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Table of Contents
                            The Elephantine Papyri in English: Three Millenia of Cross-Cultural Continuity and Change / Bezalel Porten
	Table of Contents
	Sigla and Abbreviations
		Away from Home - Wisdom and Encouragement
		Boats and Boatmen
		Autority Comes from Above
		The Banalities of Khnum
		The Evil of Khnum
		Khnum vs YHW - the Jews (and others) Come and Go
		Blending of Legal Traditions
		Conveying Houses
		Getting Married
		Taking Loans
		What's in a Name
		Transcription of Names
	Chronology of Documents
	I Hieratic Texts [A1-10] - Günter Vittmann
		A1 Currying Favor and Soliciting Support (ca. 2200-2150 BCE)
		A2 Transferring Possession of Servant (ca. 18th-17th century BCE)
		A3 Military Despatch (ca. 1840 BCE)
		A4 Complaint re Bad Honey (first half of 12th century BCE)
		A5 Charges Against Several Officials (ca. 1150 BCE)
		A6 Protest Against Unjustified Tax Demands (ca. 1100 BCE)
		A7 Participation in Nubian Campaign (ca. 1073 BCE)
		A8 Letter from Nubian Campaign (ca. 1073 BCE)
		A9 Letter re Children and Father (ca. 1073 BCE)
		A10 Medical Prescriptions (ca. 3rd century BCE)
	II Aramaic Texts [B1-52] - Bezalel Porten
				Private Letters
				Business and Administrative Letters
				The Jedaniah Communal Archive
				The Mibtahiah Family Archive
				The Ananiah Family Archive
			Legal Documents
		1. The Makkibanit Letters [B1-7] (late 6th-early 5th century BCE)
			B1 Letter re Garments and Oil
			B2 Letter re 6 1/2 Shekels, Wool, Oil, and Beams
			B3 Letter re Welfare of Relative
			B4 Letter re Skins, Beams, and Oil
			B5 Letter re Vessels, Oil, and a Snake Bite
			B6 Letter re 6 1/2 Shekels, Wool, and a Trip
			B7 Letter re the Children
		2. Miscellaneous Letters [B8-12]
			B8 Salary, Garments, and Journey (first quarter of 5th century)
			B9 Transporting, Borrowing, and Selling (last quarter of 5th century)
			B10 Fragmentary Letter re a Share (November 6, 427 BCE)
			B11 Authorization of Boat Repair (January 12, 411 BCE)
			B12 Letter re Boat, Silver, Grain (end 5th-early 4th century BCE)
		3. The Jedaniah Archive [B13-22] (late 5th century BCE)
			B13 The Passover Letter (419/18 BCE)
			B14 Report of Conflict and Request for Assistance (late 5th century BCE)
			B15 Recommendation to Aid Two Benefactors (late 5th century BCE)
			B16 Imprisonment of Jewish Leaders (last decade of 5th century BCE)
			B17 Petition for Reconstruction of Temple(?) (410 BCE or slightly later)
			B18 Fragmentary Letter re Egyptians Imprisoned (ca. 410 BCE)
			B19 Request for Letter of Recommendation (I) (November 25, 407 BCE)
			B20 Request for Letter of Recommendation (II) (November 25, 407 BCE)
			B21 Recommendation for Reconstruction of Temple (after 407 BCE)
			B22 Offer of Payment for Reconstruction of Temple (after 407 BCE)
		4. The Mibtahiah Archive [B23-33] (471-410 BCE)
			B23 Grant of a Built Wall (September 12, 471 BCE)
			B24 Withdrawal from Land (January 2, 464 BCE [night])
			B25 Bequest of House to Daughter (December 1, 459 BCE)
			B26 Grant of Usufruct to Son-in-law (December 1,459 BCE)
			B27 Fragment from Betrothal Contract (Ca. 459 or 449 BCE)
			B28 Document of Wifehood (October 14, 449 BCE [night])
			B29 Grant of House to Daughter (November 17, 446 BCE [night])
			B30 Withdrawal from Goods (August 26, 440 BCE [night])
			B31 Withdrawal from Goods (September 2-30, 420 BCE)
			B32 Withdrawal from House (December 16, 416 BCE [night])
			B33 Apportionment of Slaves (February 10, 4 10 BCE [night])
		5. The Ananiah Archive [B34-46] (456-402 BCE)
			B34 Loan of Silver (December 13, 456 BCE [night])
			B35 Withdrawal from hyr' (July 6, 451 BCE [night])
			B36 Document of Wifehood (August 9, 449 BCE [night])
			B37 Sale of Abandoned Property (September 14, 437 BCE [night])
			B38 Bequest of Apartment to Wife (October 30, 434 BCE)
			B39 Testamentary Manumission (June 12, 427 BCE)
			B40 A Life Estate of Usufruct (July 11,420 BCE)
			B41 Document of Wifehood (October 2-30, 420 BCE)
			B42 Adoption (September 22/October 22, 416 BCE)
			B43 Bequest in Contemplation of Death (Nov. 25, 404 BCE [night])
			B44 Dowry Addendum (March 9, 402 BCE)
			B45 Sale of Apartment to Son-in-law (December 13, 402 BCE)
			B46 Loan of Grain (December 2-31, 402 BCE)
		6. Miscellaneous Contracts [B47-52] (495-400 BCE)
			B47 Exchange of Inherited Shares (October 22, 495 BCE)
			B48 Loan of Silver (ca. 487 BCE)
			B49 Mutual Quitclaim (last quarter 5th century BCE)
			B50 Obligation to Make Judicial Declaration (January 18, 401 BCE)
			B51 Debt Acknowledgment (June 21, 400 BCE)
			B52 Oath Text (late 5th century BCE)
		Prosopography of Hebrew Names - Yun, Sungduk
	III Demotic Texts [C1-37] - Cary J. Martin
			Geographical Horizons
			The Temples
			Legal Documents
		1. Letters [C1-23] (492 BCE - 11 CE)
			1a. The Eskhnumpemet Papers [C1-3] (492 BCE)
				C1 Procedures for Appointing a Lesonis (April 21, 492 BCE)
				C2 Acknowledgment of Receipt of Money (June 7, 492 BCE)
				C3 Appointment of a New Lesonis (December 25, 492 BCE)
				C4 Warning About a Delivery of Grain (October 5, 486 BCE)
				C5 A Delivery of Wine (January 12, 303 BCE)
				C6 Instructions Regarding Payment (May 16, 298 BCE)
			1b. The Paudjaemtoues Letters [C7-10] (230-229 BCE)
				C7 The Removal of Grain (September 13, 230 BCE)
				C8 Letter from a Man in Detention (November 9, 229 BCE)
				C9 Letter of Explanation (November 18, 229 BCE)
				C10 Report of Misfortunes (December 22, 229 BCE)
			1c. The Eskhnumpemet II Papers [C11-14] (219-205 BCE)
				C11 Payment for Lesonis Appointment (August 11, 219 BCE)
				C12 Collection of Taxes (April 2, 216 or March 29, 199 BCE)
				C13 Recall of Priest From Alexandria (August 10, 2 16 BCE)
				C14 Delivery of Some Money (November 9, 205 BCE)
				C15 Admonition From a Pious Man (April 23, 187 BCE)
				C16 Causing Strife and Choosing a Wife (Ptolemaic)
				C17 Advising Conciliation (Ptolemaic)
				C18 Feeding the Sacred Falcons (Ptolemaic)
				C19 Denial of Receipt of Money (Ptolemaic)
				C20 Complaint re Consultation of an Oracle (Ptolemaic)
				C21 Promise to Pay (Ptolemaic)
				C22 Delivery of Cereals (Ptolemaic)
				C23 Report on the Completion of Work (March 11, 11 CE)
		2. Report [C24]
			C24 Report on a Strike of Quarrymen (558/557 BCE)
		3. Divine Communications [C25-26]
			C25 Oracle Question (Ptolemaic)
			C26 Message from a Deity (Ptolemaic)
		4. Contracts [C27-34] (537-2 BCE)
			C27 Matrimonial Property Arrangements (537 BCE)
			C28 Bequest of Stipends to Daughter (Nov 24-Dec 23, 510 BCE)
			C29 Exchange of Stipends between Priests (Jan 15-Feb 13, 460)
			C30 Transfer of Stipends (May 17-June 15, 349 BCE)
			C31 Withdrawal after Lawsuit (Oct. 23-Nov. 2 1, 245 BCE)
			C32 Tax-Farming Joint Venture (July 18-Aug 16, 236)
			C33 Matrimonial Property Arrangements (Oct 12-Nov 10, 198)
			C34 Transfer of House-Shares (February 22, 2 BCE)
		5. Receipt and Lists [C35-37]
			C35 Receipt for Myrrh (July 21-August 19, 487 BCE)
			C36 List of Names and Contributions (Ptolemaic)
			C37 List of Names (Ptolemaic)
	IV Greek Texts [D1-52] - J. Joel Farber
		Introduction - Bezalel Porten and J. Joel Farber
			Ptolemaic and Roman Papyri
			Byzantine Papyri
				Early Byzantine
				The Patermouthis Archive
				Papyrus and Contract: Medium and Message
				The Army
		1. Ptolemaic [D1-10] (310-136 BCE)
			D1 Elegiac Drinking Song (end of 4th century BCE)
			D2 Matrimonial Arrangements (August/September, 310 BCE)
			D3 Will (June 29-July 28, 284 BCE)
			D4 Appointment of a Guardian (July 21, 283 BCE)
			D5 Appointment of a Guardian (February 14, 282 BCE)
			D6 Accounting of an Inheritance (March 23, 281 BCE)
			D7 Military Despatch (first half of 3rd century BCE)
			D8 Petition (February 24-March 24, 137 BCE)
			D9 Report on the Delivery of a Summons (December 29, 137 BCE)
			D10 Settlement (January 4, 136 BCE)
		2. Roman [D11-17]
			D11 Sale of a Slave (16/15 BCE)
			D12 Tax Receipt (September 8, 88 CE)
			D13 Distribution of an Estate (June 16, 131 CE)
			D14 Purchase of Room Shares (25 April/13 September, 153 CE)
			D15 Verification (after 160 CE)
			D16 Letter (late 2ndcentury CE)
			D17 Letter (late 3rd century CE)
		3. Byzantine [D18-52] (355-613 CE)
			D18 Manumission (January 12, 355 CE)
			D19 Petition (425-450 CE)
			D20 Sale of Room and Courtyard (April 26, 493)
			D21 Sale of a Court With Easement (after 493 CE)
			D22 Sale of a House (March 7-15, 530 CE)
			D23 Gift in Contemplation of Death (ca. 540 CE)
			D24 Sale of an Earring (February 3, 549 CE)
			D25 Sale of a Symposion (ca. 550 CE)
			D26 Debt Acknowledgment (January 26-February 4, 556 CE)
			D27 Debt Acknowledgment (May 26-June 24, 557 CE)
			D28 Debt Acknowledgment (March 27, 573 or 558 CE)
			D29 Arbitration of Dispute Over Legacy (March 11, 574 CE)
			D30 Antichretic Loan (September 7, 577 CE)
			D31 Enrollment of a New Recruit (May-October 6, 578 CE)
			D32 Sale of House-Share (578-582 CE)
			D33 Debt Acknowledgment (March 6, 580 CE)
			D34 Sale of Boat (581 CE)
			D35 Resolution of Legacy Dispute (June 7?, 583)
			D36 Settlement of Legacy Dispute (June 23, 583)
			D37 Gift of Share in Contemplation of Death (March 12, 584 CE)
			D38 Will (August 13, 583-August 12, 584 CE)
			D39 Resolution of Dispute Over Legacy (March 8, 585 CE)
			D40 Sale of House Shares (May 30, 585)
			D41 Transfer of House-Share (August 22, 585 CE)
			D42 Resolution of Dispute Over Payment (September 20, 585 CE)
			D43 Transfer of Share of Notes (January 28, 586 CE)
			D44 Surety Bond (August 16, 586 or 601 CE)
			D45 Sale of House-Share (October 7, 586 CE)
			D46 Sale of House-Share (August 13, 590-August 12, 591 CE)
			D47 Sale of Half-Share of a Courtyard (January 18, 594 CE)
			D48 Arbitration of Dispute over Legacy (February 15, 594 CE)
			D49 Sale of House-Shares (March 6, 594 CE)
			D50 Sale of House-Share (late 6th century CE)
			D51 Loan of Gold (February 25, 611 CE)
			D52 Secured Loan of Gold (February 9, 613 CE)
		Descriptive Prosopography - J. Joel Farber and Andrew Wolpert
	V Coptic Texts [E1-20] - Leslie S.B. MacCoull and Sarah J. Clackson
			The Papyri / Sarah J. Clackson
			The Berlin ostraca / Leslie S.B. MacCoull, B. Porten and J.J. Farber
			Other ostraca / Sarah J. Clackson
			Onomastics / S.J. Clackson, L.S.B. MacCoull, B. Porten and J.J. Farber
		E1 Letter about a Dispute
		E2 Document about a Debt
		E3 Acknowledgment of Debt Settlement
		E4 Debt Acknowledgment
		E5 Debt Acknowledgment (April 4)
		E6 Debt Acknowledgment (July 29, 2ndindiction)
		E7 Loan (September 17, 5th indiction)
		E8 Repayment and Debt Acknowledgment (May 25, 10th indiction)
		E9 Debt Acknowledgment (February 25, 11th indiction)
		E10 Debt Acknowledgment (September 30, 15th indiction)
		E11 Debt Acknowledgment
		E12 Debt Acknowledgment
		E13 Debt Acknowledgment
		E14 Loan
		E15 Loan
		E16 Loan
		E17 Debt Acknowledgment
		E18 Two Fragmentary Orders (?)
		E19 Apprenticeship Contract
		E20 Fragment of an Account of Payments
	VI Arabic Texts [F1-2] - Simon Hopkins
		F1 Land-Tax Agreement (August 10-September 7, 883 CE)
		F2 Nuptial Gift Agreement (7/8 January, 948 CE)
	VII Latin Texts [G1-2] - Ranon Katzoff
		G1 List of Soldiers and Letter (second half of 3rd century CE)
		G2 List of Soldiers (second half of 3rd century CE)
	Select Topical Index
		Economy and Occupations
		Houses and Boats
		Plate 1. Aramaic Document of Wifehood
		Plate 2. Aramaic Document of Wifehood
		Plate 3. Aramaic Loan Document
		Plate 4. Demotic Oracle
		Plate 5. Demotic Matrimonial Arrangements
		Plate 6. Greek Matrimonial Arrangements
		Plate 7. Greek Will
		Plate 8. Greek Military Despatch
		Plate 9. Greek Manumission
		Plate 10. Greek Arbitration
		Plate 11. Arabic Nuptial Agreement
Document Text Contents
Page 1




P . M . M . G . A K K E R M A N S , G . H . J . DE G E U S , E . H A E R I N C K

T H . P J . VAN DEN H O U T , M . S T O L , D . VAN D E R P L A S



Page 2







J . Joe l Farber, Cary J. Martin, Gunter Vittmann
Leslie S.B. MacCoull, Sarah Clackson

and contributions by

Simon Hopkins and Ramon Katzoff

' ' 6 8 * '



Page 324

C I O THE P A U D J A E M T O U E S L E T T E R S 309

to Phi lae . H e said m a n y th ings x + 6 t o T e g e r i t r e 6 of m y affa i r (s) . 7 x + 7 H e did no t
receive (a) thing at his voice of m y affair(s). 8

Report II X + 8 " I have c o m e to (the) temple of Elephant ine x + 9 w i t h m y m e n (and) I a m at the
place-(of)-rest 9 (of) Khnum.

Complaint x + 1 0 " ( A s for) the th ings c o n c e r n i n g w h i c h ( the) f o d d e r e r 1 0 A h m o s e c a m e
x + 1 1 h e r e , you heard t hem (but) you did not x + 1 2 s e n d (word) to m e concern ing that
which happened to you.

Report ill x + 1 3 " T h e r e is no (harm) to the young ones w h o x + 1 4 ( a r e in) Thebes and the m e n
who (are) there.

instruction i x + 1 5 " O s i r o u e r son of Aher ta i s , w h e n he c o m e s south, x + 1 6 l e t it b e o rde red to
cause them to look after h im . "

Date x + 1 7 W r i t t e n in year 19, Hathyr , (day) 5 . "
instruction ii x+i8"jf y 0 U m e e t w i t h 1 2 the oversee r - (o f ) - l and , 1 3 x + 1 9 l e t h i m find (out) the

things which are happening x + 2 0 t o m e . "

6 Dem. Tgrtre; cf. G.R. Hughes in Fs Liiddeckens, 76. The structure of the word strongly suggests a
Meroitic name; cf. M.E. Hainsworth in Akten des 1. Internationalen Agyptologenkongresse zu Cairo,
2.-10. Okt. 1976, ed. W.F. Reineke (Berlin, 1979), esp. 278, for the writing of the name of the Meroitic king

7 Dem. cs-shn = "matter," "business," "affair;" cf. W. Erichsen, Glossar, 71 . It can also mean "fortune;" cf.
J.D. Ray, The Archive of Hor (Oxford, 1976), 187 (reference courtesy of K. Donker van Heel).

8 Although Hakoris pleaded on the sender's behalf, his requests fell on deaf ears.
9 Dem. '.wy-htp is used to describe both a tomb and a sanctuary; cf. P.W. Pestman-J. Quaegebeur-R.L. Vos,

Recueil de textes demotiques et hilingues (Leiden, 1977), II, 76-78. In the present context the reference
seems to be to the burial-place of the sacred rams, which was located just to the north of the temple of
Khnum; cf. W.J. Murnane, The Penguin Guide to Ancient Egypt (Harmondsworth, 1983), 324, and the
photograph in B. Porten, Archives from Elephantine, Plate 8b.

1 0 K.-Th. Zauzich was unsure about the reading, but in all probability it is correct. On brh, "fodderer,"
"the person responsible for feeding cattle," cf., most recently, D. Devauchelle, Ostraca demotiques du
Musee du Louvre (Cairo, 1983), 1/1, 92-93.

1 1 The handwriting would suggest that this text was written by Paudjaemtoues son of Pshentaihet; cf. the
introduction, The Paudjaemtoues Letters. If P. Berlin 13619 (C7) is correctly dated, then our papyrus
must have been written on 22 December, 229 BCE.

1 2 Dem. 'h' irm, literally "to stand with."
1 3 As W. Spiegelberg noted, Die demotischen Papyri Loeb, 13 note 5, this title can apply to both a high

official and a simple local administrator. In the present context, it would appear to be a reference to the
senior official who, assisted by a body of "land-measurers," was responsible for the administration of the
arable land in this part of Egypt (although how far his jurisdiction stretched is not ascertainable; cf. B.G.
Trigger et al., Ancient Egypt: A Social History (Cambridge, 1983), 332-333. An overseer-of-land is also
mentioned in the Paudjaemtoues letter P. Berlin 23622 (unpublished; cf. the introduction to these letters).

Page 325

The Papers of Eskhnumpemet II (CI 1-14)

The four papyri which follow all probably relate to the affairs of one individual, the
lesonis Eskhnumpemet son of Esnebankh (cf. note 1 to P. Berlin 15522 [C12], and
note 1 to P. Berlin 13565 [C13]), although apart from the presence of Eskhnum­
pemet, either as sender or addressee, nothing links the texts directly one with the
other. One of the papyri is, however, securely dated, which allows the chronology of
events to be mapped out as follows:

11 Aug, 219 B C E Eskhnumpemet writes to the administrator of Tshetres asking
for assistance in his attempt to be appointed lesonis in the
temple of Khnum(P. Berlin 13543 [Cll]) .

2 April, 216 B C E Eskhnumpemet, now lesonis, is instructed to have the emmer
from the temple-domain gathered and delivered to the royal
granaries on the basis of the previous year's crop survey (P.
Berlin 15522 [C12]).

10 Aug, 216 B C E Eskhnumpemet, having sent a wad-priest to the victory
celebrations at Alexandria, seeks clarification on whether, and
by whom, the wad-priest is to be instructed to return (P.
Berlin 13565 [C13]).

9 Nov, 205 B C E There is a lack of clarity about who instructed whom to hand
over some money. Eskhnumpemet is told that Tyqy had said
that it was Eskhnumpemet who was responsible (P. Berlin
15521 [C14]).

As well as these four papyri, a lesonis Eskhnumpemet is also known from other
unpublished papyri (P. Berlin 13542, 13559, 23580, 23637, 23641, 23665 and
23704; cf. W. Clarysse, Pros. Ptol. IX [1981], 58-59, No. 5389). If these all refer to
one and the same individual, then it leads one to question whether the lesonis Es­
khnumpemet who is mentioned in P. Berlin 13568 (C5) should not also be
identified with this lesonis. P. Berlin 13568 would then date to 18 December, 204
B C E , rather than 12 January, 303 B C E , as W. Erichsen suggested.

Page 647

t« p l • | - , ; i'.;v V


1 "•»'>'•' i i ''.tort ,j r I ;'i ? ' . u - n . r »i' i ' •*

P L A T E 10. Greek Arbitration (P. AHmc/i. 1 [D29]) = P . Munch . 1
recto and verso

(Courtesy of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek M u n c h e n )

Page 648

P L A T E 11. Arabic Nuptial Agreement (P. Or. Inst. 10552r
[F2]) = P . Or. Inst. 10552 recto (Courtesy of the Orienta l

Institute of the University of Chicago)

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