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TitleThe 2nd ISIJ-VDEh-Jernkontoret Joint Symposium
LanguageEnglish
File Size22.8 MB
Total Pages290
Table of Contents
                            Tom sida
		OPPORTUNITIES OF THE STEEL INDUSTRIE INDUSTRY TO CREATE SOLUTIONS FOR THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY
			1. Abstract
			2. Introduction
			3. Steel Plant Tomorrow
			4. ReThink – ReDuce – ReCycle – ReUse
			5. Preventing disintegration of Ladle Furnace Slag
			6. Metallurgical treatment of EAF slags
			References
		INNOVATIVE MEASURES TO PREVENT DUST EMISSIONS
		Abstract
			1. Study at Steel Plant A
			2. Study at Steel Plant B
				2.1 Documentation of the present practice
				2.2 Comparison of different charging hood types
				2.3 Fume suppression
		3. Conclusions
		Thomas Meier, Thomas Echterhof, Herbert Pfeifer
		Department of Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering, RWTH Aachen University
		Keywords: electric arc furnace, EAF, process modelling, process simulation, biomass, oxygen
		Abstract:
		1. Introduction
		2. Process model description
		3. Modelling of PKS usage and self-controlled simulations
			3.1 Modelling different carbon carriers
			3.2 Modelling the simulations self-control algorithm
		4. Results and discussion
			4.1 Results from PKS simulation
			4.2 Results from oxygen investigation with operation chart variation
		5. Conclusion
		6. References
		Hydrogen Utilization on the Ironmaking Field
		for the Reduction of CO2 Emission
		Yoshiaki Kashiwaya,
		1. Introduction
		Abstract
		Steel cleanliness is a complex topic, which is influenced at almost every step in the production line. It starts on the liquid side in the converter and ends in the solidified slab, and is further topic to modification by heat-treatments or rolling. ...
		Keywords:
			1. Introduction
			2. Experimental
			3. Results and Discussion
			4. Conclusion
		References
Tom sida
Tom sida
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Proceedings

12–13 June, 2017
Stockholm, Sweden

Organised by Jernkontoret
The Swedish Steel Producers’ Association

The 2nd ISIJ-VDEh-Jernkontoret
Joint Symposium

(The 15th ISIJ-VDEh Seminar, The 9th Japan-Nordic Countries Joint Symposium
on Science and Technology of Process Metallurgy)

The Swedish Steel Producers’ Association
Since its foundation back in 1747, Jernkontoret has been owned jointly by the

Swedish steel companies. Jernkontoret represents Sweden’s steel industry

on issues that relate to trade policy, research and education, standardisation,

energy, the environment and sustainability as well as transportation issues.

Jernkontoret also manages the joint Nordic research in the steel industry. In

addition, Jernkontoret draws up statistical information relating to the industry

and carries on research into the history of mining and metallurgy.

3rd Ingot Casting, Rolling and
Forging Conference, ICRF 2018

16–19 October 2018

Follow the event on www.icrf2018.com

Jernkontoret, the Swedish Steel Producers’ Association,
is pleased to announce the international conference:

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Page 2

© Jernkontoret och författarna 2017
Distribution: Jernkontoret, Box 1721, 111 87 Stockholm
Telefon: 08-679 17 00
www.jernkotoret.se

Tryck: Typografiska Ateljén AB
www.typografiska.se

ISBN 978-91-982397-0-6

Page 145

Some aspects of foaming slag


Johan Martinsson, Björn Glaser, Du Sichen
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden



Keywords: Slag foaming, viscosity, lime dissolution in foaming slag, droplet movement

Abstract: Foaming slag has been a topic of research for decades because of its crucial role in
BOF-converters and electric arc furnaces (EAF). However, due to the great difficulties in the
study under extreme conditions in these processes, the understanding of the formation of foam
and its behavior is still very limited. The present work aims at experimental studies on some
aspects of foaming slag using both cold model and foaming converter slag at steelmaking
temperature, namely the apparent viscosity of slag foam, the residence time of metal droplets
in foam and the dissolution of lime in foam.



1. Introduction
Foaming slag plays crucial role in both BOF-converters and electric arc furnaces (EAF). For

example, slag starts foaming in BOF only a couple of minutes after blowing has initiated and
slag foaming continues almost throughout the whole period of decarburization [1].
Unfortunately, the understanding of foaming and the mechanism related to this phenomenon
are still far from satisfaction. Discussions regarding whether the reactions in the BOF processes
take place at the interface between the steel droplets and the foaming slag or at the interface
between the steel bath and the slag are still going on, though many studies have been carried
out for decarburization and dephosphorization processes [2-10].


Foaming slag consists of gas, liquid and even solid phases [7, 10, 11]. The knowledge

regarding (1) the impact of foaming on the movement of the slag phase, (2) the movement of
droplets in the foam, and (3) the dissolution of lime in a foaming slag is still lacking. The focus
of the present work is to carry out both cold model study and experiments at steelmaking
temperature to improve the understanding of the above-mentioned aspects.




2. Experimental

2.1 Cold model study.
Figure 1 shows schematically the setup of the cold model. It consisted a transparent
Plexiglas cylinder (inner diameter: 93 mm and height: 280 mm). A silica filter with pore size
10-16 µm was used to separate the gas compartment (100 mm above the bottom of the vessel)
from the silicon oil. This arrangement ensured a uniform distribution of gas flow through the
horizontal section. Argon gas was used to generate the foam. Silicon oils with different
dynamic viscosities were studied. A Bronkhorst mass flow meter (model F-201CV-1K0-AAD-
33-V, calibrated for 1 ln/min-1 Ar, 2 bar (g)/0 bar (g) at 293 K) and a Bronkhorst High-Tech
B.V.E -7000 flow-buss controller were used.
Since different gas flow rates created foams with different relative foaming heights (Δh/h0),
different amounts of silicone oil were used to keep a constant foam height, 180 mm for all
experiments.

145

Page 146

Viscosity measurements
For the viscosity measurements a viscometer Brookfield LVDV-II+Pro using the Rotating
Spindle Technique was mounted above the vessel. As measurement spindle a Brookfield
standard spindle of model LV2 was used with a cylindrical bob diameter of 18.6 mm and a
height of 6.7 mm. All parameters needed for the viscosity measurements with this type of
spindle are given by standard controlling software of the viscometer provided by the company
Brookfield. Viscosity measurements were started when the foam of silicone oil had become
stable.


Particle movement


In order to record the movement and path of particles and droplets, a high speed camera and
a regular camera were mounted close to the vessel. The particles and droplets were dropped
from 20 mm above into the stabilized foam. The falling time were measured with a stop watch
and the resulting average velocity was calculated. Different materials and particle sizes were
used. At least, ten tests with each of the particles and droplets were conducted in order to
confirm the reproducibility of the results.


2.2 Experiments at steelmaking temperature

Setup

The high temperature experiments were carried out in an open air setup using an induction
furnace with a water cooled copper coil. The setup is schematically shown in Figure 2. For
temperature measurement and experimental control, an infrared temperature sensor (model
thermometer CTM-1SF75-C3) was used, instead of thermocouples that would be affected by
the magnetic field [12]. The IR-sensor was calibrated with a pyrometer of model Raytek
Thermoalert ET.



Figure 1. Cold model experimental setup.

146

Page 290

Proceedings

12–13 June, 2017
Stockholm, Sweden

Organised by Jernkontoret
The Swedish Steel Producers’ Association

The 2nd ISIJ-VDEh-Jernkontoret
Joint Symposium

(The 15th ISIJ-VDEh Seminar, The 9th Japan-Nordic Countries Joint Symposium
on Science and Technology of Process Metallurgy)

The Swedish Steel Producers’ Association
Since its foundation back in 1747, Jernkontoret has been owned jointly by the

Swedish steel companies. Jernkontoret represents Sweden’s steel industry

on issues that relate to trade policy, research and education, standardisation,

energy, the environment and sustainability as well as transportation issues.

Jernkontoret also manages the joint Nordic research in the steel industry. In

addition, Jernkontoret draws up statistical information relating to the industry

and carries on research into the history of mining and metallurgy.

3rd Ingot Casting, Rolling and
Forging Conference, ICRF 2018

16–19 October 2018

Follow the event on www.icrf2018.com

Jernkontoret, the Swedish Steel Producers’ Association,
is pleased to announce the international conference:

Th
e 2

n
d IS

IJ-V
D
Eh

-Jern
ko

n
to

ret Jo
in

t S
ym

p
o
siu

m
| P

ro
c
e
e
d

in
g

s | 1
2
–1

3
Ju

n
e

2
0
1

7

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