Download Storage Area Networks for Dummies (ISBN - 0470385138) PDF

TitleStorage Area Networks for Dummies (ISBN - 0470385138)
TagsFor Dummies
LanguageEnglish
File Size10.1 MB
Total Pages460
Table of Contents
                            Storage Area Networks for Dummies, 2nd Edition
	About the Authors
	Dedication
	Author’s Acknowledgments
	Contents at a Glance
	Table of Contents
	Introduction
		About This Book
		Foolish Assumptions
		Conventions Used in This Book
		How This Book Is Organized
		Icons Used in This Book
	Part I: SAN 101
		Chapter 1: The Storage Area Network
			Defining a SAN
			Fiber versus Fibre
			How a SAN Makes Computing Different
			Understanding the Benefits of a SAN
			Finding Out Whether a SAN Is Right for You
			Dissecting a SAN (The Four Ps)
			The Parts of a SAN
			The SAN Protocols
			The SAN Players
			The SAN Platforms
		Chapter 2: SAN Building Blocks
			SAN Components and How They’re Used
			The Host Layer
			The Fabric Layer
			The Storage Layer
		Chapter 3: What Makes a SAN Go
			Networking Basics
			Moving Data at the Speed of Light
			Bandwidth
			Fibre Channel Protocols
			The Switched Fabric
		Chapter 4: What Makes a SAN Stop
			Discovering What Causes SAN Problems
			Preventing Poor SAN Design
			Using the Right Cables in the Right Way
	Part II: Designing and Building a SAN
		Chapter 5: Designing the SAN
			Basic SAN Designs: Understanding the Layers
			Point-to-Point Topology
			Arbitrated Loop Topology
			Switched Fabric Topology
			Basic Fabric Topologies
			Understanding Zoning
			Initial Switch Setup
			Best Practices — Tips from the Trenches
		Chapter 6: SANs and Disaster Recovery
			How Much Downtime Can You Afford?
			Recognizing the Importance of Distance, Bandwidth, and Latency
			Choosing the Recovery Site
			Choosing Where to Run the Data Replication Process
			The Importance of Testing
		Chapter 7: Putting It All Together
			Building a SAN by Hand
			The SAN Plan
			Setting Up the SAN
			Preparing the Servers
			Configuring the Array
			Plugging Things In
			Configuring the Zones
			Back to the Servers: Did It Work?
			iSCSI, You SCSI, We All SCSI
			Data Migration
	Part III: Using Advanced SAN Features
		Chapter 8: Networking SANs
			Defining a SAN Island
			Connecting SAN Islands
			The Storage WAN, MAN, and SWAN
			Choosing and Using SAN Extenders
			Choosing the Correct Link for the Job
			Reducing Costs with Compression, Data De-duplication and WAN Tuners
			SAN Connection Protocols
			Stretching the SAN (The Rubber-Band Approach)
			Using Connected SAN Islands (The Two-Rubber-Bands Approach)
			Using a SAN as Network Attached Storage
			iSCSI: An Alternative Method
		Chapter 9: SAN-Based Backup
			Understanding Backup
			Understanding SAN Backup
			Choosing a Backup Solution
			Determining How Long a Backup Will Take
		Chapter 10: Mirror, Mirror: Point-in-Time Copies
			The Uses of Point-in-Time Technology
			Complete versus Metadata Copies
			Which PiT Type Should You Use?
			Creating a PiT Copy
			Managing Your Point-in-Time Copies
			The Finer Points of PiT
	Part IV: SAN Management and Troubleshooting
		Chapter 11: Approaches to SAN Management
			Management: From Simple Networking to SANs
			SAN Management from the Ground Up
			Cable Management: Spaghetti, Anyone?
			Labeling Your Cables
			Using a SAN Management Framework
			What SAN Management Gives You
			Streamlining SAN Administration
			Automating Your System: “SAN? Do You Read Me, SAN?”
			Providing a Service Level Agreement
			Building a Storage Management Team
		Chapter 12: Troubleshooting SANs
			The Best Method: Prevention
			Troubleshooting Methodology
			Typical Problem Types
			Example Scenarios
	Part V: Understanding the Cool Stuff
		Chapter 13: Using Data De-Duplication to Lighten the Load
			Understanding Data De-Duplication
			Data De-Duplication in the Datacenter
			Using Data De-Duplication in a SAN
			Why Data De-Duplication Is Important
			When to Use Data De-Dupe (And When Not To)
			De-Duplication in Action
		Chapter 14: Continuous Data Protection
			Understanding What Continuous Data Protection Is
			How CDP Makes Storage Work Like a Database
			Best Practices for Storage When Configuring CDP Solutions
			The Truth about Near CDP and True CDP Solutions
			CDP versus Snapshots
			Using CDP to Eliminate Backups
			Using CDP to Simplify Recovery and Reduce Costs
			Knowing Your CDP Vendor
		Chapter 15: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about Virtualization
			Understanding What Virtualization Is
			Exploring the Types of Virtualization
			Implementing Virtualization in a Datacenter
			In-Band versus Out-of-Band Virtualization
			The Virtualization Vendors and Where They Play
	Part VI: The Part of Tens
		Chapter 16: Ten Reasons to Use a SAN
			You Want Better Disk Utilization
			You Need a Good Disaster Recovery Solution for Multiple Applications
			You Need Better Availability for Your Applications
			You Need More Storage Room
			Backup Is Taking Too Long
			You’re Focusing on Server and Storage Consolidation
			You’ve Been Tasked to Save Your Company Money
			You Need to Manage Storage for Many Locations from a Central Site
			You Need to Decrease IT Management Costs
			You Need Better Performance for Your Applications
		Chapter 17: Ten Reasons NOT to Use a SAN
			You Need Larger File Servers
			You Only Have a Few Inexpensive Servers
			You Want to Save Your Company Money This Year
			You Want to Use the Latest and Greatest Solutions Available
			You Need a Disaster-Recovery Solution for a Single Application
			You Want a SAN but Don’t Have the Budget
			You Use Gigabit Ethernet on Your LAN
			Everything Already Runs Fine
			You Need to Back Up Multiple Remote Offices over Slow Links
			You Need to Replicate Your Data for Disaster Recovery but Can’t Afford Fast WAN Connections
	Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Christopher Poelker
Alex Nikitin

Learn to:
• Implement new technologies such as data

de-duplication, iSCSI, and Continuous
Data Protection

• Design storage area networks that meet
specific needs

• Maintain and troubleshoot SANs

• Develop SANs that will aid your
company’s disaster-recovery plan

Storage Area
Networks

2nd EditionMaking Everythin
g Easier!



Open the book and find:

• What RAID is and why it’s
important

• Issues to consider when planning
your SAN

• A translation of all those pesky
acronyms

• What to do when your server gets
the hiccups

• How to use CDP and CDR

• What you should beware of with
storage virtualization

• Hardware- and software-based
copy solutions

• SAN best practices

Christopher Poelker is Vice President of Enterprise Solutions for FalconStor

Software, Inc. He spends most of his time with Fortune 1000 companies

defining strategy for virtualization and business continuity solutions. Chris

is also in great demand as a conference speaker. Alex Nikitin has been a

storage architect and consultant for more than ten years.

$29.99 US / $32.99 CN / £19.99 UK

ISBN 978-0-470-38513-5

Computers/Networking/General

Go to dummies.com®
for more!

So you need to set up a SAN?
Here’s how to design,
implement, and manage one!
Whether you’re a complete novice or you already have a
bit of knowledge about storage area networks, this book is
almost guaranteed to make your job easier. From the basics
for beginners to advanced features like snapshot copies,
storage virtualization, and heading off problems before
they happen, here’s what you need to do the job with
confidence!

• Getting started — understand what SANs are, whether you need
one, and what you need to build one

• Design basics — learn to use loops, switches, and the fabric
layer, and design your SAN for peak performance

• No surprises — create a disaster-recovery plan with the
appropriate guidelines and choose a remote site and data
replication method

• SANs united — see how to connect or extend SANs and how
compression can reduce costs

• Wait, back up — compare tape, disk, network, and SAN backup
methods to choose the solution you need

• What if it breaks? — follow great troubleshooting tips to help
you find and fix a problem

• De-dupe, de-dupe — find out how data de-duplication makes
sense for backup, replication, and retention

• It’s virtual — explore different types of virtualization and what
they offer

Sto
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Poelker
Nikitin

2nd Edition

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Page 230

210 Par t III: Using Advanced SAN Features

De-duplication
Since data de-duplication is covered in much more depth in Chapter 13, here

I only touch on the topic as it pertains to saving bandwidth for tying SANs

together for data replication. De-duplication, like compression, is a method

you can use to reduce costs and bandwidth requirements for data replication

between two SAN fabrics. Where compression can typically achieve a savings

ratio between 2:1 to 5:1, a good data de-duplication solution can show results

between 20:1 to 30:1. De-duplication works very differently than compression,

but you can use the two together to get even better results. Trying to figure

out how much bandwidth savings a data de-duplication solution will bring

can be difficult, because your results will vary depending on the data types

and the de-duplication solution used. With data de-duplication, a typical

reduction ratio is about 10:1, meaning ten times less data will need to travel

over the network.

Some data de-duplication solutions work like compression solutions, where

the data is not really de-duplicated per se; the solution simply monitors the

data streams at a very low level (byte level) and sends only changed bytes

over the network. Since many operating systems are inefficient at natively

reducing the white space (unchanged bytes between changed bytes) during

network transmission, the inclusion of these more intelligent monitoring

solutions can save more than 80 percent of the bandwidth required to move

a specific dataset.

To put this into perspective, look at these data de-duplication ratios:

2:1 = 50% less data

5:1 = 80% less data

10:1 = 90% less data

20:1 = 95% less data

30:1 = 97% less data

Your goal should be to get at least a 10:1 de-duplication ratio because it

provides the most bang for the buck. From the preceding table, you can see

the diminishing point of return after 10:1. There is a 10 percent difference

between 5:1 and 10:1, and only a 5 percent difference between 10:1 and 20:1.

Although some vendors claim to get fantastic results, it doesn�t make that

much difference after 10:1. If you are using a de-duplication solution during

data transmission, using 80 percent, or a 5:1 de-duplication ratio, is a conser-

vative estimate for bandwidth requirements.

Note that some data de-duplication solutions (see Chapter 13) work only with

backup software, so you need to do your homework.

Page 231

211 Chapter 8: Networking SANs

WAN tuners
WAN tuners can be used over IP networks to either cache data between sites

to reduce the effects of slow or low bandwidth links, or replace or enhance

the TCP/IP protocol to minimize issues of low-bandwidth and high-latency

IP links during data transmission. (High latency means it takes a lot of

time to transmit data, which nobody wants.) Companies such as Riverbed,

FalconStor, Cisco, and NetEx provide WAN tuning solutions to provide effi-

cient data movement between SANs over IP connections.

SAN Connection Protocols
FCIP and iFCP are the two protocols involved with linking Fibre Channel

SANs. FCIP is a tunneling protocol that allows two separate SAN fabrics to
be combined into one large fabric, connected over IP. iFCP is a bridging, or
gateway, protocol, that allows two SAN fabrics to be connected but the local
Fibre Channel traffic within each SAN island to stay separate. The FCIP and

iFCP protocols have been approved by the Internet Engineering Task Force

(IETF) standards body as methods for inter-SAN communication.

The motivation behind using the FCIP or iFCP protocols to connect SAN

islands is to allow for remote disk access, remote tape backup, and live mir-

roring of data between the sites.

FCIP: The SAN tunnel
The Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP) protocol describes the methods that allow
the interconnection of Fibre Channel SAN fabrics over IP networks to form a

single, unified Fibre Channel fabric.

The FCIP protocol connects two Fibre Channel SAN fabrics into one big fabric,

using IP as the network connection between the physical locations. A device

called an FC extender (Fibre Channel extender) is used at the edge of both
fabrics to connect them. The extender uses the FCIP protocol to create a com-

munication link between the fabrics by creating a logical tunnel within the IP

protocol. The extenders are linked by the tunnel, and the tunnel transparently

passes all Fibre Channel traffic between locations (see Figure 8-4).

Page 459

01_574639-ffirs.qxd 12/1/08 9:03 AM Page ii

Page 460

Christopher Poelker
Alex Nikitin

Learn to:
• Implement new technologies such as data

de-duplication, iSCSI, and Continuous
Data Protection

• Design storage area networks that meet
specific needs

• Maintain and troubleshoot SANs

• Develop SANs that will aid your
company’s disaster-recovery plan

Storage Area
Networks

2nd EditionMaking Everythin
g Easier!



Open the book and find:

• What RAID is and why it’s
important

• Issues to consider when planning
your SAN

• A translation of all those pesky
acronyms

• What to do when your server gets
the hiccups

• How to use CDP and CDR

• What you should beware of with
storage virtualization

• Hardware- and software-based
copy solutions

• SAN best practices

Christopher Poelker is Vice President of Enterprise Solutions for FalconStor

Software, Inc. He spends most of his time with Fortune 1000 companies

defining strategy for virtualization and business continuity solutions. Chris

is also in great demand as a conference speaker. Alex Nikitin has been a

storage architect and consultant for more than ten years.

$29.99 US / $32.99 CN / £19.99 UK

ISBN 978-0-470-38513-5

Computers/Networking/General

Go to dummies.com®
for more!

So you need to set up a SAN?
Here’s how to design,
implement, and manage one!
Whether you’re a complete novice or you already have a
bit of knowledge about storage area networks, this book is
almost guaranteed to make your job easier. From the basics
for beginners to advanced features like snapshot copies,
storage virtualization, and heading off problems before
they happen, here’s what you need to do the job with
confidence!

• Getting started — understand what SANs are, whether you need
one, and what you need to build one

• Design basics — learn to use loops, switches, and the fabric
layer, and design your SAN for peak performance

• No surprises — create a disaster-recovery plan with the
appropriate guidelines and choose a remote site and data
replication method

• SANs united — see how to connect or extend SANs and how
compression can reduce costs

• Wait, back up — compare tape, disk, network, and SAN backup
methods to choose the solution you need

• What if it breaks? — follow great troubleshooting tips to help
you find and fix a problem

• De-dupe, de-dupe — find out how data de-duplication makes
sense for backup, replication, and retention

• It’s virtual — explore different types of virtualization and what
they offer

Sto
ra

g
e A

rea
N

etw
o

rk
s

Poelker
Nikitin

2nd Edition

spine=.912”

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