
Central Nev,,s Agency Ltd.
P. 0. Box 1033
Johannesburg

UNITED KINGDOM
H. M. Stationery Office
P. 0. Box 569
London S. E. 1

UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA

International Documents Serv-
ice

Columbia University Press.
2960 Broadway
New York 27, New York
Locally in Washington, D. C.
FAO Documents Sales

Service
Food and Agriculture Organi-

zation
1201 Connecticut Avenue,

N. W.
Washington 6, D. C.

YUGOSLAVIA
Drzavno Preduzece
Jugoslovenska Knjiga
Belgrade

01131.R COUNTRIES: Requests may be sent to: FAO Documents Sales Service, Food and
Agriculture Organization, 1201 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington 6, D.C., U.S.A.
*FAO publications are priced in U.S. dollars. Payment to FAO sales agents may be made

in local currencies.

ARGENTINA
Editorial Sudamericana, S.A.
Alsina 500
Buenos Aires

AUSTRALIA
H. A. Goddard Pty. Ltd.
255a George Street
Sydney

CANADA
The Ryerson Press
299 Queen Street, West
Toronto 2, Ontario

CHILE
Edmund() Pizarro Rojas
OrganizaciónEditorialLibrera
La Hispanoamericana
Casilla 3916
Santiago

CHINA
The Commercial Press Ltd.
211 Honan Road
Shanghai

COLOMBIA
"Agricultura Tropical"
Avenida Jiménez, No. 8-74
Oficinas 416-416a
Bogotá

COSTA RICA
Trejos Hermanos
Apartado 1313
San José

CUBA
René de Smedt
La Casa Belga
O'Reilly 455
Havana

CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Moravia and Bohemia: Orbis
Stalinova 46, Prague XII.
SlovaTia: "Journal,"
LenH:rradska 14, Bratislava

DEN
Ejna Munksgaard
Norregade 6
Copenhagen

EGYPT
Librairie de la Renaissance

d'Egypte
9 Sh. Adly Pacha, Cairo

EL SALVADOR
Librería Navas
Ja. Avenida Sur 37
San Salvador

FINLAND
Akateeminen Kirjakauppa
2 Keskuskatu
Helsinki

FRANCE
Les Editions A. Pedone
13 rue Sou o
Paris 5e

Page 144

Price: $1.50

Similer Documents