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TitleThe Practitioner’s Guide to - Law Society of NSW
LanguageEnglish
File Size2.7 MB
Total Pages209
Table of Contents
                            Title page
Copyright and disclaimer
Table of Contents
Foreword
Acknowledgments
About this Handbook
1.	International Law and Australian Practitioners
	Stephen Tully
2.	The Sources of International Law and Australian Law
	Stephen Tully
	2.1.	The Sources of International Law
	2.2.	International Law and Australian Law
	2.3.	International Law and the Australian Constitution
3.	International Conventions
	Stephen Tully
	3.1.	Treaties and the Parliamentary Process
	3.2.	Treaties
	3.3.	Treaties and Australian Law
	3.4.	Treaty Interpretation
	3.5.	Treaties and Australian Courts
	3.6.	Treaties and Australian Common Law
	3.7.	Additional Resources
4.	Other Sources of International Law
	Stephen Tully
	4.1.	Customary International Law
	4.2.	General Principles of Law
	4.3.	Judicial Decisions
	4.4.	Publicists
	4.5.	The Decisions of International Organisations
	4.6.	Unilateral Declarations
	4.7.	Arrangements of less than Treaty Status
5.	Private International Law /Conflict of Laws
	David Freyne
	5.1.	What are the main issues involved in private international law disputes?
	5.2.	On what basis can the court assert jurisdiction over a foreign defendant?
	5.3.	Grounds for jurisdiction
	5.4.	Restraints on Proceedings
	5.5.	What conflict of law rules apply to the matter?
	5.6.	Application Issues
	5.7.	Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgment
	5.8.	Enforcement of judgments outside Australia
	5.9.	Implications for Practice
	5.10.	Evidence
	5.11.	Forum Shopping
	5.12.	Anti-suit injunction
	5.13.	Additional Resources
6.	Specialist Topics of International Law
	Stephen Tully
	6.1.	Jurisdiction
	6.2.	Judicial Abstention Doctrines
	6.3.	Immunity
	6.4.	Diplomatic, Consular and Other Relations
	6.5.	Recognition of States and Governments
	6.6.	Executive Certificates
7.	Conducting International Law Litigation before Australian Courts
	Stephen Tully
	7.1.	Standing
	7.2.	Jurisdiction
	7.3.	Accessing and Using Information
	7.4.	Drafting Applications involving International Legal Questions
	7.5.	Unincorporated Treaties and Administrative Decision-making
	7.6.	The Applicant’s Perspective
	7.7.	The Commonwealth’s Perspective
	7.8.	Costs Orders
	7.9.	Remedies
8.	Participation within the United Nations System
	Stephen Tully
	8.1.	Participation within the International Labour Organisation
	8.2.	Participation within the UN Human Rights System
9.	Participation before International Courts and Tribunals
	Stephen Tully
	9.1.	The International Court of Justice
	9.2.	International Criminal Courts and Tribunals
	9.3.	WTO Dispute Settlement
10.	International Environmental Law
	Elaine Johnson, Natalie Johnston, Amelia Thorpe and Amy Ward
	10.1.	Introduction
	10.2.	Principles of International Environmental Law
	10.3.	Biodiversity
	10.4.	Wetlands of International Importance
	10.5.	International Trade in Endangered Species
	10.6.	Migratory Species
	10.7.	World Heritage
	10.8.	Law of the Sea and Marine Pollution
	10.9.	Climate Change
	10.10	Participation at a Conference of the Parties
11.	Investment, Trade and the World Trade Organisation
	Mariko Lawson
	11.1.	Introduction
	11.2.	International Legal Framework of FDI
	11.3.	Dispute Resolution
	11.4.	Additional Resources
	11.5.	Participation within the World Trade Organisation
	11.6.	International Trade Law: Trade in Services
12.	The Protection of Cultural Property
	Diane Barker
	12.1.	What is ‘Cultural Property’ and Why Does it Need Protecting ?
	12.2. 	Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property 1970
	12.3.	Incorporation of the Convention into Australian Law
	12.4.	Additional Resources
Appendix
	Sydney Statement on the Practice of International Law before National and International Fora
Additional References
Crossword puzzle
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

The Practitioner’s Guide to

InTernaTIonal law

The Law SocieTy of New SouTh waLeS

youngLawyeRS
INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMITTEE

© The Law Society of New South Wales
(New South Wales Young Lawyers

International Law Committee) 2010

Page 104

within� a� State� Party,� unless� the� Committee’s� competence� has� been�
expressly�excluded.16�Inquiry�procedures�are�confidential�and�require�
the�cooperation�of�the�State�concerned.

(iv)�taking�early�warning�measures�and�urgent�action.17

(v)�considering�inter-State�complaints.

(vi)�adopting�‘General�Comments’�or�‘General�Recommendations’�which�
interpret�specific�treaty�provisions�and�provide�guidance�to�States�on�
implementing�the�convention.�These�non-binding�materials�indicate�a�
Committee’s�understanding�of�a�treaty�provision�and�suggest�the�likely�
interpretation�to�be�adopted�in�the�context�of�complaints�mechanisms.

(vii)�convening�thematic�days�of�discussions�on�particular�subjects.

Although�the�machinery�for�the�enforcement�of�human�rights�could�
be�said�to�be�‘imperfect�and�the�rights�and�freedoms�protected�are�not�
clearly�defined’,�the�obligation�for�States�to�protect�human�rights�and�
fundamental�freedoms�is�nonetheless�of�a�legal�character.18

8.2.1. The Human Rights Committee

Australia�is�party�to�the�International�Covenant�on�Civil�and�Political�
Rights� (ICCPR).19� NGOs� may� submit� written� information� to� the�
Committee’s�secretariat�at�any�time.�However,�the�preferred�time�is�two�
weeks�before�the�session�at�which�Australia’s�report�is�being�examined�
and�six�weeks�before�the�Committee’s�task�force�identifies�the�list�of�
issues�to�be�addressed.�NGOs�may�attend�Committee�meetings�as�observ-
ers�after�requesting�the�secretariat�for�accreditation.�The�Committee�may�
also�provide�an�opportunity�for�NGO�representatives�to�orally�brief�the�
Committee�in�closed�meetings�on�the�first�day�of�the�session�at�which�
Australia’s�report�is�considered.

‘If� it� is� not� afforded� by� Australian� courts,� in� a� proper� case,� where�
a� breach� of�Australia’s� obligations� under� the� ICCPR� can� be� shown,�
persons�affected�have�the�right�to�communicate�their�complaint�to�the�
Human�Rights�Committee�of�the�United�Nations�and�to�seek�redress�

16� The�Committee� against� Torture� and� the�Committee� on� the� Elimination� of�
Discrimination�against�Women.

17� The�Committee�on�the�Elimination�of�Racial�Discrimination.
18� Koowarta v Bjelke-Petersen�[1982]�HCA�27,�[117]�(Gibbs�CJ).
19� International�Covenant�on�Civil�and�Political�Rights�[1980]�ATS�23�reproduced�

in�Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986�(Cth),�Sch�2.

The Practitioner’s Guide to International law 87

Page 105

there’.20�Australia�is�a�party�to�the�complaints�mechanism�established�
under�the�First�Optional�Protocol�to�the�ICCPR.21�This�Protocol�does�not�
apply�retroactively:�the�Committee�is�precluded�from�examining�events�
occurring�before�its�entry�into�force�for�Australia�unless�those�acts�or�
omissions�continued�or�had�effects�after�that�date�and�constituted�viola-
tions�of�the�Covenant.�Individuals�claiming�to�be�‘victims’�of�a�violation�
of�the�rights�set�forth�in�the�ICCPR�may�bring�a�‘communication’�against�
Australia�before�the�UN�Human�Rights�Committee.�Submissions�must�
be�in�writing,�made�by�individuals�subject�to�Australian�jurisdiction�
and�demonstrating�that�all�adequate�and�effective�domestic�remedies�
have�been�exhausted.�The�Committee�will�not�consider�communications�
which�are�anonymous,�abuse�the�right�of�submission,�are�incompatible�
with�ICCPR�provisions�or�where�another�procedure�of� international�
investigation�or�settlement�is�considering�the�matter.�Communications�
are�forwarded�to�Australia�for�a�written�explanation�or�statement�within�
six�months.�Both�Australia�and�the�individual�have�the�opportunity�to�
submit�further�statements�and,�after�considering�all�written�information,�
the�Committee�will�forward�its�views�to�both.�The�remedies�offered�by�
the�Committee�are�limited�to�a�declaration�that�a�violation�of�the�ICCPR�
has�occurred,�continuous�reporting�to�the�Committee�and�calls�to�rectify�
the�circumstance,�including�through�legislation.

8.2.2. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

Australia�is�a�party�to�the�International�Covenant�on�Economic,�Social�
and�Cultural�Rights�(ICESCR).�Australia�has�taken�no�specific�steps�to�
legislatively�implement�the�Convention�in�its�entirety.22�The�Committee�
on�Economic,�Social�and�Cultural�Rights�assesses�compliance�through�
State�Party�reports.�States�must�demonstrate�that�they�have�taken�the�
necessary�and�feasible�steps�in�good�faith�towards�realizing�ICESCR�
rights.�The�Committee�depends�upon�the�quality�of�reports�submitted�by�
States�and�NGO�contributions.�NGOs�can�participate�in�the�Committee’s�
work� in� several� ways.23� NGOs� may� submit� written� information� to�
the�Committee’s�secretariat�at�any�time.�Those�NGOs�with�ECOSOC�
consultative�status�may�also�submit�statements�to�the�secretariat�for�

20� Re East; Ex parte Nguyen�[1998]�HCA�73,�[81]�(Kirby�J).
21� First�Optional�Protocol�to�the�International�Covenant�on�Civil�and�Political�

Rights�[1991]�ATS�39.
22� International�Covenant�on�Economic,� Social� and�Cultural�Rights� (ICESCR)�

(1966)�[1976]�ATS�5.
23� ECOSOC,�Non-governmental�organization�participation�in�the�activities�of�the�

Committee�on�Economic,�Social�and�Cultural�Rights,�E/2001/22-E/C.12/2000/21�
(2001),�Annex�V.

88 The Practitioner’s Guide to International law

Page 208

29.� Principal�European�judicial�body�
for�human�rights

30.� ICTR�?�ICTY�?�What’s�next�?
31.� Common�colour�for�all�P5�flags.
32.� Country�conduct
39.� Principal�UN�judicial�organ
41.� An�intense�dislike
42.�An�ocean�with�a�gap-�starts�with�

‘Tim….
44.�What�England�and�Iceland�litigated�

about,�in�French
48.� A�natural�resource�and�source�of�

much�dispute

50.� Competes�with�the�Security�
Council,�especially�after�Kosovo

51.� What�Article�2(4)�prohibits�but�
Article�51�permits

52.� Examplar�international�
organisation�

54.� Reputedly�mightier�than�the�sword
55.� Basis�of�jurisdiction�before�the�

World�Court
56.� Appointed�to�an�arbitration�

commission�concerning�Yugoslavia
57.� Establishes�title�to�uninhabited�

territory

For�some�answers,�join�the�NSW�Young�Lawyers�International�Law�Committee.

Page 209

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