File Size17.6 MB
Total Pages357
Document Text Contents
Page 1





B.A., University of V i c t o r i a , 1965

M.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968




i n


(Department of Cla s s i c s )

We accept this thesis as conforming

to the required standard


A p r i l 1 9 7 7

Edward George Wilson, 1 9 7 7

Page 2

In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for

an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that

the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I

further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for

scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by

h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of

t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written


Department of C l a s s i c s

The University of B r i t i s h Columbia
2075 Wesbrook Place
Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia
Dominion of Canada
V6T 1W5

Page 178


that Sapor's main purpose was not the r e s t o r a t i o n of A s i a Minor to

Persian r u l e but rather the replenishment of h i s own treasury.

Constantius II did not always lead h i s troops to the front. The

r e p e t i t i o u s nature of the Persian wars, combined with the v a r i e t y of

t h e i r i n t e n s i t y and the occasional presence of Constantius I I , led to

considerable confusion i n the sources regarding eastern a f f a i r s from

340 to 350.

In 340 Constantius II played a rather a c t i v e r o l e , f or he did

advance at l e a s t as far as Edessa before returning to Antioch to spend

the winter. The concentration of the armed forces along the f r o n t i e r

a f f l i c t e d some of the p r o v i n c i a l s almost as much as the Persian r a i d s

did, for Constantius II f e l t compelled to threaten h i s own o f f i c i a l s and

s o l d i e r s with punishment i f they did not cease to demand supplies from

l o c a l magistrates and hosts who were unwilling.~*

A f t e r a winter spent at Antioch,^ Constantius II endured

another summer of Persian harassment. 7 Upon his return to Antioch in

the autumn of 341, Constantius II attended an eastern synod there that

had been summoned p a r t l y on account of the dedication of the church and

p a r t l y to strengthen the p o s i t i o n of the A r i a n f a c t i o n . This synod was

noteworthy l a r g e l y because i t marked the l a s t great e f f o r t of Eusebius,

formerly bishop of Nicomedia and now bishop of Constantinople, to

secure the domination of h i s f a c t i o n . Either very l a t e i n 341 or early

i n 342 Eusebius died and s t r i f e broke out at Constantinople between the

two f a c t i o n s , one supporting the Orthodox candidate Paul and the other

the Arian sympathizer Macedonius. In the r i o t s that followed, the

proconsul of that c i t y , Alexander, was wounded and forced to f l e e to

Page 179


Perinthus. Constantius I I , whether by accident on account of pressure

on the eastern front or on purpose through fear of offending h i s

brother, had been i n the habit of leaving the eastern c a p i t a l to i t s own

devices but now he was forced to intervene. He sent Hermogenes, h i s

magister equitum whom he was dispatching to Thrace i n any event, to

Constantinople i n order to restore order there. So great was the

violence that the partisans of Paul, assuming that Hermogenes would

favour the Ari a n candidate, set the commander's house on f i r e and,

dragging him f o r t h , k i l l e d him. Constantius II resolved to punish the

c i t i z e n s of Constantinople f or t h e i r insubordination and set out from

Antioch i n the middle of winter. A r r i v i n g there, he ex i l e d Paul to

Emesa where he would be able to keep a close watch on him. Yet,

r e a l i z i n g that Macedonius was p a r t l y g u i l t y of the murder of Hermogenes,

he could not accept him as the new bishop and instead refused to give

his approval to any candidate. However, i n the absence of Paul, h i s

chief r i v a l , Macedonius became de facto bishop of Constantinople. The

c i t y i t s e l f was punished for i t s insubordination by the reduction of i t s

free allowance of wheat to one-half the amount i n s t i t u t e d by Constantine

I. Having s a t i s f i e d himself that the c i t y was secure, Constantius II

hastened back to A n t i o c h . T h e r e can be no uncertainty regarding

Constantius II's influence i n Constantinople, for there was no further

u p r i s i n g against h i s authority and he did not return there u n t i l 346.

The l i t t l e evidence we have indicates that Constantius II spent

the rest of the year 342 i n the v i c i n i t y of Antioch and that once again

he was harassed by Persian incursions. It was doubtless these

incursions and the heavy expense that they entailed that gave r i s e to

Page 356


P i g a n i o l , A. L 'empire chr&tien (325-395). Paris 1947.

Pi g a n i o l , A. "Notes epigraphiques," REA 31 (1929) 139-150.

Poinssot, L. "Une i n s c r i p t i o n de Musti, contemporaine de Magnence,"
CRAI (1933) 21-24.

Poinssot, L. and R. Lantier. "Quatre prefets du p r e t o i r e contemporains
de Constantin," CRAI (1924) 229-233.

Ridley, R. T. "The Fourth and F i f t h Century C i v i l and M i l i t a r y
Hierarchy i n Zosimus," Byzantion 40 (1970) 91-104.

Rolland, H. "Deux dates de chronologie arl£sienne," Latomus 13 (1954)

Sasel, J . "The Struggle between Magnentius and Constantius II for I t a l y
and I l l y r i c u m , " ZAnt 21 (1971) 205-216.

Schwartz, J. "T r o u v a i l l e s monetaires et invasions germaniques sous
Magnence et Decence. Examen de tresors de Strasbourg ( E g l i s e -
Saint-fitienne), de V i l l i n g (Moselle) et de Mackwiller (Bas-Rhin),"
CAAH 1 (1957) 33-49.

Seeck, 0. Gesehiahte des Untergangs der antiken Welt. 6 v o l s . B e r l i n
and Stuttgart 1897-1922.

Seeck, 0. "Neue und a l t e Daten zur Geschichte D i o c l e t i a n s und
Constantins," RhM 62 (1907) 489-535.

Seeck, 0. Regesten der Kaiser und P'dpste fur die Jahre 311 bis 476 n.
Chr. Stuttgart 1919.

Seston, W. "Recherches sur l a chronologie du regne de Constantin l e
Grand," REA 39 (1937) 197-218.

Sinnigen, W. G. "Three Administrative Changes Ascribed to Constantius
I I , " AJP 83 (1962) 369-382.

Spigno, C. d i . "Appunti per una l e t t u r a del l i b r o XIV d i Ammiano
Marcellino," Orpheus 7 (1960) 133-151.

Stein, E. and J.-R. Palanque. Histoire du bas-empire I: De Z'etat
romain h I'etat byzantin (284-476). Paris 1959.

Stern, H. Le Calendrier de 354: Etude sur son texte et ses
illustrations. Paris 1953.

Sutherland, C. H. V. "Carausius I I , Censeris, and the Barbarous F e l .
Temp. Reparatio Overstrikes," NC 5 (1945) 125-133.

Page 357

Swift, L. J. and J. H. O l i v e r . "Constantius II on Flavius P h i l i p p u s , "
AJP 83 (1962) 247-264.

Sydenham, E. A. "An Unpublished Double-Siliqua of Constantine Junior,"
NC 6 (1926) 472-475.

T h i r i o n , M. "Les vota imperiaux sur l e s monnaies entre 337 et 364,"
SNR 44 (1965) 5-21.

Thompson, E. A. "Ammianus' Account of Gallus Caesar," AJP 64 (1943)

Thompson, E. A. "Constantine, Constantius I I , and the Lower Danube
F r o n t i e r , " Hermes 84 (1956) 372-381.

Thompson, E. A. The Historical Work of Ammianus Marcellinus.
Cambridge 1947.

Tourneur, V. "Magnence et l ' a t e l i e r monetaire d'Amiens," RBN 77 (1925)

Vogt, J . Constantin der Grosse und sein Jahrhundert. Munich 1960.

Vogt, J . The Decline of Rome. Trans. J. Sondheimer. London 1967.

Vogt, J . "Pagans and Christians i n the Family of Constantine the Great,"
The Conflict between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth
Century 38-55, ed. A. Momigliano. Oxford 1963.

Woloch, M. "Indications of Imperial Status on Roman Coins, A.D. 337-
383," NC 6 (1966) 171-178.

Similer Documents