Download The Paradigmatic Structure of Person Marking (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory) PDF

TitleThe Paradigmatic Structure of Person Marking (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory)
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size17.9 MB
Total Pages390
Table of Contents
                            Contents
Preface
List of abbreviations
1. Introduction: Objective, Definitions, Method, and Some History
	1.1 The feat of Domingo de Santo Tomás
	1.2 Definitions and delimitation
		1.2.1 Preamble
		1.2.2 Person and number
		1.2.3 Paradigmatic structure
		1.2.4 Specialization and grammaticalization
		1.2.5 Remaining delimitations
	1.3 Methodology
		1.3.1 Preamble
		1.3.2 Typology versus cross-linguistic research
		1.3.3 Sampling in typology
		1.3.4 Crypto-diachrony
	1.4 Previous cross-linguistic investigations
		1.4.1 Preamble
		1.4.2 Forchheimer and his critics
		1.4.3 Greenberg and his co-workers
		1.4.4 Mühlhäusler and Harré
		1.4.5 Laycock on New Guinean pronouns
		1.4.6 Conclusion
	1.5 Outline of the book
PART I. PERSON MARKING
	2. One Among the Crowd: The Marking of Singular Participants
		2.1 Introduction
		2.2 Possible patterns
		2.3 Singular homophony
		2.4 Singular homophony and pro-drop
		2.5 The distribution of zeros
		2.6 Conclusion
	3. Group Marking: Redefining Plurality in the Pronominal Domain
		3.1 Introduction
		3.2 Definition
		3.3 Terminology
		3.4 Towards a typology of groups
		3.5 A partial typology: the first person complex
		3.6 Different kinds of 'we'
		3.7 Generalizations
		3.8 Conclusion
PART II. PARADIGMATIC STRUCTURE
	4. The Diversity of the Core: A Survey of Patterns of Singular and Group Marking
		4.1 Introduction
		4.2 Method of classification
		4.3 No inclusive/exclusive: split non-singular
		4.4 No inclusive/exclusive: homophonous non-singular
		4.5 Inclusive/exclusive: split non-singular
		4.6 Inclusive/exclusive: homophonous non-singular
		4.7 Generalizations
		4.8 Conclusion
	5. Compound Pronouns: Other Person Categories Disqualified
		5.1 Introduction
		5.2 From compound to pronoun
		5.3 The Bantoid compound pronouns
		5.4 Generalizations
		5.5 The incorporative reading revisited
		5.6 Conclusion
PART III. NUMBER INCORPORATED
	6. Cardinality: Redefining Number in the Pronominal Domain
		6.1 Introduction
		6.2 A metalanguage for number marking
		6.3 Markedness reversals
		6.4 Other numbers
		6.5 Conclusion
	7. The Diversity of Restricted Groups: A Survey of Dual Person Marking
		7.1 Introduction
		7.2 Method and terminology
		7.3 Duals without inclusive/exclusive
		7.4 Duals with inclusive/exclusive: three times 'we'
		7.5 Duals with inclusive/exclusive: four times 'we'
		7.6 Duals with inclusive/exclusive: five times 'we'
		7.7 Generalizations
		7.8 Conclusion
PART IV. COGNATE PARADIGMS
	8. Connecting Paradigms: Person Paradigms through Time and Space
		8.1 Introduction
		8.2 Cognate paradigms
		8.3 Towards a theory of paradigmatic change
		8.4 Up and down the Horizontal Homophony Hierarchy
		8.5 Up and down the Explicitness Hierarchy
		8.6 Conclusion
	9. Cognate Paradigms Revisited: Connecting the Dual
		9.1 Introduction
		9.2 The typological hypothesis
		9.3 Linking the major dual paradigms
		9.4 Minimal/augmented and its variants
		9.5 Dual-3we as an intermediate
		9.6 Number marking incorporated
		9.7 Conclusion
	10. Finale: Summary and Prospects
		10.1 Summary of results
		10.2 Towards a theory of person marking
		10.3 Prospects
		10.4 Wider application of results
References
List of languages according to genetic/geographical distribution
Index of names
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Y
	Z
Index of languages
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	X
	Y
	Z
Index of subjects
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Y
	Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 196

Compound Pronouns 181

5.4 Generalizations

The paradigmatic structure of the compound pronouns is very similar in the
various languages discussed. However, there are strong indications that
compound pronouns are an individually acquired phenomenon, and not a genetic
feature. In all languages, the compound pronouns are transparently constructed
out of the simplex pronouns of the same language. Although the simplex
pronouns are historically related between the languages, the compound pronouns
are clearly made up from the 'own' simplex pronouns of a language. The
compound pronouns themselves are not directly related to the compound
pronouns of other languages. The same principles for making compound pro-
nouns are found in all languages, but each language uses its own inventory to
make them. The idea of making compound pronouns is borrowed (or developed
in parallel), not the compound pronouns themselves.

There are some differences between the languages as to which compound
pronoun are used, and as to how many different compounds are distinguished.
The basic paradigm appears to comprise eight compound pronouns, like the
paradigm from Mundani in (5.5b). A few descriptions mention less compound
pronouns (Mbili and Babungo) and a few mention more (Noni, Aghem, and
Ghomala'). Whether these differences are artefacts of the descriptional practice
or real differences between the languages has to be decided by more detailed
research into these languages.

Another structural characteristic is the linker -a-. In many languages that were
discussed, this linker is used between the parts of the compound. In central
Africa, -a- is a widespread morpheme to link linguistic elements. Interestingly in
this context, -a- is mainly found with compound pronouns that have a plural
second part. The only exception to this generalization is found in Aghem.

The meaning of the compound pronouns also turns out to be strongly similar.
When the second part of the compound is originally a singular pronoun, then the
compound has dual meaning. A compound of the form 'we and he' means 'I and
he'. The only exception to this generalization is found in Limbum, where the
compound with the form 'we and he' can both mean 'I and he' and 'we and he'.
When the second part is plural, then both parts of the compound can have a plural
reference. A compound with the form 'we and they' can either mean 'I and they',
'we and he', or 'we and they'.

Finally, there is a strong referential connection between compound pronouns
meaning 'I and you' and inclusive pronouns. In some of the languages, compound
pronouns with the meaning 'I and you' have been grammaticalized into simplex
inclusive pronouns. Once they are completely grammaticalized, these simplex
inclusive pronouns can again be used as building part for complex pronouns (Noni,
Aghem, and Limbum). Different stages in this grammaticalization are documen-
ted by the structures as found in the languages discussed in the previous section.

Page 389

374 Index of Subjects

imperative 60-1
implication 57 n.

addressee inclusion 96-7
dual homophony 301
reversed 97
singular homophony 53, 301-2

inclusive/exclusive opposition:
abbreviations using numbers 73 n. 8
alike to present/absent 225 n. 21
development of 169-70
discovery of 1-4
errors made in descriptions 19,

140 nn. 27 and 29, 282 nn. 5 and 6
implications 96-7
in second person 74-6, 296
used for politeness 17

inclusive/exclusive type 85, 95-8, 251, 259,
261, 264-5, 275-8, 292-3

interlocking pattern 16
intra-genetic comparison 247
item-based approach 9

Kalam type 208, 239
Kombaitype 131-3, 162
Kwakiutl type 145-7, 161

Latin type:
in singular 40, 45 n., 58
in non-singular 106-8

logophoricity 18

Mandara type 141-3, 161
Maranao type 139-40, 217, 232; see also

minimal/augmented type
Maricopatype 114-19, 161
markedness 58, 61, 193-7
mass speaking 69, 73-4, 77, 296
merger 40, 54
metalanguage 68, 77, 102-3, 188-93
minimal/augmented type 85-90, 91 n. 24, 95-

139-40
definition of 77, 86
discovery of 87-9
morphological transparent marking of 89,

263
relation to inclusive/exclusive type 260-2,

276-8
relation to only-inclusive type 89, 262—4
relation to partial-unit-augmented type

279-83, 289-90
relation to unit-augmented type 232-3,

279-83, 289-90
morphological uniformity 57
motherese 4

Natural Semantic Metalanguage 13, 73 n. 7
NezPercetype 129-31,162
no-we type 81-4, 95-8, 251, 259
non-configurationality 14
number 186-203, 307-9

Omie type 134-5, 162
only-inclusive type 84-5, 86 n., 89, 95-8,

251, 259
other person, see third person

parddeigma 100
paradigmatic structure 4, 5

change of 249-50
definition of 8-12, 295-6
history of terminology 100
impoverished 42, 43, 47, 54, 56
non-uniform 10-11
richness of 5, 46, 56-7

partial-unit-augmented type 226-1, 237,
279-83, 287-90

paucal 67, 199-200, 282 n. 6, 293, 297
person marking:

by clitics 14, 59, 62 n. 20, 83
by demonstratives 63
by full nouns 12, 63
by proper names 12, 63
by kin terms 12
consciousness model of 52
definition of 5, 27, 295
feature analysis of 73 n. 7, 309
for possession 15 n., 59
hierarchical feature analysis of 73 n. 7, 309
phonological similarity of 9
portmanteau forms for transitives

18-19, 67
pragmatic model of 52
set theory analysis of 73 n. 7, 309
specialized forms for kin reference 17
speech model of 52
see also first person; second person; third

person; fourth person; pure person
persona 38
plural 69-72, 102-3

additive 175 n.
associative 69, 117
cumulative 169-70
heterogeneous 75-6
homogeneous 75-6
incorporative 168-9, 181-3
morphologically transparent 70
qualitiative definition 72
quantitative definition 72
selective 175 n.
see also group marking

politeness 12 n. 14, 13, 16-17, 71, 76

Page 390

Index of Subjects 375

polysemy, 40
possession, see person marking, for possession
pro-drop 48, 54-7
projection principle 13-14
pronoun:

attributes of 101
complex 167 n. 1
compound 166-81, 297
demonstrative 18, 63
indefinite 17
interrogative 17
personal, see person marking
reciprocal 17
reflexive 17

prosopon 38
pure person 163, 238-9, 303, 320-1

quadral 200-1

rapport associatif 100
rara 23 n.
rare patterns 160, 163, 236, 298

definition of 23, 105
of first person complex 90-5

rarissima 23 n., 163

sample 22-4, 29, 52
second person:

definition of 6-8
universality of 13
zero marked 59-61

self 73
self-reference 4-5
shifter 5, 12
Sierra Popoluca type 111, 147-51, 161
similarity map 24, 164, 306-7; see also

cognitive map
Sinhalese type 108-10, 161
Slave type 124-6, 162
Spanish type 45-8, 52, 57-8
speaker, see first person
speech act:

coordination of 77
manipulative 60
participants 3, 4

split patterns:
definition of 105-6

with inclusive/exclusive 138-52
without inclusive/exclusive 106-23

syncretism, 40, 68 n. 2; see also
homophony

syntagmatic structure 310-11

Tekhne Grammatike 38, 101
terminology 30, 31, 68-72; see also

metalanguage
tertium comparationis 21
third person:

as 'non-person' 8, 61
definition of 6
obviative 18
zero marked 61^4-

tolkappyam 3 n. 4
traditional description:

of Arabic 14 n., 62 n. 20
of Dravidian languages 3 n. 4
of Greek 38
of Ilocano 87
of Latin 1, 38
of pronouns 101

transitivity 18-19
trial 67, 197-200, 297
Tupi-Guarani type 143-5, 161
turn taking 7
typology 21^4-, 77 n.

unified-we type 80-1, 95-8, 251, 259, 274
unison speech, see mass speaking
unit-augmented type 189, 232-6, 237, 279-83,

288-90, 292
universals 23, 57 n., 82-3;

see also implication

visibility 18

Wortfeld 9

Yagaria type 208, 239

zero marking 52-3, 57-64

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