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Page 1

G. W. F. HEGEL

THE PHILOSOPHICAL

PROP AEDEUTIC

Translated by A. V. Miller

Editors
Michael George and Andrew Vincent

Basil Blackwell

Page 2

© Basil Blackwell Ltd, 1986

First published 1986

Basil Blackwell Ltd
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Except in the United States of America, this book is sold subject to
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich

The philosophical propaedeutic.
I. Title II. George, Michael
III. Vincent, Andrew IV. Philosophische
Propadeutik. English
193 B2931
ISBN 0-631-15013-7

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 1770-1831.

The philosophical propaedeutic Hegel.
Translation of: Philosophische propadeutik.
Bibliography: p.
Includes index.

1. Philosophy-Introductions. I. George, Michael.
II. Vincent, Andrew. III. Title.
B2931.E5M54 1986 193 86-1033
ISBN 0-631-15013-7

Typeset by Oxford Publishing Services, Oxford
Printed in Great Britain by Page Bros (Norwich) Ltd

Preface

Acknowledgements

Introduction

CONTENTS

Hegel's mature system in outline (1830)

The parts of the Propaedeutic in relation to the 1 830 system

Vll

IX

Xl

XXXI

XXXlll

The parts of the Propaedeutic in relation to the later works XXXIV

1 The Science of Laws , Morals and Religion [For the Lower Class] 1
Rechts, Pflicht und Religionslehrefur die Unterklasse ( 1810)

2 Phenomenology [For the Middle Class] 55
Bewussteinslehrefur die Mittelklasse (1809)

3 Logic [For the Lower Class] 65
Logikfur die Unterklasse (1809-10)
Logic [For the Middle Class] 74
Logikfur die Mittelklasse ( 1810-1 1 )
The Science of the Concept [For the Higher Class] 1 05
Begriffslehrefur die Oberklasse (1809)

4 The Philosophical Encyclopaedia [For the Higher Class] 124
Philosophische Encyclopaediafur die Oberklasse (1808)

Bibliography 170

Index 173

Page 52

68 The Philosophical Propaedeutic

FACULTY OF JUDGEMENT

[1 8]
Judgement is the relation to one another of two determinations of
the Concept, one of which is related as Individual to the other as
Particular or Universal or is related as Particular to the Universal.

[ 1 9]
Of two determinations related to one another, the less inclusive
narrower one is the Subject, the other is the Predicate, and the
connection between them, the 'is ' , is the Copula.

[20]
Logic abstracts from all empirical content and considers only that
content which is posited by the form of the relation itself; accordingly
the Logical Judgement means, strictly, that an Individual is a
Particular or a Universal or that the Particular is a Universal.

[21 ]
Not every proposition is a Judgement but rather only in so far as its
content has that relationship .

[22]
Furthermore, since in the Judgement the determinations of the
Concept fall apart, only that proposition is a Judgement in which the
Predicate is presented on its own account and is connected with the
Subject by <;omparison.

[23]
The Predicate of the Judgement considered more closely (a) is simply
a determination relating to the Subject or to other determinations and
has from this side a content, (b) is unequal to the Subject, as Universal
in relation to the Individual as (c) connected with the Subject; it is
restricted to it and can be regarded as only of the same scope as that of
the Subject.

[24]
The Subject (a) is likewise distinct from other Subjects , (b) is likewise
distinct from the Predicate as one that is subsumed under it, (c) is
equal to the Predicate which expresses its content so that, strictly, in
the Judgement nothing is expressed of the Subject other than what is
contained in the Predicate.

Logic [For the Lower Class] 69

A Judgement of Inherence or Quality

[25]
The Predicate in the Judgement is in the first place a quality, any
simple immediate determinateness or property which inheres in the
Subject, several of which the Subject contains within itself.

[26]
Since in the Qualitative Judgement the Predicate is affirmed of the
Subject it is a Positive Judgement.

[27]
The principle is of wider scope than the Subject. If, therefore, the
Positive Judgement were immediately converted, i. e. the Predicate
were made the Subject and the Subject the Predicate, the Predicate
would then be more restricted than the Subject, which is contrary to
the Concept of the Judgement.

[28]
Consequently a Positive Judgement can only be converted in so far as
the Predicate is expressed as taken in its restriction to the Subject.

[29]
A Negative Judgement is one in which a Predicate of a Subject is
simply negated.

[30]
The Predicate, considered more closely, has in it two monlents: that
of the determinateness in relation to others and that of the Universal
sphere. In the Negative Judgement only the Predicate as a determi­
nateness is negated but not the Universal sphere of the Predicate.

[31 ]
Or, in the Negative Judgement the Subject i s negatively related to the
Predicate. With negation therefore there is , at the same time, present
a positing of the Predicate and that too of the Predicate as a Universal
sphere.

[32]
A Negative Judgement can be converted directly.

Page 53

70 The Philosophical Propaedeutic

[33]
An Infinite Judgement is one in which not only the determinateness
of the Predicate but also the Universal sphere is negated.

[34]
The Infinite Judgement includes the further meaning that what a
Subject is is not exhausted in a Predicate which expresses one of its
qualities, or in so far as this quality expresses a closely related
determinateness, still less in so far as it contains a further determinate­
ness which belongs to the Universal sphere.

B Judgements of Quantity or Riflection

[35]
To Reflect means to move on beyond something and to grasp the
resultant unity.

[36]
A det�rminatene�s of reflection contains, therefore, partly a compari­
�on wIth somethIng else and the side according to which the object in
Its qualities is similar to or different from it, partly a grasp of its own
determinations, a grasp which, however, expresses only an external
Universality and common nature or only a mere completeness.

[37]
Th� Individual J,:,dgement expresses that Predicate of a Subject
whIch belongs to It alone or whereby the Subject is distinguished
from all others ; the Subject is in so far, likewise, an Individual.

[38]
An Individual Judgement can, in a wider sense, also be called such
when its Subject is an Individual even though a Universal Predicate is
ass�rted of it, but which at least serves to distinguish it from others .
whIch come into consideration.

[39]
A Particular Judgement has for its Subject several Individuals . In
the

.
l!niversal Judgement the Subject is a taking together of all the

IndIvIduals of a kind; this taking together is the 'allness' or
l!niv�rsality of �eflection; the Predicate belonging to such a Subject is
lIkewIse the UnIversal of these Individuals , namely, as their common ·
element.

Logic [For the Lower Class]

C Judgements of Relation or Necessity

[40]

71

Subject and Predicate of necessity [belong] together through their
content.

[41 ]
Categorical Judgements: the Predicate expresses the nature or the
genuine Universal of the Subject and both have the same essential
content and the Subject is only a Particularity of the Predicate. The
further determination[ s] which the Subject still has besides what such
a Predicate contains are unessential properties or only limitations of
them.

[42]
In the Hypothetical Judgement the necessity does not lie in the
sameness of the content which rather is different, and what is declared
in this Judgement is only that two determinations stand in a necessary
connection as ground and consequent .

[43]
In the Disjunctive Judgement the Subject is considered as a
Universal sphere which in so far could have various determinations
but, because these mutually exclude one another, must necessarily
have only one of them excluding the others .

D Modality [of Judgement]

[44]
To consider Judgements according to their Modality means to
inquire whether the Predicate expresses the appropriateness of the
determinate being of the Subject to the Concept.

[45]
In Assertoric Judgements the specific nature of the Subject is not
yet developed.

[46]
Against the mere undeveloped, unfounded assurance of the assertoric
Judgement the opposite assurance can be asserted with the same
formal right. The Consequence in that which is present is only the
possibility that one Predicate, or its opposite, belongs to the Subject.
Thus the Judgement is Problematic.

Page 104

172 The Philosophical Propaedeutic

Norman, R. Hegel 's Phenomenology: A Philosophical Introduction,
Brighton 1976.

Pelczynski, Z. A. (ed. ) Hegel's Political Philosophy: Problems and
Perspectives, Cambridge 1971 .

-- (ed . ) The State and Civil Society : Studies in Hegel's Political
Philosophy, Cambridge 1984.

Plant, R. Hegel, London 1973, revised ed. Oxford 1983.
Reardon, B . Hegel's Philosophy of Religion, London 1977.
Reyburn, H. A. The Ethical Theory of Hegel, Oxford 1921 .
Reidel, M. Between Tradition and Revolution: The Hegelian Traniform­

ation of Political Philosophy, Cambridge, Mass . 1982.
Rosen, S. G. C. W. F. Hegel: An Introduction to the Science of Wisdom,

New Haven, Conn. 1974.
Shklar, J . N. Freedom and Independence: A Study of the Political Ideas of

Hegel 's (Phenomenology of Mind', Cambridge 1976.
Singer, P. Hegel, Oxford 1983.
So11, I. An Introduction to Hegel's Metaphysics, Chicago, Ill . 1969.
Solomon, R. In the Spirit of Hegel: A Study of Hegel's Phenomenology,

Oxford 1983.
Steinkraus, W. E. (ed . ) New Studies in the Philosophy of Hegel, New

York, N .Y. 1971 .
Steinkraus, W. E. and Schmitz, K. L. (eds) Art and Logic in Hegel 's

Philosophy, New Jersey and Brighton 1980.
Stepelevitch, L . S. and Lamb, D . (eds) Hegel 's Philosophy of Action,

Brighton 1983.
Taylor, C. Hegel, Cambridge 1975 .

-- Hegel and Modern Society, Cambridge 1979.
Toews, J. E. Hegelianism: The Path Towards Dialectical Humanism,

Cambridge 1980.
Verene, D. P. (ed . ) Hegel's Social and Political Thought: the Philosophy

of Objective Spirit, New Jersey, Pa. and Brighton 1980.
Walsh, W. H. Hegelian Ethics, London 1969.
Westphal, M. History and Truth in Hegel's (Phenomenology ', New

Jersey, Pa. and Brighton 1979.
Wiedman, F . Hegel: An Illustrated Biography, New York, N.Y. 1968.

INDEX

abstract object, 4
idea, 4
representation, 4
will, 22

abstraction, 4, 75
act, 2, 3, 1 0- 1 1 , 1 5
actuality, 87-90, 1 33
aesthetics, xix, 1 67
antinomies, xviii, 90-6
appearance, 83-6

and content, 85
and form, 84
and inner and outer, 86
and matter, 84
and mutual relation, 84
and things and properties, 83
and wholes and parts, 83

appetite
higher, 2, 1 1
lower, 2

arbitrariness, 3, 1 7
art, 1 67-8
attention, 8

, authority, 5

being, 76-7, 1 27
determinate, xxvii-xxviii, 77-8,

1 27-8
nothing and becoming, xxvi, 77,

1 27
Bildung, xx
blessedness, 21

categories, 67
causality, 9
cause, 1 33

chemical sphere, 1 1 8
citizen, xxi
classics, xv-xvii
cognition of the good, 1 20-2
concept, 6, 76, 1 05-17, 1 34

doctrine of, 67
and reality, 1 04
realization of, 1 1 7-19

consciousness, xviii, 56-9
perceiving, 57
practical, 2, 7-8
and reason, 63-4
and self-consciousness, 59-63
sensuous, 57
theoretical, 1, 7-8
and understanding, 57

constitutions, 34-5, 1 66
contract, 28
curriculum, xiv, xxi

deed, 1 5
desire, 59, 60
discipline, xiv
disposition, 20, 37
dreams, 1 54
duties, 41 -52

education, xiii-xxi, 1 8, 1 64
practical, 43-4
theoretic, 42-3

encyclopaedia, xviii, 1 24-5
end, 1 03, 1 1 7, 139-40
essence, 81-3, 1 30-2
estates, 1 66-7
evil, 50, 53, 1 64
experience, 5

Page 105

174

family, 32, 46, 164
fate, 44
feeling, 6, 1 50, 161
finitude, 13
fortune, 21
freedom, xxi, 14, 1 7-9

abstract, 3
political, 1 4-5
see also will

friendship, 5 1

good, 6, 50, 164
government, 33, 165
ground, 1 31-2

happiness, 38
history, 1 66

Idea, 76, 1 04, 1 27, 1 40-2
Idealism, 55
imagination, 8, 1 53
impulse, 2, 1 1 , 40, 60
instinct, 1 1
intuition, 9 , 1 5 1

Judgement, 24, 68-73, 99- 1 03,
1 07-1 7, 134-6

apodictic, 72, 102, 1 13
assertoric, 7 1 , 101 , 1 02, 1 12
categorical, 7 1 , 1 0 1 , 1 1 1 , 1 35
and copula, 68, 1 07
disjunctive, 7 1 , 101 , 1 1 2, 135
hypothetical, 71 , 101, 1 1 2, 135
identical, 1 09
individual, 70
infinite, 70, 101 , 1 09, 1 35
modality of, 1 02-3, 1 1 2
negative, 69, 1 00, 1 08, 1 09, 1 35
particular, 70, 101 , 135
positive, 69, 1 00, 1 08, 135
and predicate, 68, 1 07
problematic, 1 02, 1 1 2
and proposition, 107
qualitative, 69, 1 00, 1 08, 135
of reflection, 1 1 0
of relation, 101

Index

singular, 135
and subject, 68, 107
universal, 101 , 135

knowing, 55, 1 22-3, 1 42

language, 8, 1 57-8
law, 19, 22-31 , 33, 35-6, 1 62, 163
life, 1 04, 1 1 9-20, 1 40-2
logic, xviii, xxii-xxiii, 65- 123, 125

formal, 97
objective, 76, 105-23
ontological, 1 27-33
subjective, 76, 96, 127, 134-40

love, 1 68

marriage, 46
master-slave, 59-63
mathematics, 1 43-5
measure, 80-1
mechanism, 1 1 8
mediation, 1 1 8
memory, 1 56-7
moral action, 37, 40-1
moral will, 21
morality and law, 19, 164

nature, xviii-xix, xxiii, 125, 1 43-9
see also logic; spirit

object, 4
obligation, 36, 41-52
organic nature, 1 47-9

particularity, 67, 98
patriotism, 47
people, spirit of, 47
perception, 4, 5, 57
person, 23
phenomenology, xviii, 55-64
physics, 1 45-47
pleasure, 21 , 38-9
political society, 32
possession, 24, 1 62
powers (of the state) , 34
practical spirit, 1 60-6

properties (and accidents), 58
property, 24-8, 162-3
proposition, 107, 130-1
prudence, 44, 5 1
psychology, xviii, 5 6
punishment, 3 1 , 163

quality, 78, 1 27-8
quantity, 79-80, 1 28-9
quantum, 1 29

realism, 55
reason, 39-40, 56, 63-4, 1 59-60

and truth, 64
and the understanding, 58

reciprocity, 133
recollection, 1 5 1 , 152
reflection, 2, 12, 13 , 39
religion, 21 , 52-4, 1 68-9
representation, 65-6, 75, 1 50-1
right (lawful) , 6

science
and absolute idea, 1 04, 169
of the concept, 1 05-1 7
and the idea, 1 1 9-23
and philosophy, xix
and realization, 1 1 7-23

self-consciousness, 59-63
sensation, 65

Index

space and time, 66, 1 43
speech, 8
spirit, xx-xxi, xxiii-xxiv, 125,

1 49-67
see also logic; nature

state, 32, 47-52, 1 65
of nature, 33

syllogism, 72-3, 1 02-3, 1 1 3- 1 7,
136-8

teleological concept, 1 03
temperance, 43
thing, 57, 83
thought (thinking) , 8-10, 65-6,

74-5, 1 58-60
truth, 64, 77, 108, 1 22-3

understanding, 58, 1 26
universal, 67, 105, 134

virtue, 45

will, xxviii-xxx, 16-8, 23, 24
abstract, 22
of choice, 3, 1 7
and freedom, 1 4-15, 16, 18
particular, 1
pure, 4, 1 8
universal, 1 , 1 6 , 22

world, 1
writing, 8

175

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