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TitleThe Freeman 1961
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Table of Contents
                            Title Page
Contents
The Coming Renaissance; L.E. Read
How To Win a War; E. Lipscomb
Who's To Blame? B.A. Rogge
The Miracle of Individual Responsibility; C. Williams
Insuring Irresponsibility; W. M. Curtiss
The Man Who Smelled the Future; J. Chamberlain
That Extra Mile; G. D. Scarseth
A New Order of the Ages; S. B Pettingill
Freedom of Choice; A. Kemp
Conscience of the Majority; L.E. Read
Freedom; The Mortar of Maturity; S. Miles, Jr.
Equality Versus Liberty: The Eternal Conflict; R. C. Pittman
A Matter of Common Interest; P.L. Poirot
Union Power and Government Aid; S. Petro
Surplus Labor; H.P.B. Jenkins
Death in the Afternoon; G. Winder
Four Foundations of Freedom; K.W. Sollitt
The Lessons of Lost Weekends; M. D. Barger
On a Text From the Federalist; F. A. Manchester
"We Never Had It So Good;" L.E. Read
The Economic Growth of Soviet Russia; H. Sennholz
Soviet Economists Part Company With Marx; T. Hoff
Centralized or Multiple Economies; G. Winder
Statistics: Achilles' Heel of Government; M. N. Rothbard
Our Secret Government; V.M. Newton, Jr.
Five Ways to Nowhere; T. W. Phelps
America Is Many Million Purposes; W. H. Chamberlin
Let's Not Do it Ourselves; P.L. Poirot
Armaments And Our Prosperity; E. Opitz
It Isn't Insurance; M. Cassidy
Monetary Crossroads; H. Sennholz
Seventeen Arguments Against Socialized Medicine; D. W. Johnson, Jr.
Keeping the Peace; W.M. Curtiss
Only If Free Can We Compete; L.E. Read
The Hard Core of the Farm Problem; K. Brandt
Gifts From the Maharajah
The Art of Deception; J.C. Sparks
What Rent Control Does; H. Hazlitt
A Tale of Two Railroads; H. Stephenson
"I'm For Free  Enterprise - But!" W. H. Hall
Christianity and Education; E. Opitz
The Power of Truth; L. Tolstoy
The New Science and the New Faith; D. Andrews
How To Reduce Taxes; L.E. Read
Authors
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

ESSAYS
ON

LIBERTY
VOLUME VIII

THE FOUNDATION FOR

ECONOMIC EDUCATION, INC.

IRVINGTON-ON-HUDSON, NEW YORK

1961

Page 2

EDITOR'S NOTE

The study of freedornand presentationof the findings
in a manner helpful to anyone who is interested is
the objective of the staff and the friends of the Foun-
dation for Economic Education. The studies are dis-
tributed, as completed,in the form of separatereleases
and as articles in The Freeman, a monthly study
journal.

This is the eighth volume of Essays on Liberty,
all of the selectionsin it having previously appeared
in The Freeman,or in LeonardE. Read'sNotes !ro,m
FEE" between July 1960 and June 1961. The first
seven volumes of Essays on Liberty, covering earlier
Foundation releases,are still available.

Permissionis hereby grantedto reprint theseessays
in whole or in part, except the following:

Freedom of Choice by Arthur Kemp
Equality Versus Liberty: The Eternal Conflict

by R. Carter Pittman
Soviet EconomistsPart Companywith Marx

by Trygve J. B. Hoff
It Isn't Insurance by Morley Cassidy
Gifts from the Maharajah

from The Wall Street Journal
What Rent Control Does by Henry Hazlitt
A Tale of Two Railroads by Howard Stephenson

Published October 1961

Copyright 1961 by

The Foundation for EconomicEducation, Inc.

PRINTED IN U.S.A.

Page 223

THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF SOVIET RUSSIA 225

bor in the exploited industries and selects those who
are privileged to work in the better-payingsubsidized
industries.

The industrializationof SovietRussia,which hasbeen
the foremostprojectof the Soviet regime, is carriedout
mainly on the backs of Russian agricultural workers.
Many millions of Russianmen, women, and children
labor from dawn to dusk on collective estatesfor a bare
minimum of existence.It is they who have to pay the
high price for the industrial venturesof the State.

The apparel industry is another important sourceof
Soviet revenue.The State sells all textile products at
incredibly high prices, thus forcing the population to
labor long hours for a minimum of clothing. The Soviet
citizen is clothedin ragswhen comparedwith the Amer-
ican worker.

In addition to this form of massexploitation,millions
of individualsare forced to labor without any compensa-
tion on a bareminimum of existence.Upon their seizure
of power, the communist dictators threw millions of
Russiancapitalists and landowners into concentration
and labor camps,which have beenan essential.institu-
tion of communist production ever since. This labor
force has been frequently replenishedby hundredsof
thousandsof individuals from behindthe Iron Curtain-
countlessGermans,Poles, Czechs,and Hungariansrep-
resentingthe latestaddition.

Even if we were so naive as to believe implicitly the
Soviet statistics,and to overlook their unswervinginten-
tion to deceiveand misleadus, a few deliberationssuf-

Page 224

226 HANS F. SENNHOLZ

fice to deflate their empty boasts.Russianstatistics re-
flect the economicgrowth that is due to territorial ex-
pansion during and after World War II. The Soviet
Union completely incorporated Estonia, Latvia, and
Lithuania and acquiredabout half of Poland, parts of
Finland, Germany, Czechoslovakia,Hungary, and Ro-
mania, a territory larger than Francewith a population
of more than 22 million people. It is most difficult to
estimatehow much of the Soviet economic gain is at-
tributed to military conquest, for which the Western
democraciesand, aboveall, the United Statesmust ulti-
mately be "credited" on accountof their crucial role in
World War II and their surrenderof these people to
Soviet control afterwards.But we obtain an important
clue on the scopeof this growth from the fact that the
newly acquiredterritory is slightly larger than the terri-
tory lost after World War 1. As this territory contained
some 18 per cent of the productive capacity of Czarist
Russia,we may infer that the newly acquired territory
accountsfor at least 18 per cent of the stated Soviet
growth sinceWorld War II.

Another essentialgrowth factor of the Soviet economy
is the removal of capital equipmentfrom all countries
occupied by the Red Army during and after the war.
Countlessplants and factories, valuable machinesand
equipment,materials and supplies, rolling stock, rails,
and evennails, were shippedto Soviet Russia.This pro-
ductive equipmentundoubtedlycontributed greatly to
the rapid economicrecoveryindicatedby Sovietstatistics.

Soviet economicgrowth is· largely confined to only a

Page 445

INDEX 447

Government (continued)
socialistic, 223, 231, 286, 319, 434
spending, 21, 189, 305; see also,

Taxation
statistics, 255
subsidies,192, 369, 373
transportation, 208, 386
union power, 144, 151, 163, 168,

437n
Great Britain, unions, 168
Growth

government, 188, 214
kinds, 71
Russian,222

H
Hall, Willis H.

free enterprise, 397
Hayek, F. A., 120
Hazlitt, Henry

rent control, 383
Health

insurance,301
mental, 115
socialized, 319

Hoff, Trygve J. R
Soviet economics,231

Hoover, Herbert, 402
Hoover Commission,257
Housing, 383

I
Inflation

consequences,345
foreign, 308
hidden, 191
spending, 432
United States, 189, 433

Insurance,government,50, 301

J
Jefferson, Thomas, 123
Jenkins, H. P. R

surplus labor, 166
Johnson,Darryl W., Jr.

socialized medicine, 319

K
Kemp, Arthur

freedom of choice, 89
Kennedy, Robert F., 129
Keynes, John M., 294, 298
Khrushchev,Nikita, 235
Kipling, Rudyard, 80

L
Labor

compensation,50, 209
direction, 146
laws, 142, 144, 150
printing, 170
unemployment,166
unions, 144, 151, 163, 168, 437n
wages, 191

Landauer, Carl, 232
LaPiere, Richard, 37
Laws

economic, 232
labor, 142, 144, 150
market, 298
military, 205
Workmen's .CompensationBoard,

50
Leadership, 94
Leontiev, L. A., 232
Liberty. See Free Market; Freedom
Lincoln, Abraham, 126
Lipscomb, Ed

winning a war, 17
Luethy, Herbert, 262

M
Macneil, Neil, 256n, 257n
McGregor, Murray, 438n
Maharajah,gifts, 369
Majority rule, 94, 414
Manchester, Frederick A.

text from The Federalist, 195
Marx, Karl, 231
Materialism, 231, 438
Metz, Harold W., 256n, 257n
Miles, StephenR, Jr.

freedom, mortar of maturity, 115
Military procurement,205
Millis, Harry A., 152
Monetary crossroads,305
Montgomery, Royal E., 152
Morality. See Religion
Myrdal, Karl Gunnar, 130

N
National Bureau of Economic Re·

search, 214
New Haven, Connecticut,62
Newspapers,trade unions, 168
Newton, V. M.

secrecy in government,262
Norris Act, 159

o
Opitz, Edmund A.

armamentsand prosperity, 292
Christianity and education, 405

Organizations evaluated, 138
Ownership, 104

p
Pascal, Blaise, 197n
Peace maintained, 326
Pericles, 284
Petro, Sylvester

union power and government,144
Pettengill, Samuel B.,

new order of the ages, 76
Phelps, Thomas W.

economic fallacies, 272

Page 446

448 INDEX

Pittman, R. Carter
equality versus liberty, 122

Plymouth Colony, 103, 109n
Poirot, Paul L.

mutual interests, 138
voluntary socialism, 286

Price controls, 191
Printing, trade unions, 168
Production, 243, 362
Progress,70
Property, 104
Prosperity, 215, 292
Public opinion, 163, 414

R
Railroads, 389
Read, Leonard E.

coming renaissance,9
conscienceof majority, 94
governmentgrowth, 214
importanceof competition, 345
taxation, 431

Religion
belief, 177
education, 405
freedom, 182, 414, 434
materialism, 221, 438
realism, 195
science, 418

Rent control, 380
Responsibility, 34, 40, 50, 286
Rogge, B. A.

responsibility, 34
Rothbard, MurrayN.

governmentstatistics, 255
Ruggles, Samuel B., 259n
Russia

economic growth, 222
economists and Marx, 231
equality, 129
farm output, 364
propaganda,17

S
Say's Law, 298
Scarseth,George D.

that extra mile, 70
Scienceand faith, 418
Self-analysis, 17
Sennholz,Hans F.

economic growth of Soviet Rus-
sia, 222

monetary crossroads,305
Slavery, 9
Social Security, 30
Socialism,

economic growth, 223
evaluated, 231
medicine, 301, 319
rights, 438
voluntary, 286

Sollitt, Kenneth W.
foundations of freedom, 176

Sparks, John C.
art of deception,373

Specializations,217
Statistics, government, 255
Stephenson,Howard

railroads, 389
Subsidies,192, 369, 373
Sumerians,431
Sumner, William Graham, 54

T
Taft-Hartley Act, 161
Taxation

gifts, 369
reduced, 431
Social Security, 301
strategy, 373
subsidies,192

ten Hoor, Marten, 94
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 276
Tolstoy, Leo N.

power of truth, 414
Trade, 217, 312
Transportation,208, 389
Truth, 414

u
Unions, labor

British, 168
coercion, 437n
governmentaid, 144, 151
public opinion, 163

United States
equality, 122
farm problems, 351, 364
Great Seal, 76
inflation, 189, 433
national goals, 275
war, 106

V
Value theory, 232
Virginia Convention, 124

W
Wagner Act, 153, 157
Wall Street Journal, The

gifts from the Maharajah,369
War

American Revolution, 106
governmentand unions, 151
military procurement,205
prosperity, 292
winning, 17

Williams, Carlton
individual responsibility, 40

Winder, George
centralizedor multiple economies,

240
death in the afternoon, 168

Workmen'sCompensationBoard, 50

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