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TitleThe influence of texture on phase transformation in metastable austenitic stainless steel
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Table of Contents
	About this thesis
Crystalline texture
	Description of crystal orientations
	Measurement of Textures
	The Orientation Distribution Function
	Discretization of the ODF
Martensitic transformations
	Martensitic transformations
		The Ms temperature
	Crystallography of martensitic transformations
	Stress-induced transformation
		Stepwise transformation
	Material behavior
		Determination of the critical driving force
		TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP)
		Temperature & transformation during deformation
	Transformation & austenitic texture
		Driving Force in Generalized Spherical Harmonics
Influence of texture on transformation
		Steel 1 (Untextured)
		Steel 2 (Textured)
	Austenitic textures
		Steel 1 (Untextured)
		Steel 2 (Textured)
	Texture Based Stress Induced Transformation model
		Texture evolution
		Driving Force Distribution
		TBSIT Model
Influence of texture evolution on transformation
	Extended macro-mechanical transformation model
		General Overview
		Stress-induced transformation
		Crystal Rotations
		Individual Grain Behavior
		Simulated Texture Evolution
		Full Model Calculations
		Influence of step size
		Texture evolution due to Transformation only
		Texture evolution due to Deformation only
		Texture evolution due to Transformation and Deformation
		Austenitic texture
		Transformation behavior
		Material behavior
Transformation & Non-Monotonic Deformation
	Experimental Setup
	Experimental Results
		Proportional Experiments
		Strain reversal experiments
		Non-Proportional Experiments
	Strain Reversal Simulations
		Advanced Model
Conclusions & Recommendations
Appendix Crystallography of martensitic transformations
	Multiplicity of solution
Document Text Contents
Page 1

The influence of texture on phase transformation

in metastable austenitic stainless steel

P. Hilkhuijsen

Page 2

This research was carried out under project number M63.1.09324
in the framework of the Research Program of the Materials innovation
institute (M2i) in the Netherlands (

The influence of texture on phase transformation in metastable
austenitic stainless steel

P. Hilkhuijsen
PhD thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
August 2013

ISBN 978-90-365-0125-5
Keywords: Transformation, Austenite, Martensite, Texture, Strain Path
1st and only printing August 2013

Printed by Ipskamp Drukkers B.V., Enschede, Nederland

Page 66


2. Process Parameters

a) The prescribed global stress state (e.g. uniaxial stress, plane stress,
shear stress, etc.).

Figure 5.1 shows a flow diagram of the model. After an initiation step, a
simulation procedure starts where during each simulation cycle a strain incre-
ment is calculated and applied. Each step in the simulation cycle is discussed

In the initiation step of the model, the material is represented by a finite
number of grains. Each of these grains has an orientation, expressed by Euler
angles [φ1 Φ φ2] with respect to an external coordinate system, see Figure 2.3,
such that together, they represent the austenitic texture provided by the ODF.
The discretization scheme used in this work is discussed in Section 5.1.2. It
is assumed that all grains undergo the same strain (Voigt-Taylor constraint).
Therefore, the locations of the grains with respect to each other are not relevant.
Since the strains in all grains are equal, there is no direct interaction between
grains when transformation occurs in a grain. Instead the global average stress
is used for an interaction mechanism, as will be discussed later.

The strain increment dε is divided in two parts: a prescribed part dε0 and
an unknown part dε1. Strain dε0 is the strain imposed by the type of simulation
(e.g. uniaxial, plane, shear) and is applied to the grains in the first step in the
simulation cycle.

The average stress over all grains during a simulation must agree with the
type of simulation performed and is prescribed at the beginning of the simu-
lation. The unknown part of the strain increment, dε1, follows from this pre-
scribed stress state. This is calculated in step two of the simulation cycle. Now,
the total strain increment dε is known.

In step three of the cycle it is determined whether a grain can transform
from the austenite to the martensite phase given the strain increment dε. This
is based on the criterion for transformation provided by the stress-induced trans-
formation theory, which was discussed in Section 3.3. The criterion for transfor-
mation, provided by this theory, is based on the stress in the austenite phase of
the grain. To calculate this stress, the strain increment in the austenite phase
must be calculated first. At the start of the simulation, all grains are austenitic.
Therefore, the strain in the austenite is equal to the strain increment dε, deter-
mined in step one. At later stages, when part of a grain has transformed into the
martensite phase, the strain in the grain is distributed over both phases. The
martensite has different mechanical properties from the austenite phase, and

Page 67




U U> critmax

2. Calculate


3. Calculation


4. Transform


1. Apply


0. Initiation

5. Crystal















Figure 5.1: Flow diagram of the model.

Page 131


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