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title: The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy
Oxford Paperback Reference

author: Blackburn, Simon.
publisher: Oxford University Press

isbn10 | asin: 0192831348
print isbn13: 9780192831347

ebook isbn13: 9780585110721
language: English

subject Philosophy--Dictionaries.
publication date: 1996

lcc: B41.B53 1996eb
ddc: 103

subject: Philosophy--Dictionaries.

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy

Simon Blackburn is Edna J. Koury Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at the
University of North Carolina. He was a Fellow and Tutor of Pembroke College, Oxford
from 1969 to 1990. The author (1984) and

(1993), he edited the journal Mind from 1984 to 1990.


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Oxford Paperback Reference

The most authoritative and up-to-date reference books for both students and the general

ABC of Music
Art and Artists
Art Terms*
British Women Writers
Card Games
Christian Church
Classical Literature
Classical Mythology*
Colour Medical Dictionary
Colour Science Dictionary
Earth Sciences
English Etymology
English Folklore*
English Grammar
English Language
English Literature
English Place-Names
Finance and Banking
First Names
Food and Nutrition
Fowler's Modern English Usage
Handbook of the World*

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papers are 'A Completeness Theorem in Modal Logic' (1959), Journal of Symbolic
Logic), 'Semantical Analysis of Modal Logic' (1963, Zeitschrift für Mathematische Logik
und Grundlagen der Mathematik) and 'Semantical Considerations on Modal Logic'
(1963, Acta Philosophica Fennica). In Naming and Necessity (1980), Kripke gave the
classic modern treatment of the topic of reference, both clarifying the distinction between
names and *definite descriptions, and opening the door to many subsequent attempts to
understand the notion of reference in terms of a causal link between the use of a term and
an original episode of attaching a name to a subject. His Wittgenstein on Rules and
Private Language (1983) also proved seminal, putting the *rule-following considerations
at the centre of *Wittgenstein studies, and arguing that the *private language argument is
an application of them. Kripke has also written influential work on the theory of truth and
the solution of the *semantic paradoxes.

Kristeva, Julia (1941-) French *feminist. Born in Bulgaria, Kristeva came to Paris in 1965
and became a leading member of the Tel Quel group of activist left-wing theorists. Since
1974 she has worked as professor of linguistics at the university of Paris, and as a
practising psychoanalyst. Together with *Irigaray and *Cixous, Kristeva has been the
most influential of French feminists whose thought has been shaped by psychoanalysis as
well as Marxism, philosophy, and literature. Just as her Bulgarian background inhibited
her from embracing Maoism with the enthusiasm of many Parisian intellectuals of the late
1960s, so her experience of psychoanalysis keeps her at some distance from more
extreme *postmodernist pronouncements on the death of the subject, and the
nonexistence of meaning, love, and other human categories. Her work has centred upon
the balance between a 'semiotic', a pre-Oedipal,

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rhythmic, and sensual order, and the conventional or 'symbolic' system of propositions
and representations. Unlike Cixous and Irigaray she does not appeal to biological
*determinism (a view of what is inherently or essentially female) in her view of
femininity and female writing. When they work as marginal and avant-garde artists, men
such as the poet Mallarmé also can channel the irruption of the semiotic into the symbolic
order. Her works include La Réolution de langage poétique (1974, trs. as Revolution in
Poetic Language, 1984), and Histoires d'amour (1983, trs. as Love Stories, 1987).

Kristina Wasa (Queen Kristina of Sweden, 1626-89) The daughter of Gustav II, Kristina
inherited the crown of Sweden in 1632. In 1652 she suffered a breakdown, and in 1654
abdicated, the first step in a process that led her to Catholicism and then to atheism. Her
maxims are collected as Les Sentiments héroïques and L'Ouvrage de loisir: les sentiments
raisonnables, addressing mainly ethical issues. But her academic interests were wide and
absorbed her time even while she remained a sovereign. She is remembered in
philosophy partly as the correspondent of both *Descartes and *Grotius. Each travelled to
visit her in Sweden (Grotius in 1644 and Descartes in 1650), and both died of pneumonia
as a result. Kristina's life after her abdication caused some scandal. In 1656, still believing
in the divine right of monarchs (and ex-monarchs), she had a servant executed. Her
apparently ambivalent sexuality has made her a figure of considerable interest to
contemporary *feminism.

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Kropotkin, Peter (1842-1921) Russian nobleman, and main proponent of
anarchocommunism. Kropotkin believed that *Darwin's theory of evolution, properly
applied, showed that human beings are social creatures who flourish best in small
communities cemented together by mutual aid and voluntary associations (see altruism).
The centralized state with its apparatus of coercion represents a backward step, or
obstacle to the implementation of this ideal. Kropotkin's works include Mutual Aid (1897)
and Fields, Factories, and Workshops (1901). He lived largely in England, but died in

Kuhn, Thomas Samuel (1922-) American philosopher of science. Born in Ohio, Kuhn
was educated at Harvard as a physicist before his book The Structure of Scientific
Revolutions (1962) became one of the most influential modern works of the history and
philosophy of science. Like Alexandre Koyré (1892-1964) and the French writers
*Bachelard and Jean Cavaillès (1903-44), Kuhn stresses that the history of science is not
a smooth progressive accumulation of data and successful theory, but the outcome of
ruptures, false starts, and imaginative constraints that themselves reflect many different
variables. In his account, science during a normal period works within a framework of
assumptions called a *paradigm, but in exceptional and revolutionary periods an old
paradigm breaks down and after a period of competition is replaced by a new one. The
process is something like a *Gestalt switch, and has seemed to many to have disquieting
implications for the rationality and objectivity of science. Kuhn's other books include The
Copernican Revolution (1957) and Sources for the History of Quantum Physics (1967).

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labour theory of value In economics, the view that the value of a commodity reflects the
amount of labour involved in its production. Although espoused as an approximation by
*Pufendorf, *Hutcheson, Adam *Smith, and David Ricardo (1772-1823), it is now
mainly held by *Marxist economists, since it denies any real productive role to capital.

Lacan, Jacques (1901-81) French psychoanalyst and intellectual. Lacan was director of
the École Freudienne de Paris from 1963, but his influence rested more on the series of
seminars that he gave at the university of Paris from 1953, and which decisively
influenced French thought of the time. His endeavour was to reinterpret Freud in the light
of the structural approach to linguistics inaugurated by *Saussure. Language becomes a
manifestation of the structures present in the unconscious. The central theme is that the
growing child must give up the narcissistic stage of absorption in the mother, and
becomes aware of loss and difference as it begins to take its place in a network of
linguistic and social roles. The repressions involved in this procedure open up a world of
insatiable desires. Lacan's work is notoriously obscure, repeating the same shifting nature
of dreams and, presumably, the unconscious; like that of *Derrida after him it is also
replete with wordplays, puns, and reason-defying leaps. His lectures, in transcript, are
collected in the two-volume Écrits (1966, 1971, trs. under the same title, 1977).

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Page 421


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