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TitleStereo Vision Images Processing for Real-time Object Distance and Size Measurements
TagsImage Segmentation Multidimensional Signal Processing Imaging Vision Computer Vision
File Size4.7 MB
Total Pages387
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Web Engineering
The Discipline of Systematic Development
of Web Applications

Edited by

Gerti Kappel, Birgit Pröll, Siegfried Reich,
Werner Retschitzegger

Page 193

172 Web Project Management

to economic and social tasks, like managing, developing, and monitoring. This turns software
development into an iterative, controlled process, allowing a well-understood and continuous
adaptation to the objectives (see Figure 9-1). Software project management thus ties the technical
product development to economic product manufacturing.



Checking Implementation




Figure 9-1 Project management objective: an engineering approach to software development.

9.1.2 The Tasks of Software Project Management

A project is an innovative and complex undertaking with conditions, such as costs, dead-
lines, resources, and quality. A company’s performance process has to be coordinated by
(project) management so that the general conditions/restrictions can be maintained. More
specifically, “the management has to specify the objectives and strategies for the compa-
ny, operationalize them in plans, monitor the achievement of the objectives, develop an
adequate corporate organization for implementation of the objectives and plans, lead and
motivate the staff, control the corporate processes, and take decisions. . . . This means that
management can be defined as an activity that deals with shaping the actions of oth-
er people” (Gernert and Ahrend 2001). This definition results in the following tasks for
(software project) management (according to Gernert and Ahrend 2001, and structured as in
Figure 9-1):

€ Leadership: Organize, control, lead staff, inform.
€ Development: Set, plan, and define objectives.
€ Monitoring: Check and control.

Page 194

9.1 From Software Project Management to Web Project Management 173

9.1.3 Conflicting Areas in Projects

From an economic point of view, a project is often seen as a system that has to be well balanced
between the available budget, the fixed time horizon, and the projected product quality (see
Figure 9-2). The important aspect about this point of view is that none of the three parameters
can be changed without entailing a change to one or both of the other parameter values. A
project that has to be completed within the shortest possible time becomes more expensive than
originally planned, or the quality drops. In practice, both will occur in most cases.



Time Quality

Figure 9-2 The traditional conflicting areas in projects.

It is important to make the customer aware of these “areas of conflict” in a project from the
very beginning, and stress the impact of changing deadlines, cutting costs, etc. This cannot be
done emphatically enough. In fact, especially for Web projects, which frequently have to be
handled under tight budgets and even tighter deadlines, the “simple” relation between budget,
time, and quality is often lost in the development hustle.

9.1.4 Specifics of Web Project Management

It can generally be observed that many large and monolithic applications developed in the
past have been replaced by a large number of (very) small and networked Web applications
(Reifer 2002). This trend entails shorter development cycles, leading to situations where software
is increasingly less developed in the traditional way – based on specified requirements – from
scratch. Instead, components are coupled in an agile approach (see Chapter 10), and refactoring
is used to develop a meaningful design on the job. Table 9-1 shows the characteristics resulting
for Web project management, compared traditional software project management (adapted from
Reifer 2002).

Many young developers are not familiar with traditional models and methods that ensure
and increase development maturity (such as CMMI or ISO 15504) and time to learn and apply
these models is frequently not available. Process development, discipline, or estimation skills are
typically shed as unnecessary ballast.

Page 386

Index 365

UML-based Web Engineering (UWE) 43, 48, 58,

Unified Modeling Language (UML) 41, 58, 66
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) 114
unit tests 136
Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration

(UDDI) 105
update policy 179
URL see Uniform Resource Locator
URL Rewriting 115
usability 180, 192, 219

engineering 219, 232
goal 234
pattern 239
test 237

usage analysis 165
explicit 165
implicit 165

use case 26, 33, 35
use case diagram 35
use context 220, 241
user behavior analysis 168
user interaction 98
user participation 233

direct 236
indirect 236

user profile 54, 235
user story 34, 35
utilization 248

law 254
UWE see UML-based Web Engineering

validation 137
validity 118
verification 137
view dispatcher 104
visit 168
visualization technique 259
VisualWADE 61, 62

W2000 59
WAE see Web Application Extension
WAE2 see Web Application Extension
WAP 97
Web access analysis 165
Web application 188

categories 4
characteristics 7

collaborative 6
definition 1
development history 4
interactive 6
portal-oriented 6, 79
semantic-based 7
transactional 6
ubiquitous 7
use 223
workflow-based 6

Web application developer 178
Web application environment 179
Web Application Extension (WAE) 59, 61
Web bug 167
Web caching 164, 261
Web content management 163
Web content pre-fetching 261
Web content pre-generation 260
Web crisis 3
Web engineering

basic principles 4
definition 3, 41

Web Modeling Language (WebML) 48, 58, 59, 62
Web Ontology Language (OWL) 303
Web Ontology Language for Services

(OWL-S) 312
Web page generation 164
Web page materialization 164
Web project 174
Web project manager 184
Web project team 183
Web promotion 157
Web server log file 165
Web server replication 261
Web service 78, 129

choreography 107
coordination 106
transaction 106

Web Service Description Language (WSDL) 105
Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO) 312
Web Site Design Method (WSDM) 58, 60, 61
Web Software Architecture 61
Web usability 225
Web usability see Usability
Web usage analysis 165
Web usage mining 168
WebML see Web Modeling Language
WebRatio see WebRatio Site Development Studio
WebRatio Site Development Studio 62
well-formedness 118

Page 387

366 Index

WML 108
workflow 104

management 89
workload 252

characterization 252, 254
model 252, 253
real 253
synthetic 253

WSDL see Web Service Description Language
WSDM see Web Site Design Method
WSMO see Web Service Modeling Ontology


XLink 102
XMI see XML Metadata Interchange
XML Metadata Interchange 63
XML Path Language (XPath) 123--125
XML Schema 121
XML see eXtensible Markup Language
XP see Extreme Programming (XP)
XPath 102, 124
XPath see XML Path Language
XPointer 102
XSL – eXtensible Stylesheet Language

XSLT see eXtensible Stylesheet Language


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