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TitleThe Relationship Between Levels of Moral Reasoning and Transformational Leadership Behaviors
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Table of Contents
                            Marshall University
Marshall Digital Scholar
The Relationship Between Levels of Moral Reasoning and Transformational Leadership Behaviors of West Virginia Public School Administrators
Table of Contents
List of Tables
Chapter 1
Chapter Two
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Curriculum Vita
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Marshall University
Marshall Digital Scholar

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones


The Relationship Between Levels of Moral
Reasoning and Transformational Leadership
Behaviors of West Virginia Public School
Cynthia L. Daniel

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Administration Commons, and the Social and Philosophical Foundations of Education Commons

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Recommended Citation
Daniel, Cynthia L., "The Relationship Between Levels of Moral Reasoning and Transformational Leadership Behaviors of West
Virginia Public School Administrators" (2005). Theses, Dissertations and Capstones. Paper 555.

Page 2



Cynthia L. Daniel

Dissertation submitted to the
College of Education and Professional Development

at Marshall University Graduate College
in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of

Doctor of Education

Leadership Studies

Jerry D. Jones, Ed.D., Chair
Paul A. Leary, Ed.D
Rudy Pauley, Ed.D.

Department of Leadership Studies

South Charleston, West Virginia

Keywords: Moral Reasoning, Transformational Leadership

Page 45


The questionnaire consists of 45 statements that describe leadership behaviors.

Respondents were asked to judge how frequently each statement fit them using a five-point

Likert scale. The ratings range from 0 to 4, with 0 meaning “not at all”, and 4 meaning

“frequently, if not always.”

Each item is associated with an attribute associated with either transformational or

transactional leadership styles. The attributes associated with transformational leadership are:

Idealized Influence (Attributed or Charisma), Idealized Influence (Behavior), Inspirational

Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, and Individual Consideration. Twenty of the forty-five

items are associated with transformational leadership (Bass & Avolio, 2000).

Average scores were obtained for each attribute by summing the items and dividing the

number of items that make up the scale. These scores were then reported as subscale scores.

Several validation studies have been conducted on the MLQ5x. Fourteen samples were

used to validate and cross-validate the MLQ5x. A series of factor analyses were completed to

select items that exhibited the best convergent and discriminate validities (Bass & Avolio, 2000).

A GFI (Goodness of Fit) index of .9 was established.

Reliabilities for total items and for each leadership subscale on the MLQ5X range from

.74 to .94. All of the scales’ reliabilities exceed standard cut offs for internal consistency

recommended in the literature (Bass & Avolio, 2000). The available research provides evidence

that the MLQ5x consistently measures the constructs in keeping with Bass’s theory of

transformational and transactional leadership (Pittenger, 2003).

Design and Data Collection

A one-shot case study design was used (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). Each respondent

received copies of both instruments, along with a cover letter explaining the purpose of the study

Page 46


as well as directions for completing both instruments. Demographic data, including gender, age,

and administrative title, was collected as well.

Data for the study were collected through use of the U.S. mail. Both instruments, along

with the cover letter and request for demographic data, were mailed to each respondent.

Respondents were asked to return answer sheets and demographic information in an enclosed

self-addressed, stamped envelope. Follow up postcards were sent and phone calls were made to

respondents approximately 14 days after the initial mailing. A second mailing occurred for some

respondents who did not return the instruments. Though not obtained, a return rate goal of 50%

plus one was established before conducting the data analysis (Kerlinger & Lee, 2000).

Data Analysis

Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. With descriptive

statistics, the goal is to describe, summarize, or make sense out of a set of data. Inferential

statistics make inferences and draw conclusions about populations based on sample data

(Johnson & Christensen, 2000). The analyses of a relationship between levels of moral

reasoning and the use of transformational leadership behaviors were completed using the Pearson

Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. With correlational research, there is no manipulation

of an independent variable (Johnson & Christensen, 2000). Instead, the relationship between the

two variables (moral reasoning and transformational leadership) was studied. The correlation

coefficient provided information about the strength and direction of the relationship between the

two variables (Johnson & Christensen, 2000). Analysis of the data was not used to identify

causes, as correlational research is not causal-comparative (Johnson & Christensen, 2000).

Differences in male and female respondents were analyzed using a t-Test for independent

samples. This common statistical test is used with a quantitative dependent variable and a

Page 90


Curriculum Vita

Page 91


Cynthia L. Daniel
118 Bowers Road, Charleston, WV 25314

(304) 346-7866 email: [email protected]


Marshall University, Huntington WV Anticipated December 2005
Degree – Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership Studies with a minor in Curriculum and
Instruction. Dissertation: The Relationship Between Levels of Moral Reasoning and
Transformational Leadership Behaviors of West Virginia Public School Administrators.

Marshall University, Huntington, WV December 2002
Degree- Specialist of Education in Superintendency

Marshall University, Huntington, WV December 1997
Degree – Master of Arts in Educational Leadership Studies

West Virginia College of Graduate Studies, Institute, WV August 1990
Degree – Master of Arts in Secondary School Counseling

University of Charleston, Charleston, WV May 1984
Degree – Bachelor of Arts, Magna Cum Laude, in Multicategorical Special Education


Kanawha County Schools, Charleston, WV 1984-Present
Secondary Special Education Classroom Teacher 1984-1996
Curriculum Supervisor 1996-1997
Assistant Principal for Curriculum, Riverside High 1997-2000
Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction 2000-Present


American Association of School Administrators
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
Phi Delta Kappa
RESA III Advisory Council
West Virginia Advanced Placement Advisory Council
West Virginia Association of School Administrators

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