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TitleStrengthening Protections Against Trafficking in Persons in Federal and Corporate Supply Chain
LanguageEnglish
File Size9.0 MB
Total Pages353
Table of Contents
                            I. Introduction and Project Background
II. Risk Factors for Human Trafficking in Global Supply Chains
	A. Sector-Specific Risk Factors
		1. Risks Deriving from the Characteristics of the Product or Industry
		2. Risks Related to Business Processes Involved in Production and/or Supply of the Product
		3. Risks Related to the Characteristics of the Workforce Involved
	B. Risk Factors Associated with Particular Supply Chains
		1. Risks Related to the Country of Production and/or Service Delivery
	a) Political Risk Factors in the Country of Production
	b) Socio-Economic Risk Factors in the Country of Production
	c) Policy-Related Risk Factors in the Country of Production
	d) Environmental Factors in the Country of Production
		2. Risks Related to the Country Supplying the Labor
	a) Political Factors in the Country Supplying the Labor
	b) Socio-Economic Factors in the Country Supplying the Labor
	c) Policy-Related Factors in the Country Supplying the Labor
	d) Environmental Factors in the Country Supplying the Labor
III. Methods/Process for Supply Chain Research
	A. Country Research
	B. Sector Research
	C. Federal Procurement Research
	D. Commodity Research
IV. Sectors with Significant Federal Procurement and Significant Risk of Human Trafficking
	Agriculture
	Construction
	Electronics and Electrical Products Manufacturing
	Extractives/Mining and Basic Metal Production
	Fishing and Aquaculture
	Forestry
	Healthcare
	Hospitality
	Housekeeping/Facilities Operation
	Textile and Apparel Manufacturing
	Transportation and Warehousing
Introduction
	Bamboo
		Where is bamboo reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in bamboo production affect me?
		///
		Bamboo is used in clothing, bedding, food, and building materials.22F  The United States and Europe are the biggest importers of bamboo. Much of the bamboo trade is done in an informal setting, making it difficult to get accurate trade data, but it is...
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Where can I learn more?
	Bananas
		Where are bananas reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?25F
		Child Labor on Ecuadorian Banana Plantations
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in banana production affect me?
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Where can I learn more?
	Beans (green, soy, yellow) and Pulses (legumes)
		Where are beans reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		According to the U.S. Department of Labor’s 2014 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, green beans are produced with child labor in Burma and Mexico, while forced labor is involved in the production of green, soy and yellow bean produ...
		According to limited reports, beans are also produced by young school children in the Sheikh Ali district of the Parwan province of Afghanistan.42F  The 2015 U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report lists Afghanistan as a Tier 2 country....
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in bean production look like?
		In Burma, up to ten million citizens, roughly one sixth of the population, are bean farmers,44F  and children may work on their parents’ farms. A report from 2002 suggests that prisoners in Burma were forced to perform agricultural and domestic labor,...
		In Mexico, indigenous migrants harvest green beans and other agricultural crops. Children may work alongside their parents, particularly when no schooling opportunities are available.46F
		Child workers in bean production are exposed to harsh weather conditions, long work days, and dangerous chemicals. Children are also at risk for injury: documented incidents include a child crushed by a tractor and a child losing an arm while cleaning...
		Bean Production and Supply Chain:
		Soy beans have many varieties and uses. The U.S. Department of Agriculture keeps a collection of over ten thousand types, including red, green, black, brown, speckled, streaked, large, and small.  Soy beans have a variety of uses from the direct eatin...
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in bean production affect me?
		////
		Every year, Americans consume about 7.5 pounds of beans per capita.52F  Most imported beans in the U.S. come from Mexico, Canada, and China.53F  Burma, known to produce beans using both forced labor and child labor, is the world’s largest exporter of ...
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		The Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma) (AAPPB) seeks to raise awareness, enforce labor laws, and reduce the prevalence of labor trafficking in Burmese prisons.55F  The Child Labor Coalition has also focused on Burma to raise global...
	Brass
		/
		Where is brass reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		According to the U.S. Department of Labor’s 2014 List of Goods Produced by Forced or Child Labor, brassware is produced using child labor in India.58F  The 2015 U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report lists India as a Tier 2 Country.59F
		Labor abuses have also been found in the composite minerals of brass: copper and zinc. See the Copper and Zinc commodity reports for more detail.
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in brass production look like?
		Brass Production and Supply Chain:
		Brass is a composite mixture of the transition metals copper and zinc with trace amounts of lead or silicon for durability. The ratio of each metal can be varied, resulting in the assorted forms of brass commodities. Sheets of preproduction brass know...
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in brass production affect me?
		///
		Typical items made of brass are jewelry, decorative pieces, cutlery, vases, dinnerware, fixtures, and other various household items.
		Where can I learn more?
	Bricks
		Where are bricks reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		According to the U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report, bricks are made with forced labor or forced child labor in Afghanistan, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, China, India, Malawi, Nepal, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, South Sudan, Uganda,...
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in brick production look like?
		Intervention in Hyderabad, India
		In 2013, 149 people, including 34 children, some as young as three, were rescued from a brick kiln outside Hyderabad, India. The workers were required to work for up to 22 hours a day and were physically assaulted when they requested rest. One of the ...
		Brick Production and Supply Chain:
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in brick production affect me?
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Where can I learn more?
	Cattle
		Where are cattle and beef products reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		Labor trafficking in cattle ranching varies from country to country. In Bolivia, the International Labor Organization (ILO), Verité, and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights have documented the existence of debt peonage on cattle ranches in t...
		Cattle Production and Supply Chain:
		/
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in cattle ranching affect me?
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Where can I learn more?
	Charcoal
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in charcoal production look like?
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in charcoal production affect me?
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		How can I learn more?
		Visit the website of the NGO Repórter Brasil (Portuguese).  Read an ILO case study on addressing labor trafficking in the charcoal sector.
	Citrus
		/
		Where are citrus fruits reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in citrus fruit production look like?
		Citrus Production and Supply Chain:
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in citrus fruit production affect me?
		Examples of what are governments, corporations, and others doing:
		Where can I learn more?
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
	Cocoa
/
	Where is cocoa reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
	According to the U.S. Department of State 2015 Trafficking in Persons Report, cocoa is listed as being produced with forced labor or forced child labor in Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire (CDI), Ghana, and Togo.147F
	What does trafficking and/or child labor in cocoa production look like?
	Case Study:
	Cocoa and Conflict in CDI
	Cocoa Production and Supply Chain:
	How do trafficking and/or child labor in cocoa production affect me?
	Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
	In 2015, the U.S. Department of Labor committed USD 12 million in funding to combat child labor in cocoa growing regions in west Africa.169F
	Cocoa and Fair Trade:
	Where can I learn more?
	Coffee
		Where is coffee reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		According to the 2015 U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report, coffee is produced with forced labor or forced child labor in Côte d’Ivoire, Malawi and Togo.172F
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in coffee production look like?
		Coffee Production and Supply Chain:
		The majority of coffee is grown by smallholder farms. Coffee production provides a livelihood for over 25 million people worldwide.180F
		Coffee plants bear fruit approximately three to four years after planting, and the fruit turns red when it is ready to be harvested. Harvesting the coffee bean is labor intensive. Beans are either “strip picked” or “selectively picked.” If beans are s...
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		/
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in coffee production affect me?
		Where can I learn more?
	Coltan, Tungsten & Tin
/
	What does trafficking and/or child labor in coltan, tungsten and tin production look like?
	Coltan, Tungsten and Tin Production and Supply Chain:
	According to the Electronics Industry Transparency Initiative, “10 million people, 16 percent of the Congolese population, are directly or indirectly dependent on small scale mining.”196F  Currently, mining associated with human trafficking and other ...
	How do trafficking and/or child labor in coltan, tungsten and tin production affect me?
	Examples of what governments, corporations and others are doing:
	Where can I learn more?
	Copper
		Examples of what governments, corporations and others are doing:
		After reports of extremely hazardous conditions in the Zambian copper sector, the Zambian government committed to improving conditions. In a 2013 follow-up, however, Human Rights Watch reported that progress was inconsistent. They noted that although ...
		China Non-Ferrous Metal Mining Corporation (CNMC), a state-owned enterprise under the authority of China’s highest executive body, the State Council. In follow-up research in October 2012, Human Rights Watch found that CNMC’s subsidiaries made some no...
	Corn
		Where is corn reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		According to the U.S. Department of Labor’s 2014 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, corn is reportedly produced using child labor in Guatemala, Bolivia, and the Philippines. Guatemala and the Philippines are listed by the U.S. Depa...
		In the U.S., children reportedly work detassling corn. This is not necessarily considered a hazardous task but in recent years, several hazardous incidents involving teens working to detassle corn have been documented. In 2010, two juveniles working i...
		What do trafficking and/or child labor in corn production look like?
		Corn Production and Supply Chain:
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in corn production affect me?
		////
		Where can I learn more?
		Read this report from Verité on indicators of human trafficking for forced labor in corn production in Bolivia
	Cotton
		Where is cotton reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		What do trafficking and/or child labor in cotton production look like?
		In the cottonseed industry in India, forced child labor is reportedly used in some regions for the cross-pollination of cottonseed plots. According to the India Committee of the Netherlands tribal children from South Rajasthan and North Gujarat are tr...
		Cotton Production and Supply Chain:
		The cotton industry is one of the largest agricultural industries, employing an estimated 300 million people.241F  Cotton harvesting is labor intensive, and in much of the world, cotton is grown by small-holder farmers.
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in cotton production affect me?
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Where can I learn more?
	Diamonds
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in diamond production look like?
		Case Study:
		The Kimberly Process: Protection against abuses in diamond production?
		Diamond Supply Chain and Production:
		Eight and a half billion rough diamonds, or 65 percent of the global trade, are from African countries, including those that have been cited for forced and/or child labor.261F
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in diamond production affect me?
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		How can I learn more?
	Fish
/
	Where are fish reportedly caught, harvested and processed with trafficking and/or child labor?
	What does trafficking and/or child labor in fishing look like?
	Rates of abuse are high on fishing vessels. Regardless of formal employment relationships, crews are generally overseen by a captain or boss. The captain or boss has a high financial stake in a profitable voyage, incentivizing abusive management pract...
	Labor Trafficking in the Philippines
	Forced Child Labor, Lake Volta, Ghana
	In Ghana, fishermen or labor brokers approach the parents of young children and arrange to take them for training in fishing boats in the Lake Volta region. At the end of the training period, which may last up to five years, they are promised a paymen...
	Human Trafficking in Thai Fishing Sector
	Fish Supply Chain:
	How do trafficking and/or child labor in fishing affect me?
	Where can I learn more?
	Flowers
		Where are flowers reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in flower production affect me?
		///
		Flower Production and Supply Chain:
		Where can I learn more?
		Watch this video on labor conditions on U.S. owned flower plantations
	Gold
/
	Where is gold reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
	According to the U.S. Department of State 2015 Trafficking in Persons Report, gold is reportedly produced with forced labor or forced child labor in Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic (CAR), Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), G...
	What does trafficking and/or child labor in gold production look like?
	How do trafficking and/or labor in gold production affect me?
	Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
	How can I learn more?
	Granite and Other Stone
/
	Where is stone reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
	What does trafficking and/or child labor in stone production look like?
	Stone Production and Supply Chain:
	How do trafficking and/or child labor in stone production affect me?
	How can I learn more?
	Read about child labor in stone quarries.
	Watch a video about children working in quarries in Sierra Leone.
	Gravel and Crushed Stone
	Jewels
		Where are jewels reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		Children involved in processing, cutting, and polishing gemstones are exposed to dangerous tools and machinery, eye strain and injury, repetitive motions, toxic chemicals and dust.394F
		Jewel Production and Supply Chain:
		Precious stones are extracted most commonly from mines in Southeast Asia and Africa. Brokers and intermediaries buy stones from miners and sell them to exporters who sell the stones again. The exporting process can obscure the source country of the st...
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in jewel production affect me?
		///
		Gems such as rubies and sapphires are used in fine jewelry, including engagement rings, and the demand has grown in recent years. Jade is a very durable gemstone that is used in jewelry, sculptures and other ornamental objects. These luxury items are ...
		Certification organizations, such as Fairmined, audit gem supply chains against ethical standards in order to guide consumers to ethical purchases. Fairmined is an assurance label that certifies gold from empowered responsible artisanal and small-scal...
		Where can I learn more?
		Explore an in-depth summary of US economic sanctions against Burma.
		Read about the World Vision Campaign for ethical jewelry.
	Leather
		Where can I learn more?
	Melons
		Where are melons reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		According to the U.S. Department of Labor’s 2014 List of Goods Produced by Forced Labor and Child Labor, melons are produced using child labor in Honduras, Mexico, and Panama.412F  Additionally, Human Rights Watch (HRW) has reported interviewed childr...
		The 2015 U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report lists Honduras, Panama and Mexico as Tier 2 countries. The United States is listed as a Tier 1 country.414F
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in melon production look like?
		In Honduras, there are 150,000 children under the age of 14 working, over 60 percent of who are employed in the agricultural industry. Indigenous children are particularly vulnerable to working in the fields, alongside their parents or independently. ...
		Case Study:
		Melon Production and Supply Chain:
		Melons require warm weather to grow, and therefore must be planted after the last frost of the year.  The planting of melons is labor intensive. The plants require loose soil and thus tilling is often recommended, which is a lengthy process and the us...
		Melons are generally sold as a fresh fruit and so the fruits must be packaged and sent away to processing and distribution facilities.
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in melon production affect me?
		///
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Coordination of Banana Unions in Honduras (COSIBAH), an agricultural trade union, advocates for fair treatment of agricultural workers in Honduras, including in the melon sector.
		Where can I learn more?
		Watch this HRW exposé on child labor in US agriculture, including but not limited to melon production.
	Nuts
		What do trafficking and/or child labor in nut production look like?
		Child Labor in Turkish Nut Gathering
		Brazil-nuts Production and Supply Chain:
		Peanut Production and Supply Chain:
		Today, peanuts are grown in subtropical and tropical regions all around the world. Peanuts are legumes, planted annually, that produce fruit under the ground. As a result, the harvesting process is labor intensive. Peanuts are often planted in early s...
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in nut production affect me?
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Where can I learn more?
		Read about socially-responsible peanuts from Bolivia.
	Palm Oil
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Pineapple Production and Supply Chain:
		The pineapple production process generally includes fertilizing and pesticide spraying in addition to the usual labor-intensive agricultural activities, such as land preparation, planting, and harvesting.  A large workforce is required to cultivate th...
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in pineapple production affect me?
		///
		As a commodity, the pineapple is predominantly traded as a fresh fruit, but the Food and Agriculture Organization also includes pineapple juice concentrate in the pineapple commodities trade statistics.501F  Pineapples make up about 20 percent of the ...
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Finnwatch raised awareness about the sourcing of food at Finnish food stores. They found that in a Thai pineapple juicing factory, workers were subjected to conditions that could be considered forced labor.  The group has influenced Finnish consumers ...
		Costa Rican environmental and labor groups created the National Front of Sectors Affected by the Pineapple Industry to combat human rights and health issues in the industry.  Subsequently, the International Labor Rights Forum released an extensive rep...
		Where can I learn more?
		Read this Labor Rights Forum report on the growth of the pineapple industry.
		Take a look at the Finnwatch report on suppliers for European groceries.
	Rice
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in rice production look like?
		Most forced and child labor in rice takes place at the harvesting stage. In the rice growing region in eastern Uganda, half of all children reportedly leave school to work on the rice harvest.508F  According to the U.S. Department of State, some Kenya...
		Rice Production and Supply Chain:
		The world’s largest producers of rice are China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand.512F  The United States is a net rice exporter, exporting “about half of its rice crop, mostly to Mexico, Central America, Northeast Asia, the Caribbean and the M...
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in rice production affect me?
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		In 2012, the International Justice Mission and the Indian government rescued 17 people from forced labor in a rice mill in Kancheepuram, India. The government of India is also partnering with the ILO on a project to reduce bonded labor in rice mills i...
	Rubber
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in rubber production affect me?
		////
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
	Salt
		/
		Where is salt reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		According to the U.S. Department of State 2015 Trafficking in Persons Report, there has been documented forced labor or forced child labor in salt production in Korea and Mali.533F
		The 2014 U.S. Department of Labor List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor notes that salt is mined with child labor in Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Niger.534F  There are anecdotal reports that children are involved in salt mining in India.5...
		The 2015 U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report lists Bangladesh, Niger and India as Tier 2 countries. Cambodia and Mali are listed as Tier 2 Watch List countries. Korea is a Tier 1 country.536F
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in salt production look like?
		Children who work in salt production face hazardous conditions. They are often subjected to long work days in small, cramped settings with little lighting. Constant exposure to salt can cause health problems for children and can cause skin and vision ...
		In Cambodia’s southern province of Kampot, children work long hours in the salt fields carrying heavy loads in hot weather. Children work in salt production to supplement their family incomes.538F  In Senegal, salt harvesting is a traditional family a...
		In Korea, there was a case in which disabled men were forced to work on salt farms where they were abused. In response, the government created special investigative teams to inspect over 800 salt farms as well as owners and brokers.540F
		Salt Production and Supply Chain:
		There are two main methods of producing salt: solar evaporation and mining. Solar evaporation, done in warm climates, captures salt water in shallow ponds after most of the water has evaporated. Workers harvest the salt by raking it into baskets and c...
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in salt production affect me?
		///
		Salt is one of the world’s most widely used condiments and seasonings. It is also commonly used in highway deicing, water conditioning, and various industrial chemicals.
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Cambodia’s National Plan of Action (NPA) on the Worst Forms of Child Labor in 2008 identified salt production in the country to be within the parameters of the worst forms of child labor, as outlined by the International Labour Organization (ILO). The...
		Where can I learn more?
	Shrimp
/
	What does trafficking and/or child labor in shrimp production look like?
	/
	How do trafficking and/or child labor in shrimp production affect me?
	Shrimp is the most consumed seafood in the United States.561F  America is the world’s largest consumer of shrimp, and over 80 percent is imported from countries including China, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Ecuador, India, and Bangladesh.562F  Thaila...
	Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
	The International Labor Organization’s International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) and the U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) are currently working to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in ...
	ILAB has also provided a number of grants to the ILO and other organizations in Thailand and other parts of South East Asia to fund projects to combat forced labor, including projects focused on the shrimp industry.  In addition, the U.S. State Depart...
	Concern centered on health and safety in global shrimp suppliers has driven demand for increased visibility in shrimp supply chains. Several groups have developed voluntary, third-party certification schemes for shrimp including the GlobalGAP Integrat...
	U.S. and U.K. retailers also created a task force and teamed up with Thai shrimp producers to address weaknesses in the shrimp supply chain management in several of Thailand’s biggest shrimp production and export companies. In addition to examining do...
	Where can I learn more?
	Silk
		Where is silk reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		According to the U.S. Department of Labor 2014 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, silk is produced using child labor in India. Media and other reports note that silk may be produced in Uzbekistan using child labor.565F
		The U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report lists India as a Tier 2 country. Uzbekistan is listed as a Tier 2 Watch List country.566F
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in silk production look like?
		In India, silk thread and fabric, particularly saris, may be produced using bonded child labor. Bonded child labor occurs when the labor of a child is pledged to an employer in exchange for a payment, or loan.567F  Once these children are bonded to em...
		Silk Production and Supply Chain:
		Cultivating silkworms is a long process, which takes place during the entire month of May. During this time, the silkworms must be painstakingly cared for and need to be fed every few hours or they may starve. The area in which they are held must also...
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in silk production affect me?
		////
		Raw silk is made into silk thread, which is then used to make silk fabric. Silk fabric is used in a variety of products including clothing, accessories, and many other commodities. Although silk currently represents only 0.2 percent by volume of globa...
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		In partnership with Karnataka state, the ILO has implemented the Self Help Group program, which trains the mothers of child laborers in the silk industry. The mothers are taught about saving and managing money, as well as how to avoid worst forms of c...
		Where can I learn more?
		Read an article by The Washington Times about child labor in Uzbekistan.
		See how an NGO has created self-help groups for child laborers in the silk industry.
	Silver
		/
		Where is silver reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		According to the U.S. Department of Labor 2014 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, silver is mined using child labor in Bolivia.577F  According to the Global March International Secretariat, child labor is used in silver production ...
		In Peru, the world’s second-largest silver producer, 20 to 50 percent of all mine workers are juveniles and children, sometimes as young as eleven.585F  Child miners in Peru are often unpaid. Instead, of being paid regularly, the children work for fre...
		Silver Production and Supply Chain:
		Most silver that is on the market does not come from silver mines, but as byproducts of industrial copper, zinc, and gold mining (See Gold, Zinc, and Copper Commodity Reports).  In 2005, 30 percent of silver on the market came directly from silver min...
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in silver production affect me?
		///
		Silver has a wide variety of applications including in coins, electrical switches and fuses, car defrosters, jewelry, tableware, musical instruments, mirrors, health industry, and in photography.588F
		In 2010, the United States imported USD 73.3 million in alloyed bars of silver from Bolivia. The United States also imported USD 75.6 million in alloyed and pure bars of silver from Peru in 2010. This accounts for more than four percent of the U.S.’s ...
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Where can I learn more?
		Take a look at this photo essay about children working in mines at Potosí, Bolivia.
		Watch this video of the Potosí silver mines.
	Steel
	Strawberries
		/
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in strawberry production look like?
		Strawberry Production and Supply Chain:
		After harvesting, strawberries are either frozen or shipped directly to companies, who further process the berries or deliver them as-is to retailers, restaurants, institutions, or other organizations. If the strawberries are processed, they are made ...
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in strawberry production affect me?
		///
		Strawberries are the fifth most consumed fresh fruit in the United States.630F  In 2012, the United States was one of the largest importers of fresh strawberries, importing 351.27 million pounds.631F
		Watch this video on child labor in strawberry fields in Washington (U.S.).
	Sugar
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in sugar production look like?
		Sugar Production in India: Forced Labor?
		Sugar Production and Supply Chain:
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in sugar production affect me?
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Where can I learn more?
	Sunflowers
		/
		Where are sunflowers reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		According to the U.S. Department of Labor List of Goods Produced by Forced Labor or Child Labor, sunflowers are produced using forced labor in Burma.646F  According to an Ethiopian newspaper, The Horn Times, forced labor has also been used in sunflowe...
		The U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report lists Burma as a Tier 2 Watch List country. Ethiopia is listed as a Tier 2 country.648F
		What does trafficking and/or labor in sunflower production look like?
		In Burma, laborers are often required to walk to the sunflower fields.  According to one report, some workers were required to walk two hours to work every day, leaving their homes at six in the morning in order to arrive at the fields by eight. Culti...
		One account tells of how laborers on a particular sunflower field worked from 8 am to 5 pm weeding and harvesting sunflowers. They were not given food and were watched by armed soldiers; one laborer described the soldiers’ treatment, saying, “If [they...
		Sunflower Production and Supply Chain:
		There are two major types of sunflowers. The first is the confection sunflowers, which are grown for the nutmeat, for human consumption or birdfeed, and are frequently sold in the shell to global markets. The second, oil sunflowers, are grown so that ...
		Sunflower cultivation is a labor-intensive activity; tilling, harrowing, and weed control are very important to achieve high-yielding crops. The use of herbicides is recommended to improve yields as well.651F Sunflowers have a deep tap root and can gr...
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in sunflower production affect me?
		///
		Sunflowers are used as decoration, cooking oil, food, and as bird and livestock feed.  According to FAOSTAT, Burma is a top twenty producer of sunflower seeds while the United States is a top twenty global importer.653F
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing
		EarthRights International has launched a campaign against trafficking in Burma that specifically targets sunflower production.654F
		Where can I learn more?
		Read this article about a boy in Tanzania who, with the help of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the ILO, started a worker-friendly sunflower plantation.
	Tea
		Where is tea reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?
		The U.S. Department of State 2015 Trafficking in Persons Report notes that forced labor or forced child labor is present in tea production in Bangladesh, Cameroon, and Malawi.655F
		According to the U.S. Department of Labor 2014 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, tea is produced using child labor in Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda.656F
		There is some evidence that workers on Indian tea plantations face indicators of forced labor.657F
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in tea production look like?
		A 2014 report from the Columbia Law School Human Rights Institute noted significant indicators of forced labor on Indian tea plantations such as punitively high quotas and wage deductions. Workers reported the necessity of subcontracting work to meet ...
		Tea Production and Supply Chain:
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in tea production affect me?
		////
		Where can I learn more?
		Read a United Nations Conference on Trade and Development summary of the global tea trade.
		Watch a CNN Freedom Project video about child labor, debt bondage, and human trafficking in tea production.
	Tobacco
		The U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report lists Argentina, Kenya, Nicaragua, Brazil, Indonesia, Kyrgyz Republic, Malawi, Mexico, Mozambique, Philippines, Uganda and Zambia as Tier 2 countries. Cambodia, Lebanon and Tanzania are listed...
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in tobacco harvesting look like?
		Case Study:
		Tobacco Production and Supply Chain:
		Tobacco production encompasses the cultivation of several different varieties of tobacco leaves, grown for different purposes. Flu-cured, burley and oriental tobaccos are used in blended cigarettes, with flu-cured the most commonly produced.
		Tobacco production and harvesting is labor intensive. Seedlings are hand sown into beds and then removed for transplanting. Seedlings are clipped for weeks before transplanting. Fertilizers are applied to fields and in many developing markets, they ar...
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in tobacco production affect me?
		Where can I learn more?
	Tomatoes
		Case Study:
		Tomato Production and Supply Chain:
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in tomato production affect me?
		///
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Where can I learn more?
		Listen to an interview with investigative journalist Barry Estabrook on NPR about his work researching the working conditions of today’s tomato workers.
		Watch a short video about one woman’s struggle to make ends meet as a tomato-picker in Immokalee, Florida.
		Read Verité’s full report on Immigrant Workers in US Agriculture: The Role of Labor Brokers in Vulnerability to Forced Labor.
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in wheat production look like?
		Case Study:
		Wheat Fields in Daska, Pakistan
		Wheat Production and Supply Chain:
		After harvesting the stalks, the wheat is separated from other grains or foreign material and passed through machines to rid the wheat of any impurities. After that, the kernels enter a machine called a scourer to remove the husks and polish the seed....
		/
		Source: Hashmi, Dr. Irfan. Step by Step: Wheat Farming, Milling & Quality Requirements.  GrainCorp Storage & Handling. June 25, 2013. http://www.iaom-mea.com/images/file/Tech-03-%20Grain%20Corp-IAOM%20Jordan-2011.pdf
		How do trafficking and/or child labor in wheat production affect me?
		///
		Wheat is the most ubiquitous staple food grain in the world and an important internationally traded commodity.719F  Wheat is found in food products and is often made into flour. It also has several industrial uses in the production of paper, plastic, ...
		Wheat is the third largest agricultural industry in Pakistan, where most wheat is consumed domestically.721F  In 2013, Pakistan produced 24 million tons of wheat and exported about 1.1 million tons.722F
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Where can I learn more?
	Wool
		What does trafficking and/or child labor in wool production look like?
		Wool production and supply chain:
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Where can I learn more?
	Zinc
		Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
		Where can I learn more?
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Strengthening Protec ons Against
Traffi cking in Persons in Federal

and Corporate Supply Chains

This report was made possible through support provided by the United States Department of State, under the terms of Award No.
S-SJTIP-13-CA-1029. The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily refl ect the views of the United
States Department of State.

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© Verité January 2015


Verité is a global NGO with a mission to ensure that people around the world work under safe, fair, and
legal conditions.

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long hours in extreme weather conditions, dust inhalation, confrontation with cattle raiders, injuries from
handing livestock and tools, and musculoskeletal disorders.101

Cattle Production and Supply Chain:


Source: US Department of Agriculture. Cattle & Beef. May 26, 2012.

http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/animal-products/cattle-beef.aspx

The United States is the “largest fed-cattle industry in the world,” and although the United States is one of
the largest producers of beef, it is a net beef importer. Most beef produced and exported from the United
States is grain-fed, high quality cuts. Most beef that the United States imports is lower value, grass-fed
beef used mainly for processing, primarily as ground beef.102 The only country that is both a major
exporter of beef to the United States and for which there is documented evidence of forced or child labor
is Brazil. However, the United States is a comparatively minor trade partner for this product, as the most
common destinations for Brazilian beef are Saudi Arabia, Russia, and Angola.103 According to 2013
numbers from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the United States imports beef and veal mostly from


101 Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO). Children’s Work in the Livestock Sector: Herding and Beyond. 2012.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i3098e/i3098e.pdf
102 U.S. Department of Agriculture. Cattle & Beef. May 26, 2012. http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/animal-products/cattle-
beef.aspx
103 Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). FAOSTAT Database: Food and Agricultural
Commodities Production /Countries by Commodity. 2012. http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-
gateway/go/to/browse/rankings/countries_by_commodity/E

http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/animal-products/cattle-beef/trade.aspx
http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/animal-products/cattle-beef.aspx
http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/animal-products/cattle-beef.aspx
http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/animal-products/cattle-beef.aspx

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New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and Mexico. The United States exports beef and veal to Japan, Canada,
Mexico, and South Korea.104

How do trafficking and/or child labor in cattle ranching affect me?


Products from cattle ranching include beef and leather. Leather is used in a variety of consumer goods
from shoes to couches.

Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
Brazil has often been cited as an example of effective government action against forced labor. The ILO
has praised Brazil’s measures to combat forced labor. In March 2003, Brazil’s President launched a
National Plan for the Elimination of Slave Labor, and the government has cooperated since 2002 with an
ILO program on forced labor. There is also a special commission within the Council for the Defense of
Human Rights in the Ministry of Justice that specifically addresses the problem of slave labor.105 In 2013,
16 anti-trafficking offices were in operation and media campaigns were used to educate the public about
trafficking warning signs. A national anti-trafficking plan was launched in 2013 and USD 2.9 million was
dedicated to the implementation of the plan by 2014.106

In 2011, the state of Sao Paulo created a Commission for the Eradication of Forced Labor. The group,
also known as Coetrae, is tasked with evaluating and tracking cases of forced labor, monitoring
compliance with forced labor laws, conducting research, and coordinating with the Secretariat of Justice
and NGOs on combatting forced labor.107 In addition, the government has created a National Pact for the
Elimination of Slavery, which brings the government, the ILO, NGOs, and companies together to combat
forced labor. Over 130 companies have signed on, including large companies such as Wal-Mart Brazil,
thereby committing not to buy products derived from forced labor.108

In November 2003, the Minister of National Integration signed a decree containing a list of 52 individuals
and entities that use or have used slave labor. The individuals and entities on the biannually updated

104 U.S. Department of Agriculture. Beef and Veal: Annual and Cumulative Year-to-Date US Trade. July 3, 2013.
http://www.ers.usda.gov/datafiles/Livestock__Meat_International_Trade_Data/Annual_and_Cumulative_Year to
Date_US_Livestock_and_Meat_Trade_by_Country/BeefVeal_Yearly.pdf
105 Reporter Brasil. Signatários do Pacto Nacional pela Erradicação do Trabalho Esctavo.
http://www.reporterbrasil.org.br/pacto/signatarios
UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. UN Comtrade Database. 2012. http://comtrade.un.org/data/
106 U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2014. http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2014/226649.htm
107 U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2011 Country Reports on Human Rights
Practices - Brazil. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/wha/154496.htm.
U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2009 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/.
U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy. Human Rights and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2014.
http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper
108 Reporter Brasil. Signatários do Pacto Nacional pela Erradicação do Trabalho Esctavo.
http://www.reporterbrasil.org.br/pacto/signatarios

http://www.ers.usda.gov/datafiles/Livestock__Meat_International_Trade_Data/Annual_and_Cumulative_Year%20to%20Date_US_Livestock_and_Meat_Trade_by_Country/BeefVeal_Yearly.pdf
http://www.ers.usda.gov/datafiles/Livestock__Meat_International_Trade_Data/Annual_and_Cumulative_Year%20to%20Date_US_Livestock_and_Meat_Trade_by_Country/BeefVeal_Yearly.pdf
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/wha/154496.htm
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/

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repetitive motion stress injuries, working long hours and carrying heavy loads.738 Because mining sites
are hundreds of years old and poorly maintained, workers are also at risk of being killed in collapsing
mine shafts.739 In 2008, at least 60 children died from mine collapses. An estimated 3,000 children, some
as young as six, work in mining in Bolivia.740 Poverty is the primary driver of child mining. In western
Bolivia, where most illicit mining is found, entire families are dependent on earnings from children’s
work in the mines.741

Zinc Production and Supply Chain:
Most zinc mines are underground, although some are “open pit” formations. Most zinc is mined by large
mining companies. Zinc ore contains less than 85 percent zinc, so it is concentrated before it can be
smelted. Zinc is concentrated through a process of grinding and separating. The zinc concentrate is then
roasted to remove sulfur. The zinc then goes through a process of hydrometallurgy742 (International Zinc
Association).

Zinc ore mined by jucus is sold to intermediaries known as ‘rescatistas.’ Rescastistas sell larger quantities
of ore to mining companies.743

How do trafficking and/or child labor in zinc production affect me?


About half of the 12 million tons of zinc produced annually are used to protect steel from corrosion. Zinc
is also used in the production of zinc alloys in the die casting industry and to produce brass and bronze.
Zinc is used in construction applications such as roofing, gutters, and pipes; consumer goods and
electrical appliances; transport; and engineering.744



738 World Vision. [Bolivia] If You Fall, No One’s Gonna Carry You Out: Children Who Work in Tin Mines. 2007.
http://www.worldvision.org/resources.nsf/main/work_bolivia_200706.pdf/$file/work_bolivia_200706.pdf
World Vision. [Bolivia] If You Fall, No One’s Gonna Carry You Out: Children Who Work in Tin Mines. 2007.
http://www.worldvision.org/resources.nsf/main/work_bolivia_200706.pdf/$file/work_bolivia_200706.pdf
739 Forero, Juan. “As Bolivian Miners Die, Boys are Left to Toil.” The New York Times. March 24, 2003
740 National Public Radio (NPR). “Thousands of Children as Young as 6 Work in Bolivia’s Mines.” November 30, 2013.
http://www.npr.org/2013/11/30/247967228/thousands-of-children-as-young-as-6-work-in-bolivias-mines
741 Schipani, Andres. “Plight of Bolivia’s Child Miners.” British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). June 14, 2008.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7448032.stm
742 International Zinc Association. “Zinc Production – From Ore to Metal.” Zinc Basics.
http://www.zinc.org/basics/zinc_production
743 World Vision. [Bolivia] If You Fall, No One’s Gonna Carry You Out: Children Who Work in Tin Mines. 2007.
http://www.worldvision.org/resources.nsf/main/work_bolivia_200706.pdf/$file/work_bolivia_200706.pdf
744 International Zinc Association. “Zinc Production – From Ore to Metal.” Zinc Basics.
http://www.zinc.org/basics/zinc_production

http://www.worldvision.org/resources.nsf/main/work_bolivia_200706.pdf/$file/work_bolivia_200706.pdf
http://www.worldvision.org/resources.nsf/main/work_bolivia_200706.pdf/$file/work_bolivia_200706.pdf
http://www.npr.org/2013/11/30/247967228/thousands-of-children-as-young-as-6-work-in-bolivias-mines
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7448032.stm
http://www.worldvision.org/resources.nsf/main/work_bolivia_200706.pdf/$file/work_bolivia_200706.pdf

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Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:
Bolivia recently legalized child labor for workers as young as ten years old, provided they attend
school.745 However, mining remains a worst form of child labor under Bolivian law, and it is therefore
illegal for any child.746 According to a 2014 NPR report, mining remains attractive to juvenile Bolivian
workers because of the possibility of higher levels of income, as compared to other jobs that are open to
children.

Where can I learn more?
Read this report on child labor in Bolivian mines.



745 Aljazeera America. “Bolivia Makes Child Labor Legal from Age 10.” July 18, 2014.
http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/7/18/bolivia-child-labor.html
746 National Public Radio (NPR). “Bolivia makes Child Labor Legal in an Attempt to Make it Safer.” July 30, 2014.
http://www.npr.org/2014/07/30/336361778/bolivia-makes-child-labor-legal-in-an-attempt-to-make-it-safer.


http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/24/world/as-bolivian-miners-die-boys-are-left-to-toil.html

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