Download The impact of personal ICTs on mobility behaviour PDF

TitleThe impact of personal ICTs on mobility behaviour
LanguageEnglish
File Size2.7 MB
Total Pages127
Document Text Contents
Page 1

The Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis | KiM











MASTER THESIS
WIEBE ZIJLSTRA

6 FEBRUARY 2015





The impact of personal ICTs
on mobility behaviour

A study on the impact of personal ICTs on the
amount of travel and mode choice using the first

wave of the Dutch Mobility Panel.

Page 63

43


This means that the groups with a particular gender, personal monthly net income, highest
completed education, access to Internet via LAN (yes/no) and whether a person owns a tablet
(yes/no) ion outside the margin.

WORKING OVER DISTANCE WITH USE OF THE INTERNET 4.1.3

The available categories that respondents could choose to indicate their frequency of working over
distance by using the Internet were; less than 1 day per quarter or not, 1 to 2 days per quarter, 1 to
3 days per month, 1 to 3 days per week and more than 4 days per week. A full representation of the
frequencies of working over distance in context of the socio-demographic, household and mobility
characteristics of individuals is presented in appendix G. The variation is visualized over age, in
which the working population (18-65) is showing the highest use of Internet for the purpose of
working over distance (Figure 4.4). The highest share of the population (over 50%) however stated
that they (almost) never use Internet for the purpose of working over distance.

When the frequencies of working over distance via the Internet is categorized and the variation
over Internet access via LAN, WLAN or 3G/4G and smartphone and tablet possession is shown, the
differences between the groups become even more clear. Especially the differences between the
groups with and without Internet access via WiFi and 3G/4G and the groups with and without the
possession of a smartphone are noticeable (Figure 4.5).



Figure 4.4: Frequency of working over distance over age.



Figure 4.5: Frequency of working over distance over Internet access and device possession.



0,0%
10,0%
20,0%
30,0%
40,0%
50,0%

1
2
-1

4
y

e
a

r

1
5
-1

7
y

e
a

r

1
8
-1

9
y

e
a

r

2
0
-2

4
y

e
a
r

2
5
-2

9
y

e
a

r

3
0
-3

4
y

e
a

r

3
5
-3

9
y

e
a

r

4
0
-4

4
y

e
a

r

4
5
-4

9
y

e
a

r

5
0
-5

4
y

e
a

r

5
5
-5

9
y

e
a

r

6
0
-6

4
y

e
a

r

6
5
-6

9
y

e
a
r

7
0
-7

4
y

e
a

r

7
5
-7

9
y

e
a

r

8
0

y
e

a
r

a
n

d


Less than 1 day per quarter or
non
1 to 2 days per quarter

1 to 3 days per month

1 to 3 days per week

0

20

40

60

80

100

Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

Internet access
via LAN

Internet access
via WLAN

Internet access
via 4G LTE

Person owns a
smartphone

Person owns a
tablet

Incidental user (%)

Weekly user (%)

Daily user (%)

Page 64

44


SMARTPHONE AND TABLET POSSESSION 4.1.4

Of the total population, 61.1% of the respondents own a smartphone and 49% owns a tablet. Figure
4.6, shown below, presents the variation in smartphone and tablet possession over Internet use and
frequencies of working over distance with use of the Internet. Especially the variation in
smartphone possession shows distinct variation over the presented categories with over 82.5% of
the respondents owning a smartphone in the ‘5 to 6 hour group’ and only 41.3% in the ‘less than 1
hour’ group. The variation in tablet possession is much less distinctive. Figure 4.7 presents the
variation in smartphone and tablet possession over the frequencies of working over distance via
the Internet, which shows a high representation of smartphone and tablet owners in the groups
that tele-work for 1 to 3 or 4 or more days per week.

Furthermore, from the group of smartphone owners 97.7% also has access to the Internet via WiFi
and 71.8% via 3G/4G. From the group of tablet owners 98.1% has access to the Internet via WiFI
and 58.1% via 3G/4G. A full table of the variation in smartphone and tablet possession over the
socio-demographic, household, mobility and ICT variables is presented in appendix H.



Figure 4.6: Smartphone and tablet possession over Internet use in hours per day.



Figure 4.7: Smartphone and tablet possession over working over distance.



0,0%
10,0%
20,0%
30,0%
40,0%
50,0%
60,0%
70,0%
80,0%
90,0%

Less than
1 hour

1 to 2
hours

2 to 3
hours

3 to 4
hours

4 to 5
hours

5 to 6
hours

More
than 6
hours

Smartphone possession Yes

Smartphone possession No

Tablet possession Yes

Tablet possession No

0,0%
10,0%
20,0%
30,0%
40,0%
50,0%
60,0%
70,0%
80,0%
90,0%

4 days or
more per

week

1 to 3 days
per week

1 to 3 day per
month

1 to 2 days
per quarter

Less than 1
day per

quarter or
non

Tablet possession No

Tablet possession Yes

Smartphone possession No

Smartphone possession Yes

Page 126

A-26


APPENDIX R. MODEL 8 ADDITIONAL RESULTS


Model 8 95% C.I. for Exp(B)
Variables S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Lower Upper

Travel amounts (calculated averages)

# commuter trips per day .124 .000 1 .998 1.000 .784 1.276

Travel distance per commuter trip .003 7.115 1 .008 1.009 1.002 1.015

Table R-1: BNL model 8 – additional results.


APPENDIX S. MODEL 7.1 AND 7.2 ADDITIONAL RESULTS


Model 7.1 – Younger than 35 95% C.I. for Exp(B)
Variables S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Lower Upper

ICT characteristics

Internet use in hours per day: Medium vs Low .591 .003 1 .960 .971 .305 3.094

Internet use in hours per day: High vs Low .633 .662 1 .416 1.674 .484 5.793

Internet use for tele-working: Daily vs Incidental .336 .081 1 .776 .909 .470 1.756

Internet use for tele-working: Weekly vs Incidental .375 .041 1 .839 .927 .444 1.933

In possession of a Smartphone: Yes vs No .469 .062 1 .803 .890 .355 2.229

In possession of a Tablet: Yes vs No .292 3.283 1 .070 .589 .333 1.044





Model 7.2 – Older than 34 95% C.I. for Exp(B)
Variables S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Lower Upper

ICT characteristics

Internet use in hours per day: Medium vs Low .356 .000 1 1.000 1.000 .497 2.011

Internet use in hours per day: High vs Low .490 .115 1 .734 1.181 .452 3.084

Internet use for tele-working: Daily vs Incidental .289 2.956 1 .086 1.644 .933 2.899

Internet use for tele-working: Weekly vs Incidental .363 1.601 1 .206 1.583 .777 3.225

In possession of a Smartphone: Yes vs No .287 .024 1 .876 1.046 .596 1.834

In possession of a Tablet: Yes vs No .265 3.844 1 .050 .595 .353 1.000

Table S-1: BNL models 7.1 and 7.2 – additional results.

Page 127

A-27


APPENDIX T. MODELS A, B AND C ADDITIONAL RESULTS

Model A 95% C.I. for Exp(B)

Variables S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Lower Upper

Age*Internet use
(relative to >50 years, Low Internet use)



18-29 years, Medium Internet use .276 13.782 1 .000 2.789 1.623 4.794

18-29 years, High Internet use .364 23.916 1 .000 5.935 2.907 12.116

30-39 years, Medium Internet use .277 1.341 1 .247 1.378 .801 2.371

30-39 years, High Internet use .474 .266 1 .606 1.277 .504 3.235

40-49 years, Medium Internet use .284 .191 1 .662 1.132 .648 1.977

40-49 years, High Internet use .759 .176 1 .675 .727 .164 3.217





Model B 95% C.I. for Exp(B)

Variables S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Lower Upper

Access to the Internet via 4G*tablet possession
(relative to no access via 4G and no tablet)



Access via 4G, owns a tablet .190 5.176 1 .023 .648 .446 .942





Model C 95% C.I. for Exp(B)

Variables S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Lower Upper

Age*Internet use (relative to >50 years, Low Internet use)

18-29 years, Medium Internet use .279 15.429 1 .000 2.993 1.732 5.171

18-29 years, High Internet use .366 23.864 1 .000 5.971 2.915 12.230

30-39 years, Medium Internet use .280 2.200 1 .138 1.516 .875 2.627

30-39 years, High Internet use .477 .502 1 .479 1.402 .550 3.572

40-49 years, Medium Internet use .287 .513 1 .474 1.228 .700 2.155

40-49 years, High Internet use .760 .117 1 .733 .771 .174 3.423

Access to the Internet via 4G*tablet possession (relative
to no access via 4G and no tablet)



Access via 4G, owns a tablet .197 5.406 1 .020 .633 .430 .931

Table T-1: BNL models A, B and C – additional results.

Similer Documents