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TitleThe Rise of Bronze Age Society: Travels, Transmissions and Transformations
LanguageEnglish
File Size11.7 MB
Total Pages459
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Title
Contents
Illustrations
Preface
Prologue: between Scylla and Charybdis
1. A theoretical strategy for studying interaction
	1.1 Limitations in present theoretical frameworks
	1.2 From social typology to social complexity: the role of institutionalisation
	1.3 Towards an intercontextual archaeology: material culture and social institutions
	1.4 The meaning of imitation in material culture studies
	1.5 Text and material culture: the Bronze Age as protohistory
	1.6 Tracing, explaining and interpreting interaction
		Tracing interaction: diffusion, acculturation and contextualisation
		Explaining interaction: transmission, transformation and institutionalisation
		Interpreting interaction: meaning, message and materialisation
	1.7 Conclusion: theorising interaction and diffusion
2. Odysseus: a Bronze Age archetype
	2.1 Mobility and immobility in prestate societies
	2.2 Archaeological contexts and categories
	2.3 Crossing cultural boundaries: the authority of distance
		Cosmological origins in space and time
		Some archaeological implications and applications
	2.4 Geographical distance and access to origins: the sacredness of power
		Cosmological centres and peripheries
		Some archaeological implications and applications
	2.5 Crafts and creation: the sacred power of esoteric knowledge
		Skilled artisans and the smith
		Acquisition and esoteric knowledge
		Some archaeological implications and applications
	2.6 Conclusion: the Bronze Age as epoch
3. Rulership in the Near East and the eastern Mediterranean during the Bronze Age
	3.1 Kingship and divinity in Mesopotamia and Egypt
		Mesopotamia
		Egypt
	3.2 Hittite rulership
	3.3 The theocratic leaders of Crete and Mycenae
		Minoan Crete
		Mainland Greece: the Mycenaeans
	3.4 Trade and transmission in the Mediterranean world
		The Near Eastern caravan trade
		The east Mediterranean maritime trade
	3.5 Conclusion: historical long-term trends
4. Europe in the Early Bronze Age: an archaeological background
	4.1 The Early Bronze Age of the third millennium
	4.2 The new Bronze Age chronologies
	4.3 The temporal sequence of the later third and second millennia BC
		The first phase, 2300-1900 BC
		The second phase, 1900-1600 BC
		The third phase, 1600/1500-1300 BC
		Why the west?
	4.4 The transmission of metallurgical know-how
		Organisational properties
	4.5 Conclusion: some historical long-term trends
5. Symbolic transmission and social transformation in Bronze Age Europe
	5.1 The material culture of ruling elites: the Minoan connection (eighteenth to sixteenth centuries BC)
		The lily and the ivy flower: tracing the meaning of a symbol
		Goddesses, high-ranking women and female costumes
		Rituals of drinking: cups for cheering
		Life of the ruler: art, architecture and domestic rituals
		Script and the loss of meaning: the limits of 'civilisation'
	5.2 Horse breeders and charioteers: from the Carpathians to Sintashta, Mycenae and Hattusha
		The Bronze Age environments of the steppe region
		'The Country of Towns' : the formation of complex societies in the Trans-Urals and the steppe
		Mycenae and its northern connections
	5.3 The iconography of ruling elites: The Kivik burial and the origins of the Nordic Bronze Age
		The interpretative challenge
		The foreign connections of the Kivik and their dating
		The local Nordic context and the dating of motifs
		The interregional context: Kivik as a centre of learning
		The international context: the transmission of royal iconography and the formation of chiefly elites
		Traders, smiths and travelling chiefs: time travels in cosmological space
		Historical summary
	5.4 The Mycenaean connection: the expansion of warrior aristocracies (fifteenth-fourteenth centuries BC)
		The archaeological evidence of warrior aristocracies: diffusion, acculturation and context
		The social and cultural context of warrior aristocracies: transmission, transformation and institutionalisation
		Appearance, body culture and ethos: materialisation, message and meaning
	5.5 Life and death of the Bronze Age warrior
		Mobile warriors or mobile weapons
		Indo-European kinship systems and the exchange of 'foreign' warriors (foster sons and brothers)
		The death of the warrior
		Life of the warrior
	5.6 Conclusion: the constitution of origins and the consolidation of hierarchy and cultural identity
6. The cosmological structure of Bronze Age society
	6.1 The archaeological study of religion: some constituting elements
	6.2 Oral and religious practice: beyond the written word
	6.3 The twin gods
	6.4 The Divine Twins materialised
		Kivik: a door to Bronze Age religion
	6.5 The twin rulers: the ritualised structure of chiefly leadership
		Tracing the meaning of a symbol: the cap of the ruler andthe tiara of the god
		Tracing the contexts of the twin dualism
		Origins of the twin rulers
	6.6 Hittite religion: a selective outline
		General introduction
		The Hittite pantheon
		The sun cults in Hittite religion
	6.7 The sun cult in Nordic Bronze Age religion
		The sun and the horse
		The sun-goddess and her twin brothers
		Sun-discs and women: the sun-priestess personified
		The chiefly priest with the campstool
		The bronze figurines
	6.8 Conclusion: institutional and cosmological longue duree
7. Among gods and mortals, animals and humans
	7.1 The role of animals in Egyptian, Near Eastern and Nordic religion
		Animals, humans and gods
		The snake and other animals in Egyptian and Nordic mythology
		Royalty and horse sacrifice/copulation (hierogamy)
		Hippomorphic gods: the birth of the Divine Twins
	7.2 Horns and horned gods
	7.3 South Scandinavian rock art and ritual: the propagation of an elite ideology
	7.4 Enculturing the body: the dialectic of social and religious behaviour
	7.5 Conclusion: religion and ritual performance
8. Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age
	8.1 Centred and decentred cosmologies
	8.2 The formation and consolidation of cultural identity and ethnicity
	8.3 Periphery and centre dynamics in the Bronze Age
	8.4 The end of the Bronze Age
	8.5 Contemplating the unfamiliar
Epilogue: towards a new Culture History
References
Index
                        

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