Download Status Report on Power System Transformation PDF

TitleStatus Report on Power System Transformation
LanguageEnglish
File Size1.8 MB
Total Pages109
Table of Contents
                            Acknowledgements
Preface
Executive Summary
Table of Contents
Acronyms
1 Introduction to Power System Transformation
	Toward a Definition of Power System Transformation
2 Innovations for Power System Transformation
	2.1 Environmental Stewardship
	2.2 Transmission System
	2.3 Distribution System
	2.4 Transmission-Distribution Boundary
	2.5 Finance, Markets, Pricing, and Cost Allocation
	2.6 Static & Dynamic Load
	2.7 Flexible Generation
	2.8 Integration with Heating and Cooling
	2.9 Integration with Transport
	2.10 Storage
	2.11 Microgrids
3 Towards Indicators of Power System Transformation
	An Implementation-Based Framework for Transformation Indicators
4  Spotlight Topic: Challenges and Emerging Roles for Regulators
5 Conclusion: Pathways Forward
Bibliography
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308



Technical Report
NREL/TP-6A20-63366
May 2015

Status Report on
Power System Transformation
A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

Mackay Miller1, Eric Martinot2, Sadie Cox1, Bethany Speer1,
Owen Zinaman1, Sam Booth1, Romain Zissler3, Jaquelin Cochran1,
S.K. Soonee4, Pierre Audinet5, Luis Munuera6, and Doug Arent7

1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory
2. Beijing Institute of Technology
3. Japan Renewable Energy Foundation
4. Power System Operation Corporation, Ltd, India
5. World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
6. International Energy Agency
7. Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis

Page 2

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy
Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.





Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

National Renewable Energy Laboratory
15013 Denver West Parkway
Golden, CO 80401
303-275-3000 • www.nrel.gov





Status Report on
Power System Transformation
A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

Mackay Miller1, Eric Martinot2, Sadie Cox1, Bethany Speer1,
Owen Zinaman1, Sam Booth1, Romain Zissler3, Jaquelin Cochran1,
S.K. Soonee4, Pierre Audinet5, Luis Munuera6, and Doug Arent7

1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory
2. Beijing Institute of Technology
3. Japan Renewable Energy Foundation
4. Power System Operation Corporation, Ltd, India
5. World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
6. International Energy Agency
7. Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis

Prepared under Task No WFW8.1070

Technical Report
NREL/TP-6A20-63366
May 2015

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This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.







Figure 12. In Germany, coal plants increasingly provide ramping flexibility (red ovals), and

even nuclear plants provide some flexibility (yellow oval)



Innovation #1: Flexibility From Coal Plants

Coal plants are now used to provide system flexibility (i.e., able to cycle on and off,
reduce minimum generation levels, and follow changes in net load).111 Aspects of
flexibility include improving ramp rates, reducing minimum generation levels, coming

Figure 11. Illustrative impact of thermal plant mix on investment and plant utilization rates

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back on-line quickly after a shut-down, and more closely following dispatch signals. This
flexibility requires at least some hardware modifications as well as extensive
modifications to operational practice. Operational changes include comprehensive
inspections and training programs, controlled temperature ramp rates, repair process and
program for each possible cycling-related failure, changed layup procedures, and greater
tolerance for higher forced outage rates.112

Examples and evidence

Flexibility Price Premiums for Coal Plants in Jilin Province, China
At the end of 2013, wind power in Jilin Province represented approximately 16% of total
generation capacity in the province.113 Wind power curtailment rates are also significant,
reaching 33% in 2012 and 20% in 2013. For reference, curtailment is typically less than
1% in countries like Germany and Denmark, to 2%–3% in many parts of the United
States. The curtailments in Jilin often occur during periods of high supply relative to
demand, such that exporting excess supply is not an option due to transmission
constraints and inflexible supply in neighboring jurisdictions.v To improve the ability for
the power grid in Jilin to integrate wind power, China State Grid is conducting a pilot
program to provide a price premium to coal plants that reduce their output below 52% of
capacity. The premium is structured as a higher per-kWh power price when the power
generated is occurring at output levels below 52%. The incentives are intended to
counteract the increased costs of cycling that stem from fuel efficiency and added wear
and tear.vi

South Africa: Majuba Coal Plant114
Built in 1982, the Majuba plant provides 4,110 MW of coal-fired capacity to the region
around Amersfoort, South Africa. The plant with six units of around 600–700 MW each
was designed to enable quick start-ups and load following with a simple arrangement of
wall panels, connecting pipes, and tube banks to allow for expansion and to reduce stress.
To reduce thermal fatigue, a significant impact of cycling coal plants, wall panels with
differing temperatures are not connected via welding and the flue gas pattern is arranged
in such a way as to mitigate tube erosion. These features enabled Majuba to compete
effectively in the South African Power Pool as a two-shift power plant despite being
originally designed for baseload power.

Flexible Plants in Denmark
Many coal power plants in Denmark are able to ramp down to just 10% of rated output,
the lowest minimum output level in the world.115 Denmark has been designing its power

v Jilin has a high capacity of wind power, about 4 GW, which is about the same capacity as its minimum
daily power grid load of 4.7 GW. Peak daily load is 7.2 GW. Statistics from China State Grid, December
2014.
vi Equipment failures and maintenance costs increase with increased cycling. The second phase of the
Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) directly addressed the impacts of high wind and
solar penetration levels on thermal plant cycling. For a 33% RE scenario, WWSIS-2 concluded that from a
single generator perspectivetypical operating costs, including fuel, are $20–$40/MWh, whereas increased
operations and maintenance costs due to RE-induced cycling were $0.5–$1.3/MWh.

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