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TitleSTUDIES IN THE LIVES OF THE SONS OF CONSTANTINE by EDWARD GEORGE WILSON BA
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STUDIES IN THE LIVES OF

THE SONS OF CONSTANTINE

by

EDWARD GEORGE WILSON

B.A., University of V i c t o r i a , 1965

M.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF

THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

i n

THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES

(Department of Cla s s i c s )

We accept this thesis as conforming

to the required standard

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

A p r i l 1 9 7 7

Edward George Wilson, 1 9 7 7

Page 2

In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for

an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that

the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I

further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for

scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by

h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of

t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written

permission.

Department of C l a s s i c s

The University of B r i t i s h Columbia
2075 Wesbrook Place
Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia
Dominion of Canada
V6T 1W5

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that Sapor's main purpose was not the r e s t o r a t i o n of A s i a Minor to

Persian r u l e but rather the replenishment of h i s own treasury.

Constantius II did not always lead h i s troops to the front. The

r e p e t i t i o u s nature of the Persian wars, combined with the v a r i e t y of

t h e i r i n t e n s i t y and the occasional presence of Constantius I I , led to

considerable confusion i n the sources regarding eastern a f f a i r s from

340 to 350.

In 340 Constantius II played a rather a c t i v e r o l e , f or he did

advance at l e a s t as far as Edessa before returning to Antioch to spend
4

the winter. The concentration of the armed forces along the f r o n t i e r

a f f l i c t e d some of the p r o v i n c i a l s almost as much as the Persian r a i d s

did, for Constantius II f e l t compelled to threaten h i s own o f f i c i a l s and

s o l d i e r s with punishment i f they did not cease to demand supplies from

l o c a l magistrates and hosts who were unwilling.~*

A f t e r a winter spent at Antioch,^ Constantius II endured

another summer of Persian harassment. 7 Upon his return to Antioch in

the autumn of 341, Constantius II attended an eastern synod there that

had been summoned p a r t l y on account of the dedication of the church and
g

p a r t l y to strengthen the p o s i t i o n of the A r i a n f a c t i o n . This synod was

noteworthy l a r g e l y because i t marked the l a s t great e f f o r t of Eusebius,

formerly bishop of Nicomedia and now bishop of Constantinople, to

secure the domination of h i s f a c t i o n . Either very l a t e i n 341 or early

i n 342 Eusebius died and s t r i f e broke out at Constantinople between the

two f a c t i o n s , one supporting the Orthodox candidate Paul and the other
9

the Arian sympathizer Macedonius. In the r i o t s that followed, the

proconsul of that c i t y , Alexander, was wounded and forced to f l e e to

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Perinthus. Constantius I I , whether by accident on account of pressure

on the eastern front or on purpose through fear of offending h i s

brother, had been i n the habit of leaving the eastern c a p i t a l to i t s own

devices but now he was forced to intervene. He sent Hermogenes, h i s

magister equitum whom he was dispatching to Thrace i n any event, to

Constantinople i n order to restore order there. So great was the

violence that the partisans of Paul, assuming that Hermogenes would

favour the Ari a n candidate, set the commander's house on f i r e and,

dragging him f o r t h , k i l l e d him. Constantius II resolved to punish the

c i t i z e n s of Constantinople f or t h e i r insubordination and set out from

Antioch i n the middle of winter. A r r i v i n g there, he ex i l e d Paul to

Emesa where he would be able to keep a close watch on him. Yet,

r e a l i z i n g that Macedonius was p a r t l y g u i l t y of the murder of Hermogenes,

he could not accept him as the new bishop and instead refused to give

his approval to any candidate. However, i n the absence of Paul, h i s

chief r i v a l , Macedonius became de facto bishop of Constantinople. The

c i t y i t s e l f was punished for i t s insubordination by the reduction of i t s

free allowance of wheat to one-half the amount i n s t i t u t e d by Constantine

I. Having s a t i s f i e d himself that the c i t y was secure, Constantius II

hastened back to A n t i o c h . T h e r e can be no uncertainty regarding

Constantius II's influence i n Constantinople, for there was no further

u p r i s i n g against h i s authority and he did not return there u n t i l 346.

The l i t t l e evidence we have indicates that Constantius II spent

the rest of the year 342 i n the v i c i n i t y of Antioch and that once again
12

he was harassed by Persian incursions. It was doubtless these

incursions and the heavy expense that they entailed that gave r i s e to

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