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                            Above targets are based on the lower heating value of hydrogen; targets are for a complete system, including tank, material, valves, regulators, piping, mounting brackets, insulation, added cooling capacity, and/or other balance-of-plant components.
                        
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DOE Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems for Light-Duty Vehicles


Table 2 Technical Targets: Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systemsf

Storage Parameter Units 2010 2015 Ultimate
System Gravimetric Capacity:
Usable, specific-energy from H2
(net useful energy/max system
mass)a


kWh/kg

(kg H2/kg system)


1.5

(0.045)


1.8

(0.055)


2.5

(0.075)

System Volumetric Capacity:
Usable energy density from H2
(net useful energy/max system
volume)


kWh/L

(kg H2/L system)


0.9

(0.028)


1.3

(0.040)


2.3

(0.070)

Storage system cost b
(& fuel cost)c

$/kWh net
($/kg H2)

$/gge at pump

TBD
(TBD)

3-7

TBD
(TBD)

2-6

TBD
(TBD)

2-3
Durability/Operability

• Operating ambient temperature d
• Min/max delivery temperature
• Operational cycle life (1/4 tank to

full) e
• Min delivery pressure from storage

system; FC= fuel cell, ICE=
internal combustion engine

• Max delivery pressure from storage
systemf

• Onboard Efficiency
• “Well” to Powerplant Efficiency


ºC
ºC

Cycles




bar (abs)


bar (abs)


%
%


-30/50 (sun)

-40/85
1000





5FC/35 ICE


12




-40/60 (sun)

-40/85
1500





5FC/35 ICE


12


-40/60 (sun)

-40/85
1500





3FC/35 ICE


12


90%
60%

Charging/discharging Rates
• System fill time (for 5-kg H2)


• Minimum full flow rate
• Start time to full flow (20ºC) g
• Start time to full flow (-20ºC) g
• Transient response 10%-90%
and 90% -0%

h


min

(Kg H2/min)


(g/s)/kW
s
s

s


4.2 min

(1.2 kg/min)


0.02
5

15


0.75


3.3 min

(1.5 kg/min)


0.02
5
15


0.75


2.5 min

(2.0 kg/min)


0.02
5
15


0.75
Fuel Purity (H2 from storage)

i % H2 SAE J2719 and ISO/PDTS 14687-2
(99.97% dry basis)

Environmental Health & Safety
• Permeation & leakage j
• Toxicity
• Safety
• Loss of useable H2

k




Scc/h
-
-


(g/h)/kg H2 stored


Meets or exceeds applicable

standards

0.1 0.05 0.05
Useful constants: 0.2778kWh/MJ; 33.3kWh/kg H2; 1 kg H2 ≈ 1 gal gasoline equivalent.

Note: Above targets are based on the lower heating value of hydrogen; targets are for a complete
system, including tank, material, valves, regulators, piping, mounting brackets, insulation, added
cooling capacity, and/or other balance-of-plant components. All capacities are defined as useable
capacities that could be delivered to the powerplant (e.g. fuel cell or internal combustion engine).
All targets must be met at the end of service life (approximately 1500 cycles or 5000 operation
hours, equivalent of 150,000 miles). Unless otherwise indicated, all targets are for both hydrogen
internal combustion engine and for hydrogen fuel cell use, based on the low likelihood of power-
plant specific fuel being commercially viable. Commercial systems must meet manufacturing
specifications for cycle life variation; see note [e] to cycle life below.

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90%
60%

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90%
60%

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