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TitleTaylor Francis Instant Notes Neuroscience 2nd Ed 2005
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Table of Contents
                            BOOK COVER
TITLE
COPYRIGHT
CONTENTS
ABBREVIATIONS
PREFACE
SECTION A – ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
	A1 NEURON STRUCTURE
	A2 NEURON DIVERSITY
	A3 GLIAL CELLS AND MYELINATION
	A4 ORGANIZATION OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
	A5 ORGANIZATION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
	A6 BRAIN IMAGING
	A7 MENINGES AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
	A8 BLOOD–BRAIN BARRIER
SECTION B – NEURON EXCITATION
	B1 RESTING POTENTIALS
	B2 ACTION POTENTIALS
	B3 VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT ION CHANNELS
	B4 CHANNEL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
	B5 ACTION POTENTIAL CONDUCTION
SECTION C – SYNAPSES
	C1 MORPHOLOGY OF CHEMICAL SYNAPSES
	C2 OVERVIEW OF SYNAPTIC FUNCTION
	C3 POSTSYNAPTIC EVENTS
	C4 NEURAL INTEGRATION
	C5 NEUROTRANSMITTER RELEASE
	C6 CALCIUM CHANNELS
	C7 NEUROTRANSMITTER INACTIVATION
SECTION D – NEUROTRANSMITTERS
	D1 IONOTROPIC RECEPTORS
	D2 METABOTROPIC RECEPTORS
	D3 AMINO ACID TRANSMITTERS
	D4 DOPAMINE
	D5 NORADRENALINE (NOREPINEPHRINE)
	D6 SEROTONIN
	D7 ACETYLCHOLINE
	D8 PURINES AND PEPTIDES
SECTION E – NEURAL CODING
	E1 INFORMATION REPRESENTATION BY NEURONS
	E2 FREQUENCY CODING
	E3 LOCATION CODING
	E4 MODALITY
	E5 ELEMENTARY NEURAL CIRCUITS
SECTION F – SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEMS
	F1 SENSORY RECEPTORS
	F2 TOUCH
	F3 PAIN
	F4 PAIN MODULATION
	F5 BALANCE
SECTION G – VISION
	G1 ATTRIBUTES OF VISION
	G2 EYE AND VISUAL PATHWAYS
	G3 RETINA
	G4 PHOTOTRANSDUCTION
	G5 RETINAL PROCESSING
	G6 EARLY VISUAL PROCESSING
	G7 PARALLEL PROCESSING IN THE VISUAL SYSTEM
	G8 OCULOMOTOR CONTROL
SECTION H – HEARING
	H1 ACOUSTICS AND AUDITION
	H2 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE EAR
	H3 PERIPHERAL AUDITORY PROCESSING
	H4 CENTRAL AUDITORY PROCESSING
SECTION I – SMELL AND TASTE
	I1 OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS
	I2 OLFACTORY PATHWAYS
	I3 TASTE
	I4 TASTE PATHWAYS
SECTION J – MOTOR FUNCTION: SPINAL CORD AND BRAINSTEM
	J1 NERVE–MUSCLE SYNAPSE
	J2 MOTOR UNITS AND MOTOR POOLS
	J3 ELEMENTARY MOTOR REFLEXES
	J4 SPINAL MOTOR FUNCTION
	J5 BRAINSTEM POSTURAL REFLEXES
SECTION K – MOVEMENT: CORTEX, CEREBELLUM AND BASAL GANGLIA
	K1 CORTICAL CONTROL OF VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT
	K2 MOTOR LESIONS
	K3 ANATOMY OF THE CEREBELLUM
	K4 SUBDIVISIONS OF THE CEREBELLUM
	K5 CEREBELLAR CORTEX CIRCUITRY
	K6 CEREBELLAR FUNCTION
	K7 ANATOMY OF THE BASAL GANGLIA
	K8 BASAL GANGLIA FUNCTION
SECTION L – NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY AND AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS
	L1 ANATOMY AND CONNECTIONS OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS
	L2 POSTERIOR PITUITARY FUNCTION
	L3 NEUROENDOCRINE CONTROL OF METABOLISM AND GROWTH
	L4 NEUROENDOCRINE CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION
	L5 AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION
	L6 CONTROL OF AUTONOMIC FUNCTION
SECTION M – BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR
	M1 EMOTION
	M2 MOTIVATION AND ADDICTION
	M3 CONTROL OF FEEDING
	M4 BRAIN BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS
	M5 SLEEP
SECTION N – DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY
	N1 EARLY PATTERNING OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
	N2 CELL DETERMINATION
	N3 CORTICAL DEVELOPMENT
	N4 AXON PATHFINDING
	N5 SYNAPTOGENESIS AND DEVELOPMENTAL PLASTICITY
	N6 NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS
	N7 BRAIN SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION
SECTION O – MEMORY AND COGNITION
	O1 TYPES OF LEARNING
	O2 PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY OF MEMORY
	O3 CELL PHYSIOLOGY OF LEARNING
	O4 AROUSAL AND ATTENTION
	O5 LANGUAGE
SECTION P – BRAIN DISORDERS
	P1 SCHIZOPHRENIA
	P2 DEPRESSION
	P3 STROKES AND EXCITOTOXICITY
	P4 EPILEPSY
	P5 PARKINSON’S DISEASE
	P6 ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE
FURTHER READING
INDEX
                        
Document Text Contents
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Neuroscience
Second Edition

Page 240

by recruiting additional muscles, this is called irradiation. The exact form of the
reflex response depends on precisely where the stimulus is applied and so
which afferents are excited. This is called the local sign.

Probably all reflexes can be modified by experience. The attenuation of a
reflex by the repeated application of a constant innocuous stimulus is habitua-
tion. It is caused by synaptic depression. Any change to the stimulus (e.g. in its
intensity) causes dishabituation in which the reflex returns to its baseline state.
By contrast, repeated application of a noxious stimulus can enhance a reflex, by
a decrease in latency, increased amplitude or irradiation. This is known as
sensitization and results from increased transmitter release. Both habituation
and sensitization are examples of non-associative learning because only one
stimulus is involved. Some reflexes are capable of the more complicated associa-
tive learning, in which a response occurs if two stimuli are paired in time. These
are conditioned reflexes.

The most elementary modulation of motor unit output is made by sensory input
from the muscle spindles which measure the length and rate of change of
length (velocity) of the muscle. Any attempt to stretch the muscle rapidly, for
example by suddenly loading it, is met by contraction. This is the muscle
spindle reflex (stretch reflex, myotatic reflex) and is a negative feedback mecha-
nism which defends a constant muscle length in the face of external forces
which act to perturb it. A stretch reflex can be elicited from any skeletal muscle
by sharply tapping its tendon. The resultant stretch causes the muscle to
contract. The stretch reflex is most easily demonstrated by tapping the patellar
ligament between its insertion into the tibia and the kneecap, causing the
contraction of the quadriceps femoris, the powerful group of extensor muscles
on the front of the thigh (Fig. 2).

Muscle spindle
reflexes

J3 – Elementary motor reflexes 227

α motor neuron

Ventral horn of
spinal gray matter

Dorsal root ganglion

Ia afferent

Quadriceps femoris
muscles

Muscle spindle

Tendon

Patella

Patellar
ligament

Tibia

Femur

Fibula

Fig. 2. Basic circuit of a stretch reflex. Striking the patellar ligament excites a few hundred Ia
afferents.

Page 241

The sensory side of the stretch reflex consists of the muscle spindle and its
afferents. Muscle spindles lie in parallel with the standard extrafusal fibers so
any force acting on the whole muscle acts in the same way on the spindle. Each
muscle spindle is a fluid-filled capsule of connective tissue, 4–10 mm long and
100 µm in diameter, containing about seven modified muscle fibers called intra-
fusal fibers (Fig. 3). Intrafusal fibers have contractile ends but their central
regions are non-contractile. There are two types of intrafusal fiber, nuclear bag
and nuclear chain.

Nuclear bag fibers (b) are swollen at their center, where their nuclei are clus-
tered, and are innervated by large-diameter myelinated (Ia) primary afferents,

228 Section J – Motor function: spinal cord and brainstem

Cut edge of
spindle capsule

Spindle capsule

Trail endings

Fusimotor
efferents

Afferents

Plate ending

Static (b2)
nuclear bag fiber

Secondary sensory
endings

Nuclear chain (C)
fiber

Dynamic (b1)
nuclear bag fiber

Primary sensory ending

Intrafusal fiber
cell nuclei

Ia

II

γ 2
γ 1

(a)

Ia

II

Muscle
length

Time

(b)

Fig. 3. Muscle spindles: (a) a spindle opened to show intrafusal fibers and their innervation.
A spindle normally contains one b1, one b2 and several c fibers; (b) responses of Ia and II
afferents to muscle stretch.

Page 480

Slow wave sleep (SWS), 340, 440
Slowly-adapting receptors, 107
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

(SER), 83
Smooth pursuit movements, 190
SNAP-25, 67
SNARE proteins, 66
Sodium channels

amiloride-sensitive, 213
voltage-dependent, 23, 41, 43, 438

Soma , 1
Somatic nervous system, 10
Somatomedins, 298
Somatostatin, 298
Somatotopic mapping, 110

in cerebellum, 259, 260
in motor cortex, 247
in somatosensory cortex, 127

Somatotrophin, 297
Son of Sevenless (SoS) protein, 378
Sonic hedgehog gene, 352, 358, 359
Sound frequency coding, 199
Sound localization, 203
Sound pressure amplitude (level),

192
Sound waves, 191, 192
Spasticity, 253
Spatial delayed response tasks, 397
Spatial navigation (place) learning,

389, 395, 400
Spatial resolution, 116
Spatial summation, 63
Spike initiation zone, 48
Spina bifida, 348
Spinal cord, 16
Spinal nerves, 10, 11
Spinal nucleus of the trigeminal

nerve, 132
Spinocerebellar tracts, 17, 261
Spinocerebellum, 260, 261
Spinocervical tract, 130
Spinomesencephalic tract, 135
Spinoreticular pathways, 131, 135,

138
Spinothalamic pathways, 130–132
Spinothalamic tracts, 250
Spiny neurons, 1
Spiral ganglion, 195, 198
Spiral organ of Corti, 195
Spontaneous pain, 133
Src homology domain 2 (SH2), 378
Stapedius muscle, 195
Stellate cells, 3
Stellate cells, of cerebellar cortex,

265, 266
Stem cells, 355, 356, 360, 362, 369
Stereocilium, 144
Stereognosis, 128
Stereopsis, 151
Stereotypic behaviour, 427
Steroid anesthetics, 77
Steroid feedback, 302, 303
Stimulating (trophic) hormones, 292
Stimulus, spatial location, 110
Stimulus-produced analgesia, 137
Stress, 295, 296, 398
Stress analgesia, 139
Stretch reflex, 227, 443

Stria terminalis, 284, 320
Stria vascularis, 144
Striate cortex, 155, 156
Striato-thalamo-cortical circuit, 319
Striatum, 20, 273, 274, 278

dorsal, 20, 273, 274
matrix, 274
striosomes, 274
ventral, 319

Strokes, 432, 434, 435
Strychnine, 87, 235
Subarachnoid space, 26, 27, 28
Subcommissural organ, 287
Subdural hemorrhage, 27
Subdural space, 27
Subfornical organ, 287, 288
Subiculum, 21, 283, 403
Submodalities, 113
Submucosal (Meissner’s) plexus, 14
Subplate, 362
Subsidiary ganglia, 13
Substance K, 104
Substance P, 103, 123, 134, 273
Substantia nigra, 20, 88, 89

pars compacta (SNpc), 273, 278,
442

pars reticulata (SNpr), 273, 278
Subthalamic nucleus (subthalamus),

20, 275, 278, 279
Subventricular zone, 356, 362
Subvocal articulation, 418
Succinylcholine, 219
Sulcus, 19
Sumatriptan, 98
Summation, 63
Summation columns, 204
Superior colliculus, 156, 189, 204
Superior olivary complex (SOC),

199, 201
Superoxide anions, 442, 443
Superoxide dismutase, 442, 443
Supplementary motor area (SMA),

244
Suppression columns, 204
Suppressor of Hairless gene, 357
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), 335
Supramarginal gyrus, 418
Supraoptic nucleus (SON), 286
Suspensory ligament, 154
Sympathetic ganglia, 13
Sympathetic nervous system

anatomy, 12, 13
function, 306

Synapse
chemical, 51–53
electrical, 51, 54, 55
elimination, 373
invaginating (triad), 169
location, 51
reciprocal, 209, 210
ribbon, of inner ear, 195

Synapsin I, 66
Synaptic basal lamina, 372
Synaptic cleft, 51
Synaptic delay, 58, 226
Synaptic vesicles

docking, 66
endocytosis, 67

large dense core, 52
priming, 67
refilling, 68
small clear, 52

Synaptic weighting, 63
Synaptobrevin, 66
Synaptogenesis, 362, 371–374

CNS, 374
neuromuscular junction, 372, 374

Synaptotagmin, 67
Syntax, 416
Syntaxin, 66
Synuclein, alpha, 442

Tachykinin receptors, 104
Tachykinins, 103, 104, 309
Tardive dyskinesia, 279
Taste (gustation), 212–216
Taste buds, 212, 213
Taste pores, 213
Taste transduction, 213, 214
Tau protein, 448
Tectocerebellar tract, 256
Tectorial membrane, 196
Tectospinal tract, 17
Tectum, 18
Tegmentum, 18
Telencephalon, 17
Temporal contiguity, 391
Temporal plane, 417
Temporal summation, 63, 134
Tendon reflexes, 230
Tensor tympani, 194, 195
Terminal arbor, 2
Terminals, 2
Testosterone, 300, 384, 385
Tetanic stimulation, 405
Tetanus, 235
Tetanus toxins, 67
Tetrodotoxin, 43, 47
Tetraethylammonium, 43, 47
Thalamic pain, 141
Thalamic relay cells, 342, 343
Thalamus, 18

anterior nuclei, 284, 397
dorsomedial nucleus, 397
epilepsy, 440
lateral geniculate nucleus, 155,

156, 175, 177, 178, 188, 189
medial geniculate nucleus, 201
mediodorsal nucleus, 319
memory, 397
motor functions, 246, 273, 274
Parkinson’s disease, 444
posterior nucleus, 131
pulvinar, 188, 189, 414
reticular nuclei, 131, 342, 343
sensory systems, 201, 216
taste, 216
ventroanterior nucleus, 274
ventrolateral nucleus, 261, 262,

273, 274, 444
ventroposterolateral nucleus

(VPL), 125
ventroposteromedial nucleus

(VPM), 215, 216
Thermal nociceptors, 123
Thermoneutral zone, 312

Index 467

Page 481

Thermoreceptors, 10, 113, 122, 313
Thermoregulation, 312–313
Theta rhythm, 407
Theta waves, 400
Thiopentone, 77
Thought disorder, 425
Threshold stimulus, 38
Threshold voltage, 38
Thyroid hormone receptors, 297
Thyroid-stimulating hormone

(TSH), 297
Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone

(TRH), 297
Thyroxine (T4), 297
Tics, 279
Tinnitus, 146
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA),

434
Tolerance, 325, 326
Tone, of sound, 192
Tonic-clonic seizures, 437
Tonotopic mapping, 199, 202
Topographic mapping, 110, 111, 366
Transcutaneous electrical nerve

stimulation (TENS), 137
Transducin (Gt), 166
Transforming growth factor beta,

349
Trapezoid body, 201
Tremor, 441
Trichromats, 163
Tricyclic antidepressants, 430
Trigeminal (V) nerve, 11, 244
Trigeminal ganglion cells, 379
Trigeminal neuralgia, 141
Trigeminocerebellar tract, 256
Triiodothyronine (T3), 297
Trisomy 21, 448
Trochlear (IV) nerve, 11, 186, 187,

188
Trophic (stimulating) hormones, 292
Troponin, 83
Tryptophan hydroxylase, 97
Tuber cinereum, 282
Tuberohypohpyseal tract, 285
Tuberoinfundibular pathway, 89,

292, 303
Tuberomammillary nucleus, 341, 342
Tubocurarine, 218
Tuning curves, of primary auditory

afferents, 199
Two-center hypothesis of feeding,

329
Two-point discrimination, 110

Tympanic membrane (ear drum),
194

Tympanic reflex, 195
Type 1 muscle fibers, 221
Type 2 muscle fibers, 221
Type I synapses, 52
Type II synapses, 52
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), 89
Tyrosine kinase receptor (trk), 377

Ubiquitin, 442
Uncus, 21
Unfused tetanus, 221
Unipolar, 3
Unipolar depression, 428
Upper motor neuron lesions, 252
Urinary bladder, autonomic

regulation, 308
Utricle, 143, 144

Vagus nerve, 11, 215, 216, 330, 398
Valproate, 440
Vanilliod receptors, 124
Varicosities, 2
Vascular organ of the lamina

terminalis (OVLT), 287
Vasointestinal peptide, 308, 309
Venous sinuses, 27
Ventral amygdalofugal pathway,

320
Ventral horn, 16
Ventral pallidum, 319
Ventral respiratory group (VRG),

315
Ventral root, 10
Ventral spinocerebellar tract, 17,

256, 257
Ventral striatum, 319, 324
Ventral tegmental area (VTA), 324,

326
Ventricles, 18, 28, 423
Ventricular zone, 356, 361
Ventroanterior thalamus, 274
Ventrolateral hypothalamus (VLH),

329
Ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO),

343
Ventrolateral thalamus, 261, 262,

273, 274, 444
Ventromedial hypothalamus

(VMH), 329
Ventroposterolateral (VPL)

thalamus, 125, 215
Verbal sketch pad, 397

Vergence, 190
Vergence reflex, 157
Vertigo, 146
Vestibular (labyrinthine) reflexes,

239, 240
Vestibular (Scarpa’s) ganglion, 146
Vestibular hair cells, 144, 146
Vestibular labyrinth, 143
Vestibular nuclei, 241, 252, 259, 260
Vestibule, 143
Vestibulocerebellar tract, 256
Vestibulocerebellum, 259
Vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerve, 11,

143, 189
Vestibulocollic reflexes, 240
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes, 143, 187
Vestibulospinal reflexes, 240, 241
Vestibulospinal tracts, 17, 240, 242,

252
Vigabatrin, 86, 439
Vision, 149–190

binocular, 151, 152, 178
color, 162, 172, 180, 181

Visual agnosia, 183
Visual attention, 412–414
Visual pathways, 155, 156, 157
Visual system, plasticity in, 374, 375
Visuospatial sketchpad, 397
Vitamin A (retinol), 165
Vitreous humor, 155
Voltage clamping, 42, 43
Voltage-dependent ion channels, see

also Calcium channels,
Potassium channels and
Sodium channels

molecular biology, 44–47
physiological roles, 40–43

Wake-on/REM-off cells, 342, 343
Wake-on/REM-on cells, 342, 343
Weaver mutant, 364
Wernicke’s area, 416
‘What’ visual stream, 182, 183
‘Where’ visual stream, 182, 183
White ramus, 13
Wide dynamic range neurons, 132
Wind-up, 134
Withdrawal syndrome, 326
Wnt-1 gene, 351
Working memory, 397

Zeitgebers, 334
Zinc, 434
Zonular fibers, 154

468 Index

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