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TitleSustainability Science and Engineering, Volume 1: Defining Principles
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Table of Contents
Preface for series
List of contributors.pdf
Subject index.pdf
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Page 1

Sustainability in Science and Engineering:
Defining Principles

Vol. 1 by Martin A. Abraham (Editor)

· ISBN: 044451712X

· Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books

· Pub. Date: January 2006

Page 2

Preface for Series

In the grand scheme of history the twentieth century will probably be
remembered as the age of unbridled consumption of the planet's natural
resources and devastating pollution of the environment. Attention was first
drawn to the negative side effects of industrial and economic growth on our
natural environment in the 1960s and 1970s with the publication of books such
as Silent Spring by Rachel Carson and The Closing Circle by Barry Commoner.
Nonetheless, it took three decades for the environmental movement to gather
sufficient momentum to have a serious industrial and societal impact. In the
final decade of the century a new paradigm began to emerge, based on the
concepts of Green Chemistry and Sustainable Development. In hindsight, a
turning point was the pubHcation, in 1987, of the report Our Common Future by
the World Commission on Environment and Development. It was recognized in
this report that industrial and societal development must be sustainable over
time. Sustainable development was defined as 'development that meets the
needs of the present without compromising the abihty of future generations to
meet their own needs'. A decade later this concept was endorsed and further
elaborated in the report. Our Common Journey by the Board on Sustainable
Development of the US National Research Council.

'Sustainable Development' has subsequently become a catch phrase of the
new millennium and many corporations are keen to show that their operations
are 'sustainable'. Indeed, one could say that it is industry's answer to the
environmental challenge.

Thomas Graedel has defined the two central tenets of sustainabiUty as: (i)
using natural resources at rates that do not unacceptably deplete supphes over
the long term and (ii) generating and dissipating residues at rates no higher than
can be assimilated readily by the natural environment. The core concept is the
analogy between processes in the biosphere and in the technosphere. In the
words of Barry Commoner, "in nature no organic substance is synthesized
unless there is provision for its degradation; recycling is enforced".

For example, the use of fossil resources—oil coal and natural gas—as sources
of energy and chemical feedstocks is clearly unsustainable even over a relatively
short time span of the next 50 years. In the coming decades it needs to be
supplanted by the use of agriculture-based renewable raw materials. A switch to

Page 256

Be Creative










(as a resource


r 1





Fig. 4. Generation and reuse of waste: A general approach.

chemical processes; however, its treatment is typically an expensive, end-of-pipe
process. Motivating industries to clean their effluents through the establishment
and practice of stringent environmental norms by the government and regu-
latory agencies is not always successful. A more attractive way of motivating
industries to clean up their waste, especially in developing countries, is to make
waste reduction a revenue generating activity.

This strategy of generating revenue is termed value addition to the waste and
has been investigated on a bench scale for two large waste streams: gypsum and
ferrouso-ferric oxide. Gypsum is a waste generated in large quantity in the
manufacture of phosphoric acid, in the neutralization of spent sulfuric acid, and
in the manufacture of H-acid (l-amino-8-hydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulfonic
acid). These wastes are often disposed in landfills.

This case study describes high temperature processing of these two waste
streams in the production of calcium ferrate and recovery of sulfur dioxide gas.
It has been possible to achieve more than 90% recovery of sulfur dioxide in the
laboratory. The other product, calcium ferrite, is used as a raw material
in cement industry, pig iron refining etc. making this novel recovery process

Page 257

254 KM. Cothron

economically attractive and large-scale production would be a significant
breakthrough in green engineering.

4.2. Generation of waste gypsum

Gypsum is a waste generated in large quantity in the manufacture of phosphoric
acid, in the neutralization of spent sulfuric acid, and in the manufacture of many
organic intermediates including the manufacture of H-acid. The main source of
waste gypsum is the phosphoric acid plant. In the phosphoric acid plant, sulfur is
converted to concentrated sulfuric acid and is used for digesting phosphate rock
producing phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum (CaS04). In India, 4500-5000 kg
of phosphogypsum are generated per ton of phosphoric acid. Roughly 30% of
the imported sulfur that is used in the process ends up as waste phosphogypsum
that is disposed in landfills. Waste gypsum produced by organic industries, as in
the manufacture of H-acid, comes under the hazardous waste requirements due
to the association with low levels of organic chemicals. Phosphogypsum is an
unavoidable waste in phosphoric acid manufacture. In such a case, generation of
neghgible or zero waste is possible only by altering the process chemistry.

4.3. Generation of iron oxide sludge

Ferrouso-ferric oxide, Fe304, is generated as a soUd waste in the reduction of
organic nitro-group to produce amine-containing organic intermediates by the
Bechamp reduction process. It is also a waste formed in the partial reduction of
hematite in the iron and steel industry. In the manufacture of H-acid (1-amino-
8-hydroxynaphthalene-3, 6-disulfonic acid), an organic intermediate useful for
dyes, both gypsum and ferrouso-ferric oxide are generated. The raw materials
requirement for the production of 1 ton of H-acid is given in Table 2. This
process generates approximately 9000 kg of gypsum sludge (55-60% soUds) and
2500-3000 kg of iron sludge (60-65% solids) per 1000 kg of H-acid produced.
Both wastes are typically disposed in landfills.

4.4. Value addition to solid wastes - gypsum and iron oxide

The solid wastes gypsum and iron oxide can be reacted at elevated temperatures
for the production of calcium ferrite and recovery of sulfur dioxide gas ac-
cording to the following equation:

6CaS04 + 2Fe304 -^ 3CaOFe203 + 6SO2 + 3CaO + (5/2)02

The soHd product calcium ferrite and the SO2 gas are useful commodities.
In the process, stoichiometric proportions of these soHd wastes in the form

of dry powder were thoroughly mixed and shaped into cyhndrical pellets using

Page 512

Subject Index

Atom economy 168, 201, 212

Benign chemicals 15, 169, 173, 333
Benign solvents 203, 340, 358
Biocomplexity 117-118
Biofuels 179, 183, 185, 194
Biomass 170, 177-180
Biomimetic processing 354-355
Biorefinery 183-186, 189-191, 193-194
Biorefinery, sugar platform 189-191
Biorefinery, thermochemical platform 192-193
Brundtland Commission 4, 11, 268, 388, 412

Catalyst development 338
Chemicals management 162
CO2 utilization 308
Collaborative planning 225
Complexity 23
Continuous improvement 98
Cradle to Cradle Design 275

Durability 24-25

Eco-design 468
Eco-efficiency 506-507
Ecological footprint 412
Ecosystems 113-115
Efficiency 19-20, 412, 416, 418, 421
Emissions inventory 489
Energy use 65-66
Environmental management systems 5, 233, 452
Environmentally conscious products 471
Environmentally preferable purchasing 280

Green building 260, 279-280, 416
Green Chemistry 5, 81, 167-168
Green Chemistry, Education 81
Green engineering 4-5, 12, 33-35, 37, 42-43, 49, 293
Green engineering, design 28, 66, 304
Green engineering, driving force 34, 35, 38^5
Green engineering, financial considerations 35, 37

Green engineering, legal considerations 35
Green engineering principles 7, 47, 91, 345, 357,

435-436, 442
Green engineering text 65, 70, 72-73
Green Technology Guide 369-370

Hazard 14-15, 354
Hybrid electric vehicle 438^40

Impact assessment 480
Indicators 372-373, 491
Informal systems thinking 100, 103
Innovation 471
Integrated Project Definition Model 397
ISO 14000 5, 456-457

Life cycle analysis 4, 180, 344, 424
Life cycle energy cost 128, 143-145, 147, 149,

231, 399
Life cycle energy analysis 128, 141, 142, 155
Life cycle of the facihty 388, 391, 393-395

Materials use 60
Morahty 35
Multi-stakeholder collaboration 225-226

Phytoremediation 428^29
Pollution prevention 3, 51-53, 71-72, 331-332, 474
Process intensification 206, 342, 344

Recycle 23, 27
Remanufacturing 486-488
Renewable resources 24, 178, 303, 332, 346,

Risk assessment 48, 55, 61, 74-75, 77, 80, 82, 303,

344-345, 351, 398
Risk 14

Safer chemicals 161, 163, 165, 167, 174
Safety 15, 25, 49, 68, 77, 79, 145, 154, 193, 203, 206,

245-248, 268, 276, 279, 297, 300, 315-316,

Page 513

518 Subject Index

367-369, 372, 374-376, 382-384, 394, 400,
403, 429, 436, 438, 444, 453, 468, 469, 473, 509

Sandestin principle 177, 268
Seperation processes 18, 56, 61, 69, 70, 318
Small and medium sized enterprises 443, 448
Social capital 226-228
Stakeholder engagement 223, 269-272, 274, 281-282
Stakeholder theory 270
Supply chain 277-278
Sustainability 5-6
SustainabiHty indicators 152
Sustainable design 6, 8, 12, 23, 42, 202, 243, 392, 394,

406, 408, 467^77, 479^83, 485, 490, 493,
496, 502, 508, 509

Sustainable development 4, 322
Sustainable engineering 6

Sustainable engineering principles 8
Sustainable facilities 388
System boundaries 104, 106, 129-131
Systems analysis 93, 104-105

Technical planning 224, 241
Triple bottom Hne 5-6, 10, 445^47

Urban ecosystem 414, 428
Urban population 413, 422, 425^26

Waste 313-319
Waste minimization 311, 319-320, 324
Waste recovery 218
Waste stream analysis 323-325

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