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THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAMTHE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAMTHE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAMTHE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM

Page 711

662 ARSLAN B. SALDJOK — ARTUKIDS

Aral Sea. It is true that manuscripts of the Arab and
Persian chronicles frequently attach to individual
Saldjukids an appellation which can be read vabghu.
but O. Pritsak has shown that side by side with the
title of yabghu, which alone has been taken into
consideration hitherto, there existed a totemic name
payghu, and it is probable that the word must be
read thus in some cases; I think however that as far
as Arslan Isra5!! is concerned, he could not have had
two totemic names, and did in fact bear the title of
yabghu, indicative of the revolt of his family against
the pagan kingdom of the north, and it seems to me
probable,although not certain, that he is,in agreement
with the traditional account, the person mentioned
by Gardlzl.

The main features of his later history are less open
to dispute. After the final collapse of the Sama-
nids. he is found associated with the Karakhanid
rebel at Bukhara, €A1I Tegin, in whose service he was
eventually joined by his nephews Jughril and Caghri.
In 416/1025 he was involved, to a greater extent
than they, in the defeat of CA1I Tegin by the com-
bined forces of the supreme Karakhanid Kadr-
Khan (supported mainly by the Karluks) and
Mahmud of Ghazna, and his Oghuz were transferred
to Khurasan, separated from those of Tughril and
Caghri who soon emigrated to Khwarizm. Legend
or adulation has obscured the account of this move
which, according to some, was voluntary, but
more probably was carried out on the orders of
Mahmud, as is asserted by others, in order to
weaken CAH Tegin. At all events it is not open to
dispute that Mahmud kept Arslan-Israel prisoner,
and that he died in captivity, about 427/1034, in a
fortress on the borders of Hind. It is impossible to
say what the connexion was between this fate and
the persistent tendency to rebellion on the part of
the Oghuz of Khurasan from 418/1027 onward. Those
historians, like Rawandi, who wished to flatter the
Saldjukid dynasty of Asia Minor, descended from
Arslan's son Kutlumush (Kutalmlsh?), ascribed to
the latter the role of secret liaison agent between the
prisoner and his Oghuz, but it is impossible to
verify this.

Bibliography: Cl. Cahen, Le Malikndmeh et
I'histoire des origines seldjukides, in Oriens ii, 1949,
which contains a survey of the sources, but which
is to be revised in the light of the studies of
Omelyan Pritsak, in particular Der Untergang des
Reiches des Oghuzischen Yabghu, in Koprulu
Armagani, Istanbul 1953, or in Annals of the
Ukranian Academy of Arts in the USA, ii, 2, 1952,
together with my discussion in JA, 1954, 271-
275; cf. also Pritsak's Die Karachaniden, in Isl.
1953- For the relations between Arslan and the
Ghaznawids, a comprehensive account will be
found in Muhammad Nazim, The Life and Time of
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna, Cambridge 1931.

(CL. CAHEN)
ARSLAN B. TOfiHRUL [see SALDJUKIDS].
ARSLAN-ARfiHON, brother of Malikshah who,

on the death of the latter, seized possession of
Khurasan and the province of Balkh, defeated and
put to death another brother, Buribars, who had been
sent against him (488/1095), but incurred odium as
a result of his punitive measures against the sup-
porters of his defeated brother and his destruction,
as a preventative measure, of the ramparts of Marw,
Nishapur, Sarakhs, Sabzawar etc.; he was finally
killed in 490 by one of his slaves. His young son,
aged seven, was easily swept aside by Sandjar, the
brother and lieutenant of the Sultan Barkyaruk.

Ibn al-Athlr, x, 34, speaks of an Arslan-Arghun, a
brother of Alp Arslan, who received from him the
government of Khwarizm at the time when Malikshah
was proclaimed heir-presumptive; the author of the
Akhbdr al-Dawlat al-Saldj[u^iyya, 40, gives the Same
information, but calls this Arslan Arghun the son
of Alp Arslan, and therefore identical with the
brother of Malikshah; but according to clmad al-DIn
Bundari, 257, followed by Ibn al-cAthlr, 178-80,
the brother of Malikshah was twenty-six years old
at the time of his death, and only possessed at the
death of the former a small iktd* in Western Persia;
although nothing else is known of a brother of Alp-
Arslan of this name, it seems as though we must
conclude that two individuals of this name existed.
Descendants of the brother of Malikshah were still
living at Marw in the middle of the 6th/12th century.

Bibliography : clmad al-DIn/Bundari, ed.
Houtsma, Receuil de Textes relatifs a I'histoire des
Seljoucides, ii, 84, 255-8, whence Ibn al-Athlr, x,
178-80; Akhbdr al-Dawla al-Sal&ukiyya, ed. Moh.
Iqbal, Lahore 1933, 33, 34 (relations between
Arslan-Arghun and the cAmid-i Khurasan known
as Muhammad b. Mansur al-Nasawi), 40 (cf. Ibn
al-Athlr 34), 54; CAH b. Zayd al-Bayhaki called Ibn
Funduk, Tarikh-i Bayhak, ed. Ahmad Bahmanyar,
Teheran 1337/1938, 72, 270. (CL. CAHEN)
ARSLAN KHAN [see KARAKHANIDS],
ARSLAN SHAH B. KIRMAN gHAH [see

SALDJUKIDS].
ARSLAN SHAH B. MASCCD ABU 'L-HARITH

[see ZANGIDS].
ARSLAN SHAH B. MASCCD [see GHAZNAWIDS].
ARSLAN SHAH B. TOQHRUL SHAH [see

SALDJUKS OF KIRMAN].

ARSLANLI [see GHURUSH].
ARSCF, small fishing port on the coast of

Palestine, 10 miles north of Jaffa. The Arabic name
probably preserves its original dedication to the
Semitic god Reseph. Under the Seleucids it was
renamed Apollonia. In the early centuries of the
Caliphate it was one of the principal fortified cities
of the province of Filastm. It was occupied by the
Crusaders under Baldwin I in 494/1101 and called
by them Azotus; recaptured by Saladin in 583/1187;
scene of an engagement between Saladin and
Richard I, 14 Sha'ban 587/7 Sept. 1191; restored
to the Crusaders under the truce with Richard $88/
1192; refortified by John of Arsuf 640/1242; captured
by sultan Baybars Bundukdari after a forty-days'
siege, ii Radjab 663/29 April 1265, and left in ruins.

Bibliography: Makdisi 174; Yakut s.v.; Abu
'1-Fida (Reinaud) 239; clmad al-DIn, al-Fatfr al-
Kudsi (Landberg), 383-7; Makrlzi, Suluk, i (Cairo
I934)> 528-30; general histories of the Crusades;
G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land,
index; G. Beyer in Zeitschr. d. deut. Paldstina-
Vereins, Ixviii (1951), 152-8, 178-84.

(H. A. R. GIBB)
ART [see articles on countries, cities and dynasties,

cApJ, ARABESQUE, ARCHITECTURE, BINA*, KALI, NA$SH,
RASM etc.].

ARTENA [see ERETNA].
ARTILLERY [see BARUD, TOP].
ARTURIDS, (not URTUKIDS), a Turkish dynasty

which reigned over th^, whole or part of Diyar Bakr,
either independently or under Mongol protectorate,
from the end of the 5th/nth to the beginning of
the 9th/15th century.

Artuk, son of Ekseb, belonged to the Turkoman
tribe Doger [q.v.]. In 1073 he was in Asia Minor,
operating for an^ against the Byzantine Empercr

Page 712

ARTUK

ILGHAZI
(Mardln then Mayafarikin and Aleppo)

I
HUSAM AL-DlN

TIMURTASH
(Mardlu then Mayyafarikln)

I
NADJM AL-DlN ALPI

KUTB AL-DlN ILGHAz!

I
SHAMS AL-DAWLA

SULAYMAN
(Mayyafarifcln)

SUKMAN
(Hisn-Kayfa then Mardm)

I

IBRAHIM
L_(Mardin)

RUKN AL-DAWLA

DAUD4-
(Hisn-Kayfa then Khartpert)

I
KARA-ARSLAN

Bahrain €Abd al-Djabbar
I

Alpyarufc

I
YA^UTl

(Mardln)

CALl

NUR AL-DlN MUH,
acquires (Amid)

CIMAD AL-DlN ABU BAKR

YAVLAK-ARSLAN
loses Mayyafarifcln

I
NADJM AL-DlN
GHAZl AL-SAClD

^ARA-ARSLAN
AL-MUZAFFAR

ARTUK-ARSLAN ^UTB AL-DlN SUKMAN
(Amid and IJisn-Kayfa)

NASlR AL-DlN
MAHMUD

RUKN AL-DlN
MAWDtfD

MASCOD

NIZAM AL-DlN
IBRAHIM

(IQiartpert)
I

KHIpR

NUR AL-DlN
ARTUKSHAH

SHAMS AL-DIN

DA'OD AL-SAclD

NADJM AL-D!N
GHAzI-AL-MAN?OR

(recovers Amid, etc.)

CALl-ALPl SHAMS AL-DlN
MAHMOD AL-SALII^

HUSAM AL-DlN

AHMAD AL-MANSOR

SHAMS AL-DlN
MAHMOD AL-SALIH

AL-MUZAFFAR DA'OD

NADJM AL-DlN
CISA AL-ZAHIR

AL-SALIH

BADR AL-DAWLA
SULAYMAN

Aleppo

NUR AL-DAWLA
BALAK

. (Khartpert)

A

Page 1422

1358 BUZA'A — BUZURGM1HR

ment of the Crusaders in Syria numerous attacks
resulting either in the plunder of its territory, or
even, in 532/1138, its seizure by the Franks, followed
in the same year by Zanki's reoccupation. An
inscription there mentions in 567/1171 the name of
Ismacll, the son of Nur al-DIn, before the town fell
in 571/1175 to Salah al-Dln, and passed after that
into the hands of the Mongols in 657/1258. It is also
known that in 570/1174-75 there was a massacre of
the Ismacilis there who seem to have dominated the
country formerly, and that in the vicinity the
mashhad of cAkil b. Abi Talib was venerated.

It was during the period of the Mamluks that the
village of al-Bab, whose name was not separated
from that of Buzaca in the medieval texts, appears
to have clearly taken the lead. The importance of
this place, which was the principal town of the
24th district of the province of Aleppo, and which
Yakut formerly described as an exportation point of
cotton stuffs, is attested by the construction at that
time of its great mosque (connected with the erection
of the minarets of Buzaca and Tadhif, dated by
inscriptions of 756/1355 and 755/1354), and by the
number of administrative measures which were
engraved on the gates of this building between
775/1374 and 858/1454.

Several epigraphical fragments are preserved as
well in the neighbouring village of Tadhif.

Bibliography: R. Dussaud, Topographic
historique de la Syrie, Paris 1927, esp. 475; M. van
Berchem, Arabische Inschriften, in M. F. von
Oppenheim, Beitrdge zur Assyriologie, vii, Leipzig
1909, 55-57 (nos. 63-72); J. and D. Sourdel, in
Annales archlologiques de Syrie, 1953, 96-102;
M. Canard, Histoire de la dynastie des Hamdanides,
i, Algiers 1951, 219, 223-24; Cl. Cahen, La Syrie du
Nord, Paris 1940, index (s.v. Bab-Bouzaca);
M. Gaudefroy-Demombyhes, La Syrie a I'epoque
des Mamelouks, Paris 1923, 92, 219; G. Le Strange,
Palestine under the Moslems, London 1890, 406,
426, 540; Ibn Djubayr, Rihla, ed. De Goeje,
249-50; Yakut, i, 437, 603, 811; Ibn Shaddad,
Description d'Alep, ed. Sourdel, 57; Abu '1-Fida3,
Tafrwim, 267; Dimashki, ed. Mehren, 114, 205.

(J. SOURDEL-THOMINE)
BCZ-ABEH, governor of Fars under the

Saldiuks. Buz-Abeh was one of the amirs of Mengu-
bars, the governor of Fars, for whom he administered
the province of Khuzistan. He was also in the army
of his superior when the latter, accompanied by
other amirs, moved against the Saldjuk sultan
Mascud and was made prisoner at the battle of
Kurshanba (other sources call the scene of the
encounter Pandj Angusht), later being put to death,
in 532/1137-38. Since, after their victory, the sultan's
troops began to plunder the enemy camp, Buz-Abeh
attacked and dispersed them. Several prominent
amirs of the sultan's retinue were captured, and the
sultan himself escaped only with great difficulty, in
the company of the atabeg Kara Sonkor. Enraged
at the death of his superior, Buz-Abeh had all of the
prisoners executed, among whom was the son of
Kara Sonkor. In order to avenge his son, the atabeg
undertook in the following year an expedition
against Fars, where he installed the Saldjuk prince
Saldiukshah. But scarcely had Kara Sonkor retired
with his troops when Buz-Abeh, who had in the
interim withdrawn to the fortress of Safiddiz (Kal'at
al-baydd>)t reappeared and conquered the defenceless
Saldiukshah (534/1139-40). Sultan Mascud was
forced then to abandon to him the province of Fars.
Buz-Abeh found an opportunity to confirm his

situation by allying himself with two other
amirs, cAbbas, ruler of Rayy, and cAbd al-Rahman
Tughanyarak. The sultan tolerated for some time
the tutelage of these men, but succeeded in freeing
himself by having assassinated the two latter amirs.
Buz-Abeh marched against the sultan, but was
captured and killed at the battle of Mardj Karatakm,
a day's march from Hamadhan, in 542/1147. Buz-
Abeh appears to have left a good administrative
record at Shlraz. Conforming with the tendency of
all of the generals educated in the Saldjuk tradition,
he had erected a madrasa, richly endowed and at
first Hanafi, though it became later Shafici.

Bibliography: Ibn al-Athlr, Kdmil, xi, index;
clmad al-DIn al-Isfahani, in Bundarl, ed. Houts-
ma (Recueil, ii) index; Zahlr al-DIn Nlshapurl,
Saldjulindma, ed. Gelaleh Khawar; Ahmad Zarkub,
Shirdzndma, ed. Bahman Kariml, Tehran 1938,
45-46. (CL. CAHEN)
AL BtTZABjANl [see ABU' L-WAFA'].
BUZAKHA, a well in Nadjd in the territory of

Asad or their neighbours Tayyi3 (cf. Mufaddaliydt,
361, n. 3). The forces of the Banu Asad, who, led
by the false prophet Tulayha, had relapsed from
Islam on Muhammad's death, were defeated at
Buzakha in 11/632 by Abu Bakr's general Khalid
b. al-Walld. Khalid's army was reinforced for the
battle by 1000 men of Tayyi3, detached from
Tulayha's side; Tulayha had the help of cUyayna
b. Hisn and 700 men from Fazara of Ghatafan, old
allies of Asad's. After fierce fighting, cUyayna saw
that Tulayha's alleged prophetic powers were in
practice proving useless against the Muslims, and
fled the field. Tulayha had to flee to Syria; Asad
submitted to Khalid; and neighbouring tribes like
cAmir, who had been awaiting the outcome, now
rallied to Islam.

Bibliography: Yakut, i, 601-2; Ibn Sacd, III,
ii, 36-7; Tabari, i, 1879, 1886-91; Ibn al-Athlr, ii,
259-64; al-Baladhurl, 95-97; Wellhausen, Skizzen,
vi, 9-12; Caetani, Annali, ii, 604 ff . ; Muir,
Caliphate*, Edinburgh 1915, 19-23.

(C. E. BOSWORTH)
BUZURG B. SHAHRIYAR, a Persian ships'-

captain (ndkhudd) of Ram-Hurmuz of the first half
of the 4th/ioth century and author of the Kitdb
'•AAjcPib al-Hind (Marvels of India). This is a col-
lection in Arabic of 134 stories and anecdotes
gathered by the author from ships'-captains, pilots,
traders and other seafaring men who used to sail
the Indian Ocean and liked to spin a yarn about
their adventures in East Africa, the Indian Archi-
pelago and China. Incidentally they also give some
information about these countries and the customs
of their inhabitants. Sometimes the year of the event
referred to is given, the latest being 342/953. The
language of the book shows some Middle-Arabic
traits (see CARABIYYA, above, 57ob).

Bibliography: The Arabic text, extant only
in the Istanbul MS. Aya Sofya 3306, was edited
by P. A. van der Lith together with a French
translation by M. Devic, Leiden 1883-6. A new-
translation in French by J. Sauvaget is given in
his Memorial, i, Damascus 1954, 188-300; Russian
translation by R. I. Ehrlich, Moscow 1959. See
also Brockelmann S I, 409. (J. W. FOCK)
BUZURGMIHR, Iranian personal name (arabi-

cised form Buzurdjmihr) which according to a
tradition transmitted by Iranian and Arab writers,,
was given to a man endowed with every ability and
virtue who was the minister of Khusraw I Anusha-

Page 1423

BUZURGMIHR — B2EDUKH 1359

rawan (6th century A.D.).The earliest authorities who
were acquainted with the Pahlawi Khvadhdyndmdgh
("Book of Sovereigns"), written towards the end of
the Sasanid period (7th century), the source of the
oldest accounts of pre-Islamic Iranian history
penned by Arab writers (al-Tabari, Ibn Kutayba),
have no reference to Buzurgmihr. It is only in later
works that he becomes the hero of anecdotes deriving
from popular tradition (in Thacalabl's "History of
the Persian Kings", a section of the Ghurar al-Siyar
— vide El1, iv, 770 col. a, and, more freely than one
would expect, in Firdawsi's "Book of Kings", the
Shdh-ndma), and sometimes the originator of
numerous wise precepts, survivals from the collec-
tions (andarz) of the Sasanid period, preserved in
some minor post-Sasanid Pahlawi works (notably
the Pandndmdgh-e Vuzurghmihr-e Bokhtaghdn, "the
Book of precepts of Buzurgmihr son of Bokhtagh").
These precepts were translated into Arabic and
Persian by several authors: al-Mascudi, Firdawsl (in
whose poem Buzurgmihr presents the king with a
book of wisdom, the fruit of their conversations,
which in reality derived from the Pandndmdgh),
Nizam al-Mulk, and others. There are three anecdotes
concerning Buzurgmihr which are significant because
of their elements of popular origin: I—the King of
Persia dreams that, as he is drinking, a pig puts his
snout in the cup. No one can interpret this until the
young Buzurgmihr informs the king that one of his
wives is bestowing her favours on another and that,
in order to be certain, the women must be summoned
to appear naked: among them is discovered a youth
disguised as a woman (in addition to the popular
theme of the oneiromancy practised by an adolescent,
one recalls a similar review of women in a tale
from ancient Egypt). II—Buzurgmihr discovers the
seciet of the game of chess, sent as a challenge by
the King of India to the King of Persia; he then
invents the game of tric-trac, the secret of which the
latter and his counsellors do not succeed in discover-
ing (the source of this is a small Pahlawi work of a
popular type, the "Story of the Game of Chess",
Mddhighdn-e datrang}. Ill—Buzurghmihr, in disgrace
and in prison, is recalled when the Byzantine
Emperor refuses to pay tribute to the Persian
sovereign unless he guesses the contents of a sealed
coffer which he has sent him; the king summons
Buzurgmihr, who resolves the enigma and is rein-
stated in royal favour (to the preceding theme is
joined that of the sage liberated and recompensed
for his wisdom: Noldeke recognised the similarity of
this episode with another in the history of the sage
Ahikar). These anecdotes put Buzurgmihr in direct
contact with popular tradition, but is he a historical
or a legendary figure? A. Christensen, in a note-
worthy article, has rightly noted that, apart from the
references to Buzurgmihr, there are others relating
to the sentence of death passed by Hormizd, the son
and successor of Anusharawan, on three of the
latter's counsellors, one of whom bore the name of
Burzmihr (in Thacalibl), Burzmihr, then Simah
Burzen—a hypocoristic of Burzmihr (in Firdawsl).
In the name of Burzoe, the famous physician, the
supposed author of the Pahlawi adaptation of
Kalila wa Dimna who was a contemporary of
Anusharawan. Justi (Iran Namenbuch, 74) and
Christensen see the same root burz ("high") and a

hypocoristic ending (as in Burzen): as names with
the root burz-, peculiar to the Sasanid period, are
very rare, Burzmihr ("[protected by] the High
Mithra") is semantically related to Buzurgmihr
("[protected by] the Great Mithra"); further it is
enough to write both words in the Arabic script in
order to see how easily they can be confused. Finally,
certain passages in the preface to the Kalila, tradi-
tionally attributed to Burzoe and known through the
Arabic translation of Ibn al-Mukaffac, give bio-
graphical details which the authors also attribute
to Buzurgmihr or divide them between both per-
sonalities. To sum up, Iran in the rfign of Anushar-
awan was influenced by Indian civilisation, thanks
to certain intellectuals, of whom Burzoe was one,
and who was made famous by his Pahlawi adaptation
of the Pancatantra; the introduction of chess in
Iran was attributed to him, a number of precepts and
maxims, and later certain characteristics of sagacity
and divination which already existed in popular
tradition; then a false reading of his name as tran-
scribed in Arabic led to the creation of a double
personality.

Bibliography: A. Christensen, La Ugende du
sage Buzurjmihr, in A eta Orientalia, 1930, iii/i,
81-128 (a basic and detailed study, with an
analysis of and extracts from the sources); idem,
Iran sous les Sassanides (particularly 57-8, and
index, s.vv. Vuzurgmihr, Burzoe); on the gafar-
ndma, vide the text in Ch. Schefer, Chrest. persane,
i, 1-7 and Christensen's trans, in La Ugende . . .,
121; Grundriss der Iran. Philologie, ii, 346-7.

(H. MASSE)
BUZURG-UMMlD, KIYA, second ddH (1124-

1138) at Alamut [q.v.] of the Nizarl Ismacllis. He was
evidently related by marriage to the ruling families
of Mazandaran. From 495-518/1102-1124 he wa£
Ismacili governor of Lummasar, a stronghold in the
Rudbar of Alamut. He with three other chiefs had
captured it for Hasan-i Sabbah when its holders had
broken their agreement with the Ismacllls and had
planned to call in the Saldjuk amir, Nushtagin
Shlrglr. Using local forced labour, he rebuilt it,
equipping it with water and fine gardens. There he
successfully resisted the last and gravest attack on
the Isjnacills by Muhammad Tapar's troops under
Shirglr in 511/1117. In 518/1124 Hasan-i Sabbah on
his deathbed appointed him his successor as head
dd*i of the sect, with three associates. Under his rule
the Ismaclli state retained its independence against
renewed attacks [see ALAMUT (II) The Dynasty]
several new strongholds were established, including
Maymundiz in 520/1126. In 526/1131 he defeated and
killed a Zaydi imam, Abu Ha shim, who had arisen
in Daylaman and had followers as far as Khurasan.
Buzurg-ummid died in 532/1138, leaving the
position of dd^i to his son Muhammad. He was
buried next to Hasan-i Sabbah, where his tomb was
piously visited. His descendants formed the leading
family in Alamut.

Bibliography: Rashld al-DIn, D^ami*- al-
Tawdrikh, section on Nizarls; Djuwayni, iii,
208 ff.; and further in M. G. S. Hodgson, The
Order of Assassins, The Hague 1955, index.

(M. G. S. HODGSON)
BYZANTINES [see RUM].
B2EDURH [see C"ERKES].

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