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HE 019 188

Kerr, Clark; Gade, Marian L.
The Many Lives of Academic Presidents: Time, Place,
and Character.
Association of Governing Boards of Universities and
Colleges, Washington, D.C.
Carnegie Corp. of New York, N.Y.
86
267p.
Association of Governing Boards of Universities &
Colleges, One Dupont Circle, Suite 400, Washington,
DC 20036 ($22.00 member; $26.00 non-member).
Reports - Descriptive (141)

MF01/PC11 Plus Postage.
*Administrator Characteristics; *Administrator
Responsibility; Administrator Selection; College
Administration; *College Environment; *College
Presidents; Government School Relationship; Higher
Education; Institutional Characteristics;
Interprofessional Relationship; *Leadership Styles;
Models
Search Committees

ABSTRACT
The American college presidency is examined, with

attention to characteristics of those who become college presidents,
how long they serve and where they go after leaving the presidency,
and internal/external factors affecting their performance. The
analysis is based in part on 800 interviews with presidents, their
spouses, and other close associates that were undertaken for a 1984
report, "Presidents Make A Difference: Strengthening Leadership in
Colleges and Universities." Brief notes on 24 college presidents
illustrate the diversity of these leaders. Reasons presidents give
for seeking/accepting and refusing presidencies are identified. The
book also considers: experiences of new presidents; similarities
between college presidents and corporate ext'utives; general
responsibilities of the executive group and board and core
responsibilities of the president; skills required of the president;
strategies and styles employed by presidents; historical trends
affecting the presidency; external influences such as public
regulation; internal influences such as student and staff input; four
presidential models; and the context of 11 types of institutions.
Appended materials include: advice offered '31, 16 presidents,
attributes considered by presidential search committees, and a
nine-page annotated bibliography. (SW)

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* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made *
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Page 2

THE MANY LIVES
OF ACADEMIC PRESIDENTS

Time, Place & Character

by Clark Kerr and Marian L. Gade

Funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York

Association of Governing Boards
of Universities and Colleges

Wa,hington, D.C.

3

Page 133

The Many
Lives of Academic
Presidents

120

6 For a further discussion of these developments, see Clark Kerr, "Liberal
Learning A Record of Presidential Neglect," Change 16, no 6 (September
1984) 32-36 Especially in community colleges, fiscal and management
concerns have tended to crowd out attention to academic concerns. A
survey in the mid-1960s identified "Effectiveness and improvement of
instruction" as the most critical community college problem A similar
survey of presidents, administrators, and others in the late 1970s ranked
instructional improvement number 5, below "collective bargaining,"
"financial support," "applying sound principles of management," and
president-board relationships." See B. Lamar Johnson, "Critical Com-

munity College Problems Then and Now. The rnic6Os and the late '70s,"
Community College Frontiers 7, no 4 (Summer 1979) 8-14

Harold W Dodds, The Academic PresidentEducator or Caretaker?
(New York McGraw-Hill Book Co , 1962), 60

8 ibid . 2

9 Michael D Cohen and James D March, Leadership and Ambiguity 108

10 Louis T Benezet, Joseph Katz, and Frances W Magnusson, Style and
Substance (Washington, D C American Council on Education, 1981), 48

11 The Emergence of the American (buyers:0, (Chicago University of
Chicago Press, 1965), 310

12 Harold W Stoke, The American College President (New York Harper &
Brothers, 1959), 3,124

13 Robert Maynard Hutchins, "Introduction Education;' in Freedom,
Education, and The Fund (New York Meridian Books, 1956), 73

14 John Kenneth Galbraith, The Anatomy of Power (Boston Houghton
Mifflin, 1983), 184

15 Louis T Benezet, "Do Presidents Make a Difference)" Educational
Record 63, no 4 (Fall 1982) 12,11

16 A study of clergymen's wives in England in the early 1970s revealed
tasks and roles very similar to those historically played by presidents'
wives See Janet Finch, "Devising Conventional Performances. The
Case of Clergymen's Wives," Sociological Review 28, no 4, New Series
(November 1980) 851-870

I Since Marguen e Walker Corbally's pathbreaking book, The Partners.
sharing the Life of a College President (Danville, Ill Interstate, 1977),
interest in the role of the spouse of the college and university president
has greatly increased In addition to overall discussions of the role, such
as Corbally's, national organizations have conducted surveys of presi-
dents' spouses The first of these was by Robeita H Ostar and Cathryn
Ryan, Sun,ey of AASCU Presidential Spouses Myths and Realities

134

Page 134

(Washington, DC. American Association of State Colleges and Univer-
sities, 1981), followed by Roberta H. Ostar. Myths and Realities 1983
Report on the AASCU Presidential Spouses (Washington, DC American
Association of State Colleges and Universities, 1983)

Another major group of public universities was surveyed, and a range
of spousal issues explored in essays by presidents' wives, in Joan E
Clodius and Diane Skomars Magrath, eds , The President's Spouse
iblunteer or Volunteered (Washington, DC National Association of
State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 1984) Most recently, the
community college spouse's situation and role have been examined in
George B Vaughan, The Community College President (New York
American Council on Education/Macmillan Series in Higher Education,
Macmillan Publishing Co , 1986, Forthcoming), chap 7

The special situation of male spouses of female college presidents was
explored in Judith A Brissette, "A Comparison of the Role of Male and
Female Spouses of Presidents of Selected Four-year, Private Colleges'
(Ph ^ diss , The University of Toledo. 1982)

In addition, a number of presidential spouses, all women so far, have
written descriptions of their experiences Among the most well-known
are Muriel Beadle, Where Has All the liy Gone? A Memoir of University
Life (Garden City, N Y. Doubleday & Co , 1972), and Jean Alexander
Kemeny, It's Different at Dartmouth (Brattleboro, Vt Stephen Greene
Press, 1979)

18 Elizabeth D Gee, "One for the Money, Two for the Show The Presi-
dent's Spouse and the Dynamics of Authority'. (presentation delivered
at The 1982 National Trustee Vbrkshop, Association of Governing
Boards of Universities and Colleges, Louisville, Ks', 4-5 October 1982)

19 /bid . 2

20 Marguerite Corb,i11, The Partners, 25

Charles William Eliot to Abbott Lawrence Lowell, his successor in the
presidency of Harvard, 11 January 1909, in Henry Aaron Yeomans,
Abbott Lawrence Lowell, 1856-1943 (Cambridge Harvard University
Press, 1948), 91-92

22 These jobs include ministers, military officers, doctors, corporation
executives, mayors, legislators, and others. For an analysis of the prob-
lems and "delights," see Janet Finch, Married to the Job (London George
Allen and Unwin, 1983) Carolyn Enright DiBiaggio distinguishes between
the "two person career" the "dual career" in which a married couple
follow independent careers and the "duo-career" in which a spouse,
in effect, "maintains two roles simultaneouslyan independent profes-
sional career as well as her duties as the wife of the university presi-
dent See Carolyn Enright DiBiaggo, "Duo Careers," in Clodius and
Magrath, The President's Spouse, 111.) Also see Hanna Papanek, "Men,

135

Changing Times
and Changing
Environments

121

Page 265

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, 73, 77
Kaplan, Abbott, 68
Katz, Joseph, 71, 75, 110, 112, 120
Kauffman, Joseph F, 31, 34, 119,

122, 224, 227
Kaw-roka, Maureen, xv
Keller, George, 177, 181
Kemeny, Jean Alexander, 121
Kennedy Johr P , 82
Kerr, Clark, xi-xv, xvii -xxui, 34,

91-93, 96, 120, 139, 181
Killian, James R , Jr, xxi, 41, 47
Kirkland, James H , 69

Lawrence College, 192
Leonard, J Paul, 68, 91-93
Liftoa, Robert Jay 59, 65
Lincoln, Abraham, 95
Lowell, Abbott Lawrence, 28, 33, 34,

35, 54, 121, 184-190

McCann, Charles, 68
McCarthy, Joseph, 84-85, 86
Maccohy, Michael, xix. 13
McGregor, Douglas, 133-134 140
McHenry, Dean, 68
Machiavelli, Niccolo, 171, 172. 209
Maclaurin, Richard, 41
Magnusson, Frances W , 71, 77, 110,

112, 120
March, James G , xvii-xvin, 11, 13.

21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 59, 65, 87,
105, 110, 119, 121' 149 -1'.3, 157

Marx, Karl, xvii
Masiko, Peter, Jr , 68
Massachusetts Institute of

Technology, xxi, 23, 40 41, 1-9
The Masters, 4, 13
Meikleaohn, Alexander, 68
Merry, Robert W , 32, 35
Miami-Dade Community College, 68
Michigan, University of, ).3, 68, 12'
Michigan State University, o9
Miller, Richard I , 23
Millen, John 1) 86, 95
Morgan, Arthur, 68
Moses, 4, 13

Nason, John, 91, 181, 182
National Commission on

Strengthening Presidential
Leadership in Higher Education,
xi, xvii, 22, 31, 34, 117, 181

Neustadt, Iv. lard E., 118, 122
New College, 68
New Mexico, University of, 204
New School for Sc'ial Research,

222-223
Notre Dame, University of, 69,

162, X06
Nott, Eliphalet, 68

Oklahoma Christian College, 163
Old Westbury College, 68
Oral Roberts University, 162
Oxford University, 38, 48, 126

Pasternak, Boris, 207
Patterson, Franklin K , 68
Pennsylvania, University of,

67-68, 162
Pliny the Elder, 12
Pomona College, 68
Presidents Make a Difference

krengt-ening Leadership in
Colleges and Universities, xi,
xiii, xvii, 22, 31, 34, 180-181

Princeton University, 23, 68, 69, 75,
162, 184, 197

Pritchett, Harry, 41

Queens College (New York). 195

Read, Sister Joel, 69
Reed College, 68
Revelle, Roger, 68
Rhode Island College, 224
Rhodes, Frank H T , 234
Rhodes Trust, 91
Ricsman, David, xv, xvii xxiii, "-

103, 106 119
Ruthven, Alexander G , 32

Sac har, Abraham, 68
St John's College (Annapolis). 68
Sanford, Terry, 229-234
San Francisco State College, 68, 91

266

Index
IIMEMIIIII
259

Page 266

The Many
Lives of Academic
Presidents

260

Sawyer, John, 69
Schiller, Friedrich von, 171
Selznick, Philip, 59, 65
Shapiro, Irving, xxi
Ails, Edward, 143, 148
Simon, Herbert A , 32, 35, 46, 48
Snow, C. P., 13
Sophocles, xv
Southern Massachusetts

University, 215
Sproul, Robert Gordon, 69
Stanford University, 23, 29. 68, 90
State University of New York

at Purchase, 68
at Stony Brook, 68

Sterling, Wallace, 69
Stoke, Harold W , 26, 28, 34, 35,

110, 120, 195-197
Stratton, Samuel, 41
Swarthmore College, 68, 91
Swope, Gerard, xxi, 41

Tappan, Henry Philip, 68
Themistocles, 137
Thomas, Lewis, 154, 157
Thomas, M Carey, 68
Three Thousand Futures, 96, P5
Toll, John, 68
Tolstoy, Leo, xvii, 75
Towson State University,
Trevelyan, G M , 196
Trifling, Lionel, 142
'Trinity College, Cambridge

University, 186
Trow, Martin, xv, 47, 12,4-13 5,

157, 181

) ) 7

Union College, 68
The Uses of the University xviii,

133, 139

Vanderbilt University, 69
Van Ek, Jacob, 205
Van Hise, Charles Richard, 68
Veblen, Thorstein, 125, 129
Veysey, Laurence R 110
Virginia, University of, 68

Walker, Donald E., 32, 35, 142, 147,
156, 157, 215-218

Walker, Francis Amasa, 41
War and Peace, xvii
Wayland Francis, 68
Weidner, Edward, 68
Wells, Herman B, 33, 35, 69, 90, 96,

218-222
Wheeler, Benjamin Ide, 68, 93
White, Andrew Dickson, 68
Wilbur, Ray Lyman, 90-91
Wildaysky, Aaron, 13, 32, 35, 53, 61,

64, 65, 70, 75, 142, 146, 147,
148, 181

Williams College, 13, 69, 162
Wilson, Woodrow, 68, 69, 75, 184
Wisconsin, University of

at Green Bay, 68
at Madison, 23, 68

Wofford, Harris, 68
Wood, Miriam M , 138-139, 140
Weston, Henry W, 69, 192-194

Yak University, 23, 68, 69, 162,
228, 234

140. Yankelovich, Daniel, 137-140
Yeats, William Butler, 145, 148

267

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