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TitleThe SLL Code for Lighting
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size6.8 MB
Total Pages362
Table of Contents
                            Front Matter
Table of Contents
1. The Balance of Lighting
	1.1 Lighting Quality
	1.2 The Place of Lighting in the Modern World
	1.3 An Overview of the Effects of Light on Human Performance
	1.4 Lighting and Visual Task Performance
		1.4.1 Visual Performance
		1.4.2 Visual Search
		1.4.3 Mesopic Conditions
		1.4.4 A Discrepancy
		1.4.5 Improving Visual Performance
	1.5 Lighting and Behaviour
		1.5.1 Attracting Attention
		1.5.2 Directing Movement
		1.5.3 Communication
	1.6 Lighting and Safety
		1.6.1 Emergency Escape Lighting
		1.6.2 Road Lighting
		1.6.3 Lighting and Crime
	1.7 Lighting and Perception
		1.7.1 Brightness
		1.7.2 Form
		1.7.3 Higher Order Perceptions
	1.8 Lighting and Health
		1.8.1 Eyestrain
		1.8.2 Non-Visual Effects
		1.8.3 Tissue Damage by Optical Radiation
	1.9 Lighting Costs
		1.9.1 Financial Costs
		1.9.2 Electricity Consumption
		1.9.3 Chemical Pollution
		1.9.4 Light Pollution
	1.10 The Future
2. Indoor Workplaces
	2.1 Lighting Design Criteria
		2.1.1 Luminous Environment
		2.1.2 Luminance Distribution
			2.1.2.1 General
			2.1.2.2 Reflectance of Surfaces
			2.1.2.3 Illuminance on Surfaces
		2.1.3 Illuminance
			2.1.3.1 General
			2.1.3.2 Scale of Illuminance
			2.1.3.3 Illuminances on the Task Area
			2.1.3.4 Illuminance of the Immediate Surrounding Area
			2.1.3.5 Illuminance on the Background Area
			2.1.3.6 Illuminance Uniformity
		2.1.4 Illuminance Grid
		2.1.5 Glare
			2.1.5.1 General
			2.1.5.2 Discomfort Glare
			2.1.5.3 Shielding against Glare
			2.1.5.4 Veiling Reflections and Reflected Glare
		2.1.6 Lighting in the Interior Space
			2.1.6.1 General
			2.1.6.2 Mean Cylindrical Illuminance Requirement in the Activity Space
			2.1.6.3 Modelling
			2.1.6.4 Directional Lighting of Visual Tasks
		2.1.7 Colour Aspects
			2.1.7.1 General
			2.1.7.2 Colour Appearance
			2.1.7.3 Colour Rendering
		2.1.8 Flicker and Stroboscopic Effects
		2.1.9 Lighting of Work Stations with Display Screen Equipment DSE
			2.1.9.1 General
			2.1.9.2 Luminaire Luminance Limits with Downward Flux
		2.1.10 Maintenance Factor
		2.1.11 Energy Efficiency Requirements
		2.1.12 Additional Benefits of Daylight
		2.1.13 Variability of Light
	2.2 Schedule of Lighting Requirements
		2.2.1 Composition of the Tables
		2.2.2 Schedule of Interior Areas, Tasks and Activities
		2.2.3 Verification Procedures
			2.2.3.1 General
			2.2.3.2 Illuminances
			2.2.3.3 Unified Glare Rating
			2.2.3.4 Colour Rendering and Colour Appearance
			2.2.3.5 Luminaire Luminance
			2.2.3.6 Maintenance Schedule
3. Outdoor Workplaces
	3.1 Lighting Design Criteria
		3.1.1 Luminous Environment
		3.1.2 Luminance Distribution
		3.1.3 Illuminance
			3.1.3.1 Illuminance on the Task Area
			3.1.3.2 Illuminance of Surroundings
			3.1.3.3 Illuminance Grid
			3.1.3.4 Uniformity and Diversity
		3.1.4 Glare
			3.1.4.1 Glare Rating
			3.1.4.2 Veiling Reflections and Reflected Glare
		3.1.5 Obtrusive Light
		3.1.6 Directional Lighting
			3.1.6.1 Modelling
			3.1.6.2 Directional Lighting of Visual Tasks
		3.1.7 Colour Aspects
			3.1.7.1 Colour Appearance
			3.1.7.2 Colour Rendering
		3.1.8 Flicker and Stroboscopic Effects
		3.1.9 Maintenance Factor MF
		3.1.10 Energy Considerations
		3.1.11 Sustainability
		3.1.12 Emergency Lighting
	3.2 Schedule of Lighting Requirements
		3.2.1 Composition of Tables 3.5 to 3.19
		3.2.2 Schedule of Areas, Tasks and Activities
		3.2.3 Lighting Requirements for Areas, Tasks and Activities
		3.2.4 Lighting Requirements for Safety and Security
	3.3 Verification Procedures
		3.3.1 Illuminance
		3.3.2 Glare Rating
		3.3.3 Colour Rendering Index
		3.3.4 Obtrusive Light
4. Road Lighting
	4.1 Classification of Roads
		4.1.1 Traffic Routes
		4.1.2 Subsidiary Roads
		4.1.3 Conflict Areas
	4.2 Lighting Classes
		4.2.1 ME Classes
		4.2.2 S Classes
		4.2.3 CE Classes
		4.2.4 G Classes
5. Daylight
	5.1 Daylight and Health
		5.1.1 Regulation of the Circadian System
		5.1.2 Mood
		5.1.3 Seasonal Affective Disorder SAD
		5.1.4 Ultraviolet UV Radiation
	5.2 Windows and View
		5.2.1 Analysis of View
		5.2.2 Size and Proportion of Windows
	5.3 Daylight and Room Brightness
		5.3.1 Sunlight
		5.3.2 Skylight
		5.3.3 Contrast between the Interior and the View Outside
	5.4 Daylight for Task Lighting
		5.4.1 Glare
		5.4.2 Specular Reflection
	5.5 Electric Lighting Used in Conjunction with Daylight
		5.5.1 Balance of Daylight and Electric Light
		5.5.2 Modelling
		5.5.3 Contrast between Exterior and Interior
		5.5.4 Colour Appearance of Lamps
		5.5.5 Changes of Lighting at Dusk
	5.6 Sunlight Shading
6. Energy
	6.1 Simple Guidance for Energy Efficient Lighting
		6.1.1 The Right Amount of Light
		6.1.2 Light in the Right Place
		6.1.3 Light at the Right Time
		6.1.4 The Right Lighting Equipment
	6.2 Energy Regulations, and Standards
		6.2.1 Building Regulations
		6.2.2 Dwellings
		6.2.3 Non-Domestic Buildings
		6.2.4 BS EN 15193
		6.2.5 Schemes to Support Energy Efficient Lighting
7. Construction Design and Management Regulations
	7.1 Introduction
	7.2 General Management Duties
		7.2.1 Duties of Clients
		7.2.2 Duties of Designers
		7.2.3 Duties of Contractors
	7.3 Additional Duties if the Project is Notifiable
		7.3.1 Additional Duties of the Client
		7.3.2 Additional Duties of Designers
		7.3.3 Additional Duties of Contractors
		7.3.4 Duties of the CDM Co-Ordinator
		7.3.5 Duties of the Principal Contractor
	7.4 Duties Relating to Health and Safety on Construction Sites
		7.4.1 Electricity Distribution
		7.4.2 Emergency Routes and Exits
		7.4.3 Lighting
8. Basic Energy and Light
	8.1 Properties of Electromagnetic Waves
	8.2 Evaluating Energy as Light
9. Luminous Flux, Intensity, Illuminance, Luminance and Their Interrelationships
	9.1 Definitions of the Units
		9.1.1 Flux
		9.1.2 Intensity
		9.1.3 Illuminance
		9.1.4 Luminance
	9.2 Interrelationships between the Units
		9.2.1 Flux and Intensity
		9.2.2 Intensity and Illuminance
10. Direct Lighting
	10.1 Illuminance from Point Sources
		10.1.1 Planar Illuminance
		10.1.2 Cylindrical Illuminance
		10.1.3 Semi-Cylindrical Illuminance
		10.1.4 Spherical Illuminance
		10.1.5 Hemispherical Illuminance
	10.2 Non-Point Sources
		10.2.1 Line Source Calculations
		10.2.2 Area Sources
		10.2.3 Recursive Source Subdivision
11. Indirect Lighting
	11.1 Introduction
	11.2 Sumpner's Method
		11.2.1 Checking the Results of Lighting Calculation Software
	11.3 Transfer Factors
		11.3.1 Basis of Calculation
		11.3.2 Calculation of Form Factors
		11.3.3 The Three Surface Case
		11.3.4 The Four Surface Case
		11.3.5 Derivation of Transfer Factors
12. Photometric Datasheets
	12.1 Photometric Measurement
		12.1.1 The C-gamma System
		12.1.2 The B-beta System
		12.1.3 Relationships between the Two Angular Co-Ordinate Systems
		12.1.4 Photometric Centre
	12.2 Elements of a Datasheet
		12.2.1 Normalised Intensity Table
		12.2.2 Intensity Diagram
		12.2.3 Light Output Ratios
		12.2.4 Spacing to Height Ratio SHR
		12.2.5 Utilisation Factor UF Tables
		12.2.6 Shielding Angle
		12.2.7 Normalised Luminance Table
		12.2.8 Unified Glare Rating UGR Table
		12.2.9 Luminaire Maintenance Factor LMF
		12.2.10 Spacing Tables Emergency Lighting
	12.3 Calculations for Datasheets
		12.3.1 Flux Calculations
		12.3.2 Calculation of Spacing to Height Ratio
		12.3.3 Calculation of Utilisation Factors
		12.3.4 Calculation of Normalised Luminance Tables
		12.3.5 Calculation of UGR Tables
13. Indoor Lighting Calculations
	13.1 Introduction
	13.2 The Illumination Vector
	13.3 Cubic Illuminance
	13.4 Derived Values
14. Outdoor Lighting Calculations
	14.1 Calculation of Intensity towards a Point
		14.1.1 Calculation of C and gamma
		14.1.2 Finding the Intensity Value I
	14.2 The Reflective Properties of Road Surfaces
	14.3 Calculation of Illuminance and Luminance
	14.4 Calculation of Glare
	14.5 Calculations in other Outdoor Areas
15. Measurement of Lighting Installations and Interpreting the Results
	15.1 Light Measuring Equipment
		15.1.1 Illuminance Meters
		15.1.2 Luminance Meters
	15.2 Field Measurements
		15.2.1 Operating Conditions
		15.2.2 Grids and Illuminance Measurement
		15.2.3 Averages and Uniformities
		15.2.4 Measurement of Road Luminance
		15.2.5 Other Measures of Spatial Illuminance
16. Colour
	16.1 Introduction
	16.2 Colour Properties of Light Sources
		16.2.1 Colour Appearance in the CIE Chromaticity 1931 Diagram
		16.2.2 CIE UCS 1976 Diagram
		16.2.3 Colour Temperature
		16.2.4 Colour Rendering
		16.2.5 Colour Rendering Index CRI
		16.2.6 Colour Quality Scale CQS
	16.3 Colour Properties of Surfaces
		16.3.1 Munsell System
		16.3.2 Natural Colour System NCS
		16.3.3 DIN System
		16.3.4 BS 5252
		16.3.5 RAL Design System
		16.3.6 CIE L*a*b*
17. Daylight Calculations
	17.1 Average Daylight Factor
	17.2 Calculation of the Sun Position
18. Predicting Maintenance Factor
	18.1 Determination of Maintenance Factor
		18.1.1 Indoor Lighting
		18.1.2 Outdoor Lighting
	18.2 Lamp Lumen Maintenance Factor and Survival Factor
	18.3 Luminaire Maintenance Factor LMF - Indoor
	18.4 Luminaire Maintenance Factor LMF - Outdoor
	18.5 Room Surface Maintenance Factor RSMF
	18.6 Ingress Protection IP Classes
Glossary
Bibliography
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

SLL logo.eps


The SLL Code for Lighting

222 Balham High Road, London SW12 9BS
+44 (0)20 8675 5211

www.cibse.org

The Society of
Light and Lighting

Page 2

CIBSE colour logo.eps

Page 181

Eqn13.eps


173

C
h

a
p

te
r E

le
ve

n
: In

d
ire

ct lig
h

tin
g

Thus with T set to 1.625 RI and U set to 2.6 RI, equation 11.3 may be used to calculate the form
factor for the ceiling and the working plane, FF(C,F) and FF(F,C).

The form factors for the fl oor to walls and ceiling to walls are easy to calculate as the fl ux that
leaves the ceiling and does not get to the fl oor must go to the walls. Thus:

FF C W FF C F

FF F W FF F C

( , ) ( , )
( , ) ( , )

= -
= -

1
1

(11.7)

The form factors for the walls to the ceiling and fl oor can be derived by using the reversible
nature of form factors thus:

FF W C FF C W
Area C
Area W

( , ) ( , )
( )
( )

= (11.8)

As Room Index is in fact the area of the ceiling divided by half the area of the walls, then the
above equation may be rewritten:

FF W C FF C W
RI

( , ) ( , )=
2

(11.9)

Likewise:

FF W F FF F W
RI

( , ) ( , )=
2

(11.10)

The wall to wall transfer factor is similarly the fl ux that leaves the wall that does not go to the
ceiling or the fl oor. Thus:

FF W W FF W C FF W F( , ) ( , ) ( , )= - -1 (11.11)

With these equations, it is then possible to calculate all form factors needed for the evaluation of a
standard set of utilisation factors. Table 11.3 gives the calculated form factors.

Table 11.3 Form factors for the three surface cases

RI FF(F,W) FF(C,W) FF(F,C) FF(C,F) FF(W,F) FF(W,C) FF(W,W)

0.60 0.74727 0.25273 0.22418 0.55164

0.80 0.65810 0.34190 0.26324 0.47352

1.00 0.58466 0.41534 0.29233 0.41534

1.25 0.51122 0.48878 0.31951 0.36097

1.50 0.45330 0.54670 0.33998 0.32005

2.00 0.36877 0.63123 0.36877 0.26246

2.50 0.31051 0.68949 0.38814 0.22372

3.00 0.26809 0.73191 0.40213 0.19573

4.00 0.21056 0.78944 0.42113 0.15774

5.00 0.17341 0.82659 0.43352 0.13296

11.3.4 The four surface case
In the case of suspended luminaires, the situation is more complex. To start with, there are three
parallel planes to consider, the working plane, the luminaire plane and the ceiling. Again equation
11.3 may be used to calculate the form factors for ceiling and working plane FF(C,F) and
FF(F,C); luminaire plane and ceiling FF(L,C) and FF(C,L); and fi nally, the working plane and
the luminaire plane FF(L,F) and FF(F,L). The values of T and U used are given Table 11.4.

Page 182

Eqn18.eps


174

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h

a
p

te
r E

le
ve

n
: In

d
ire

ct lig
h

tin
g

Table 11.4 Values of T and U

Form factor calculated T U

FF(C,F) and FF(F,C) RI × 1.625 × 3/4 RI × 2.6 × 3/4

FF(F,L) and FF(L,F) RI × 1.625 RI × 2.6

FF(L,C) and FF(C,L) RI × 1.625 × 3 RI × 2.6 × 3

The other form factors are derived in a similar way to that used in the three surface case. The
factor for the ceiling to the frieze is given by

FF C S FF C L( , ) 1 ( , )= - (11.12)

The form factor for the frieze to the ceiling may be calculated by using the following equation:

FF S C FF C S
Area C
Area S

( , ) ( , )
( )
( )

= (11.13)

Given that the relationship between the area of the frieze and ceiling is a function of room index,
the above equation may be rewritten as:

FF S C FF C S
RI

( , ) ( , )=
3

2
(11.14)

The form factor for the ceiling to the walls is given by:

FF C W FF C L FF C F( , ) ( , ) ( , )= - (11.15)

The reverse form factor for the walls to the ceiling is given by

FF W C FF C W
Area C
Area W

( , ) ( , )
( )
( )

= (11.16)

The above equation may be rewritten in terms of the room index as follows

FF W C FF C W
RI

( , ) ( , )=
2

(11.17)

The frieze to frieze form factor is that fraction of the fl ux from the frieze that does not go to the
ceiling or the luminaire plane. Its calculation is simplifi ed by the fact that the form factors from
the frieze to the luminaire plane and the ceiling are the same

FF S S FF S C( , ) ( , )= -1 2 (11.18)

The form factor for the fl oor to the frieze is the fraction of the fl ux leaving the fl oor that reaches
the luminaire plane but does not reach the ceiling, so the equation for the factor is given by

FF F S FF F L FF F C( , ) ( , ) ( , )= - (11.19)

Page 361

Index Terms Links



This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.



visual performance 3 3–6 7–9

315

see also visual task performance

visual search 9–10

visual sensitivity 11 147

visual size 4

visual spectrum 9

visual system 3–4 147

eye-brain pathways 23

spectral sensitivities 11 147

visual task, definition 315

visual task performance 6–12

and glare 38–39

improving 12

Landolt C matrices 7 8

mesopic conditions 10–11

Relative Visual Performance (RVP) model 8–9 9

visual search 9–10

W

water and sewage plants 104

well-being 19

Wien’s displacement law 247

window, definition 315

windows

glare control 120–121

minimum glazed area for view 118

size and proportion 118 128

and view 116–118

work place 315

see also indoor workplaces; outdoor workplaces

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