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The American Accent Guide







BEVERLY A. LUJAN, M.S. ccc/sip

Speech- Language Pathologist

Edited by

C. J. S. Wallia, Ph. D.
Editor, IndiaStar Review of Books

Instructor, Publishing & Editing Program,
U.C. Berkeley extension
Berkeley, California USA

ISBN 0-9634139-6-1

© Copyright 2006

Lingual Arts
P.O. Box 522168

Salt Lake City, Utah 84152

All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this manual or accompanying
audio materials may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, audio dubbing or otherwise, without prior written permission from Lingual
Arts, Inc.

Page 119



Practice contracted forms - For each sentence, identify the two words that are contained in the
contracted form. Select A, or B.

is or has? A 13 A
1. ~already left. He is He has 5. ~happened? What is

2. ~ my best friend. She is She has 6. Where's he been? Where is

3. It's already here. It is It has 7. Who's going? Who is

4. That's fine. That is_ That has __

Correct: 1) B 2) A 3) A 4) A 5) '13 6) 13 7)A

had or would?

What has

Where has_

Who has

1. J.:Q al ready seen it.

2. J.:Q prefer that one:
3. ~ like that.



I had I would 5. He'd already left. he had
Ihad __ I would __ 6. ~ like to join you. w&had

She had she would 7. \lll.!'J.Q:.dever know? who had

They had_ they would_

he would

we would

who would

Correct: : 1) A 2) B 3) B 4) A


5) A 6) B 7) B

Practice contracted forms within reduced phrases - Change each negative statement to a negative
question. Then state the question using the reduced form of the words that are underlined.

1. It isn't official.

3. His application isn't complete.
4. Her exam isn't on Tuesday.

1. /IZlOIt/ of.ficial?
2. /IzInr/ here?
3. ttztsva! application complete?
4. /rzmar! exam on Tuesday?

1. It wasn't fair.
2. He wasn't there.
3. His mother wasn't home.

4. Her brother wasn't there.
As Questions:
1. /wAZmt/ fair?
2. !wAZnzi! there?
3. /wAzmz! mother home?
4. /wflznar! brother there?

1. It didn't rain after all.
2. He didn't get the job.
3. His bike has a flat tire.
4. Her CD player broke,

As Questions:
1. Idtdnrt/ rain after all?
2. !drdnt/ get the job?
3. Idrdmzl bike have a flat tire?
4. Idrdnar / CD player break?

5. It doesn't work.

6. He doesn't know it.
7. His phone doesn't ring.
8. ~ computer doesn't have enough memory.

5. !dxzrnrt/ work?
6. I dxzmr/ know It.

'7. Idflz:rOIz/ phone ring?
8. IdAzmar/ computer have enough memory?

5. It hasn't started.
6. He hasn't left.
7. His mother hasn't arrived.

8. Her class hasn't started.

5. /heeznrt/ started?
.6. Ihcezni/ left?
7. !hcezmz/ mother arrived?
8. /heeznsr/ class started?

4. It hadn't been cancelled.
5. He hadn't responded.
6. His mother hadn't arrived.
7. Her class hadn't started.

4. !hcednrtl been cancelled?
5. Ihcedm/ responded?
6. /heedruz/ mother arrived?
7. /hesdnsr / class started?


Page 120

The COMPREHENSIVE American Accent Guide

1. It wouldn't be the same.
2. He wouldn't be there.
3. It shouldn't be easy?

4. It couldn't be complete.
5. He couldn't be on time.
6. He shouldn't be there.

As Questions:

1. IWAdmtl be the same?

2. IWAdml be there?

3. IJAdmtl be easy?

4. lkAdmt/ be complete?

5. IkAdml be on time?

6. IJAdm/ be there?

Pronunciation: To produce the blend lanl in didn t hadn't, couldn't, wouldn't, or shouldn't,
do tQe followio.g;:£>~aceyour tougue . alveolar ridge fo~ d as Y;~isba;rply raise the
tongue centelto direct the aitfiow th enasalpassage.

The following pronunciations are acceptable as well:

/drdsnt, eedent, kudsnt, wudant, judsnt/


The final' in a contracted form is often omitted. When a pronoun such as he or have
follow, the h is omitted as well. For example,

"couldn 't he" is pronounced Ikudnil

"couldn't have" is pronounced Ikudnav/

couldn't, shouldn't, wouldn't + have

The following are full pronunciations and reduced forms of these. Listen:

could not have .
should not have .

would not have .

couldn '{have
shouldn't have

wouldn 'I have

Repeat these sentences with reduced forms:

We couldn't have forgotten.
It shouldn't have happened.
I wouldn 'f have done that.


Page 238



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