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Titlesystemic transformation to 21st century teaching and learning
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Page 1

UBIQUITOUS COMPUTNG: SYSTEMIC TRANSFORMATION TO

21ST CENTURY TEACHING AND LEARNING

by

Leah M. Christman

A dissertation proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of

the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Education

Field of Educational Leadership and Management

DREXEL UNIVERSITY

May 2014











Drexel University

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ii







































Copyright by

Leah M. Christman 2014

All Rights Reserved

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Chapter 4: Findings and Results


Introduction


The purpose of this research was to explore the value of ubiquitous computing in the

systemic transformation of a high school to embrace 21st century teaching and learning. That

transformation represents a shift from teacher-centered, textbook-driven, memorization and

passive student learning, to classrooms where students apply content knowledge in problem-

based activities, demonstrating what they know and can do to solve real world challenges.

Students engaged in 21st century learning are active learners, while the teacher role transforms to

one of facilitator, mentor, and guide. Technology serves as a powerful teaching and learning tool

in the 21st century classroom, with the potential to provide classroom activities that would be

impossible without these tools. The focus of this study was to determine the value of ubiquitous

computing toward such transformation.

Using mixed methods, the researcher analyzed historical student and teacher

questionnaire data from a suburban high school in eastern Pennsylvania and then conducted face-

to-face personal interviews with faculty members. The interviews included questions that were

raised by the quantitative data analysis in an attempt to explain the results with greater depth.

Historical data collected from three semesters of classroom walkthrough observations was also

analyzed to triangulate the questionnaire and interview data.

The high school studied implemented a systems-approach to creating a ubiquitous

computing environment. Recommendations were used from key findings leading to success from

Project RED, “a large scale national study that demonstrated that schools employing a 1:1

student-computer ratio and key implementation factors outperformed other schools, and revealed

significant opportunities for improving education return on investment (ROI) by transforming

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teaching and learning” (http://www.projectred.org/about/research-overview.html). The school

had been working to prepare for the creation of the ubiquitous computing environment for

several years. All teachers were provided a laptop computer beginning with the 2007-2008

school year. Between 2008 and 2011, all classrooms were converted to “smart” classrooms,

equipped with an interactive whiteboard, LCD projector, and a cart with 30 laptops that was

shared between a few classrooms. Since 2008, a vast number of professional development

opportunities were provided to all teachers on the basics of hardware, software, classroom

strategies for project-based learning, 21st century skills, the best practices to implement

technology, and classroom management when using technology. A robust wireless infrastructure

was installed with continuous upgrades including wireless access points in every classroom and

common areas throughout the school building. Technology support was made available through

an electronic help desk, technicians available within the building, and a full-time teacher

technology coach available to mentor teachers on technology integration. Both outside

consultants and internal experts had been utilized for additional supports. The administrative

team and school board of directors modeled technology use, set expectations for classroom use,

created policies and procedures related to technology, and communicated the importance of this

21st-century tool for teaching and learning today’s digital students.

In the spring of 2012, the school board of directors approved a plan to provide every

student with their own laptop computer for learning. These laptops were distributed for student

in-school use in October 2012, with the option to take the computers home by December for

continued access and learning.

From 2008 to 2014, total district technology expenditures decreased by 27% (see Figure

4.1). At the same time, infrastructure, hardware, software, professional development and support

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d 0 1.75 21.05 77.19 1.85 3.7 12.96 81.48
e 5.26 8.77 33.33 52.63 3.7 14.81 24.07 57.41

18a 35.09 36.84 19.3 8.77 29.63 42.59 25.93 1.85
b 8.77 26.32 15.79 49.12 3.7 25.93 25.93 44.44
c 12.28 54.39 17.54 15.79 9.26 35.19 37.04 18.52
d 12.28 42.11 15.79 29.82 5.56 38.89 27.78 27.78

19a 42.11 10.53 14.04 33.33 37.04 16.67 12.96 33.33
b 19.3 31.58 26.32 22.81 24.07 24.07 20.37 31.48

20a 91.23 3.51 0 5.26 83.33 9.26 1.85 5.56
b 3.51 19.3 24.56 52.63 3.7 14.81 33.33 48.15
c 24.56 8.77 10.53 56.14 27.78 18.52 3.7 50

21a 7.02 5.26 12.28 19.3 56.14 7.41 3.7 16.67 22.22 50
b 5.26 10.53 22.81 35.09 26.32 12.96 11.11 16.67 33.33 25.93
c 0 7.02 8.77 26.32 57.89 1.85 1.85 7.41 31.48 57.41
d 0 5.26 17.54 35.09 42.11 1.85 5.56 9.26 37.04 46.3
e 1.75 1.75 14.04 17.54 64.91 0 7.41 9.26 27.78 55.56

22 24.56 75.44 18.52 81.48
23a 17.54 29.82 26.32 19.3 7.02 20.37 25.93 31.48 14.81 7.41
b 19.3 38.6 28.07 10.53 3.51 20.37 37.04 29.63 9.26 3.7
c 14.04 24.56 36.84 17.54 7.02 12.96 18.52 51.85 16.67 0
d 14.04 33.33 36.84 10.53 5.26 14.81 29.63 40.74 14.81 0

24 0 42.11 36.84 17.54 3.51 0 44.44 40.74 12.96 1.85
25a 36.84 49.12 12.28 0 1.75 0 61.11 29.63 9.26 0 0 0
b 61.4 36.84 1.75 0 0 0 72.22 24.07 3.7 0 0 0
c 47.37 36.84 12.28 1.75 1.75 0 53.7 25.93 14.81 3.7 1.85 0
d 31.58 43.86 22.81 1.75 0 0 46.3 37.04 16.67 0 0 0
e 40.35 43.86 14.04 1.75 0 0 48.15 31.48 16.67 3.7 0 0
f 21.05 35.09 26.32 10.53 5.26 1.75 33.33 35.19 27.78 1.85 1.85 0
g 33.33 47.37 17.54 1.75 0 0 44.44 35.19 16.67 1.85 1.85 0

26a 24.56 45.61 19.3 8.77 0 0 1.75 25.93 48.15 18.52 7.41 0 0 0
b 15.79 56.14 19.3 8.77 0 0 0 20.37 53.7 24.07 1.85 0 0 0
c 3.51 35.09 22.81 21.05 8.77 1.75 7.02 11.11 35.19 20.37 22.22 0 1.85 9.26
d 7.02 29.82 22.81 24.56 10.53 0 5.26 9.26 31.48 24.07 20.37 9.26 0 5.56

27a 47.37 47.37 3.51 1.75 0 42.59 55.56 0 1.85 0
b 15.79 43.86 35.09 3.51 1.75 25.93 61.11 0 11.11 1.85
c 75.44 24.56 0 0 0 77.78 22.22 0 0 0
d 47.37 45.61 5.26 1.75 0 40.74 59.26 0 0 0
e 49.12 33.33 12.28 5.26 0 35.19 61.11 0 1.85 1.85

28a 17.54 36.84 31.58 14.04 0 18.52 38.89 25.93 14.81 1.85
b 22.81 47.37 17.54 8.77 3.51 42.59 35.19 9.26 12.96 0
c 17.54 54.39 15.79 8.77 3.51 44.44 31.48 14.81 9.26 0

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d 14.04 15.79 10.53 22.81 36.84 11.11 20.37 18.52 12.96 37.04
29a 8.77 29.82 26.32 35.09 0 1.85 11.11 33.33 40.74 12.96
b 12.28 8.77 14.04 26.32 38.6 3.7 7.41 12.96 27.78 48.15
c 7.02 5.26 7.02 36.84 43.86 11.11 5.56 11.11 29.63 42.59

30a 8.77 31.58 47.37 10.53 1.75 0 11.11 29.63 42.59 3.7 5.56 7.41
b 10.53 19.3 28.07 5.26 0 36.84 9.26 14.81 25.93 5.56 0 44.44
c 12.28 10.53 31.58 7.02 1.75 36.84 7.41 16.67 27.78 1.85 5.56 40.74

31a 14.04 20.37
b 29.82 29.63
c 77.19 79.63
d 40.35 25.93
e 68.42 64.81
f 31.58 27.78
g 68.42 61.11

32 73.68 26.32 87.04 12.96

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