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                            Brigham Young University
BYU ScholarsArchive
	2014-03-21
Study Abroad as a Transformative Experience: Measuring Transformative Learning Phases and Outcomes
	Garrett Anderson Stone
		BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Introduction
Literature Review
	Transformative Learning Theory
	Transformative Learning Processes at Work in Study Abroad
		Blocks to transformation.
		Factors promoting transformation.
	Study Abroad Outcomes
	Study Abroad Outcomes and Transformative Learning Activities
Methods
	Sample
	Data Collection Procedures
	Instrumentation
		Learning Activities
		Travel Efficacy
		Cultural Awareness
		Intentions
		Demographics
	Analysis
Results
	Hypothesis 1
	Hypothesis 2
	Hypothesis 3
Discussion
	Perspective Transformation
	Phases of Transformation
	Outcomes
		Prior Travel experience.
		Motivation.
	Limitations
	Recommendations
References
Tables
Appendix A: Prospectus
	Introduction
		Statement of Problem
		Purpose of the Study
		Significance of the Study
		Hypotheses
		Delimitations
		Limitations
		Definition of terms
	Literature Review
		Study Abroad
		Transformative Learning Theory
			Phases of transformation.
		Measuring Transformative Learning
		Contexts for Transformative Learning
		Transformation in the context of Study Abroad
			Blocks to transformation
			Factors promoting transformation
		Summary
	Methods
		Research Design
		Arrangements for Conducting the Study
		Selection of Subjects
		Procedures for Gathering Data
			Retrospective pretest
		Instrumentation
			Learning Activities Survey (LAS)
				Reliability and Validity
				Scoring
			Travel Efficacy
			Intercultural Competence
			Intention
				Controls
				Demographic
		Analysis
	References
	Appendix A-1: Consent
	Appendix A-2: Implied Consent
	Appendix A-3: Learning Activities Survey
	Appendix A-4: Additional Questionnaire
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Brigham Young University
BYU ScholarsArchive

All Theses and Dissertations

2014-03-21

Study Abroad as a Transformative Experience:
Measuring Transformative Learning Phases and
Outcomes
Garrett Anderson Stone
Brigham Young University - Provo

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BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
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(2014). All Theses and Dissertations. 4020.
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Page 2

Study Abroad as a Transformative Experience: Measuring Transformative Learning

Phases and Outcomes





Garrett Anderson Stone





A thesis submitted to the faculty of
Brigham Young University

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of


Master of Science





Brian J. Hill, Chair
Mat Duerden

Eva Witesman





Department of Recreation Management

Brigham Young University

March 2014





Copyright © 2014 Garrett Anderson Stone

All Rights Reserved

Page 52

46


















Appendix A: Prospectus


Study Abroad as a Transformative Experience: Measuring Transformative Learning

Phases and Outcomes

Page 53

47


Introduction

Through the last two decades institutions of higher education have progressively added

internationalization to their academic agendas (Altbach & Knight, 2007; Jones, Rowan-

Kenyon, Ireland, Niehaus, & Skendall, 2012). Internationalization refers to “any systematic,

sustained effort aimed at making higher education [more] responsive to the requirements and

challenges related to the globalization of societies, economies, and labor markets” (Van der

Wende, 1997, p. 53). According to Bamber and Hankin (2011), “[these] shifts [towards

internationalization] are said to be occurring in higher education pedagogy, where efforts are

being made to expand the social, cultural, and human capital of universities and their local

communities through experiential learning and active partnership” (p. 190). Purposive or

educative recreation programs such as study abroad have become a standard tool for achieving

the goal of internationalization via the learning experiences they provide (Altbach & Knight,

2007). Findings indicate study abroad participation correlates with meaningful learning

through exposure to novel geographies, cultures, and worldviews (Trilokekar & Kukar, 2011).

Although the motivation for internationalization in higher education is clear, colleges and

universities have made insufficient progress towards verifying that international program

objectives and outcomes are being met. The National Association for Foreign Student Advisers

(NAFSA) (2011) published the results of a public survey which reported “nearly three-fourths of

[the 1000] respondents surveyed believe that America’s higher education institutions must do a

better job of teaching students about the world if they are to be prepared to compete in the global

economy” (p. 2). Altbach and Knight (2007) buttress these findings, calling for improved

quality assurance measures in internationalization. These two studies reinforce a need to

reexamine the relationship between study abroad program activities and outcomes.

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97


Appendix A-4: Additional Questionnaire Items

Travel Efficacy:

I am confident in my ability to successfully travel out of my community 1 2 3 4 5
Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I am comfortable traveling to areas where the culture is different from
my own

1 2 3 4 5

Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I feel confident planning and preparing for travel 1 2 3 4 5
Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I plan to travel out of my community in the future 1 2 3 4 5
Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5



Intercultural Competence:

I value people of different social, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds 1 2 3 4 5
Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I feel comfortable working with people of other social, ethnic, and
cultural backgrounds

1 2 3 4 5

Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I am good at working with people of other social, ethnic and cultural
backgrounds

1 2 3 4 5

Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I understand ways of living of different communities 1 2 3 4 5
Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I can identify contrasts between social classes and understand the
challenges of inequality

1 2 3 4 5

Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

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98


Intentions to Engage in International Education and Employment:

I intend to participate in another study abroad, international internship, or
global travel experience

1 2 3 4 5

Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I intend to work internationally 1 2 3 4 5
Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I intend to work in a domestic organization that operates internationally 1 2 3 4 5
Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I intend to pursue additional language training 1 2 3 4 5
Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I intend to obtain the global management certificate 1 2 3 4 5
Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I intend to obtain the foreign language certificate offered by the
humanities department

1 2 3 4 5

Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

I intend to continue coursework in international business at Brigham
Young University.

1 2 3 4 5

Before participating in the study abroad how would you have
responded to this statement?

1 2 3 4 5

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