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Table of Contents
                            Preface
Contents
Part I: The Soil and Environment
	Chapter 1: Chernozem: Soil of the Steppe
		1.1 Introduction
		1.2 Soil-Forming Processes
		1.3 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 2: The Quality of Moldovan Soils: Issues and Solutions
		2.1 Introduction
		2.2 Condition of the Land Resource
		2.3 Land Evaluation and Soil Quality Information System
		2.4 Soil Degradation
		2.5 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 3: The State of Soil Erosion in the Republic of Moldova and the Need for Monitoring
		3.1 Introduction
		3.2 Materials and Methods
		3.3 Results and Discussion
		3.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 4: Biota of Typical Chernozem Under Different Land Uses in Long-Term Field Experiments
		4.1 Introduction
		4.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		4.3 Results and Discussion
		4.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 5: Essential Mass and Structure of Soil Microorganisms in the Black Earth
		5.1 Introduction
		5.2 Research Site and Methods
		5.3 Results and Discussion
		5.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 6: Effects of Long-Term Fertility Management on the Soil Nematode Community and Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii Population in Experimental Sugar Beet Fields
		6.1 Introduction
		6.2 Material and Methods
		6.3 Results and Discussion
		6.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 7: Biochemical Parameters of Arable Chernozem in Long-Term Field Experiments
		7.1 Introduction
		7.2 Experimental Sites and Methods
		7.3 Results and Discussion
		7.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 8: Energy Status of Soil Agro-ecosystems
		8.1 Introduction
		8.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		8.3 Results and Discussion
		References
	Chapter 9: Heavy Metals in the Anthropogenic Cycle of Elements
		9.1 Introduction
		9.2 Soil Vulnerability to Heavy Metal Pollution
		9.3 Plant and Soil
		9.4 Management Strategy for Heavy Metals in the Soil
		9.5 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 10: Effects of Long-Term Application of Fertilizers on the Trace Element Content of Soils
		10.1 Introduction
		10.2 Experimental Sites and Methods
		10.3 Results and Discussion
			10.3.1 Active Pollution Index
			10.3.2 Index of Trace Element Accumulation
		10.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 11: Potassium in Brown Forest Soils
		11.1 Introduction
		11.2 Materials and Methods
		11.3 Results and Discussion
			11.3.1 Outer Carpathian Province (OCP)
			11.3.2 Pre-Carpathian Province (PCP)
		11.4 Conclusions
		Bibliography
	Chapter 12: Pure and Applied Agrophysics
		12.1 Introduction
		12.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		12.3 Results and Discussion
		12.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 13: Evolution of Chernozem in the Complex Section at Storozheve, Ukraine
		13.1 Introduction
		13.2 Site and Methods
		13.3 Results and Discussion
			13.3.1 The Soil on the Embankment
			13.3.2 The Cossack Soil
			13.3.3 The Initial Soil in Loess
			13.3.4 Cluster Analysis
		13.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 14: Climate Change and Its Impact on Soil Productivity in Moldova
		14.1 Introduction
		14.2 Data and Methodology
		14.3 Results and Discussion
			14.3.1 Effects on Soil Productivity
				Temperature
				Soil Moisture
			14.3.2 Possibilities of Adaptation Through Technology
		14.4 Conclusions
		Bibliography
	Chapter 15: Multi-scalar Indices of Drought in Intensively Farmed Regions of the Czech Republic
		15.1 Introduction
		15.2 Materials and Methods
		15.3 Results and Discussion
		15.4 Conclusions
		References
Part II: Soil Fertility: Lessons from Long-Term Field Experiments
	Chapter 16: The Continuing Value of Long-Term Field Experiments: Insights for Achieving Food Security and Environmental Integrity
		16.1 Benefits and Limitations of Long-Term Experiments
		16.2 Continuity Versus Change
		16.3 Crop Yield Trends and Influence of Management Practices
		16.4 Nutritional Quality of Wheat Grain
		16.5 Management Impacts on Soil Organic Matter
		16.6 Influence of Soil Organic Matter Content on Crop Yields
		16.7 Influence of Soil Organic Matter Content on Soil Physical Properties
		16.8 Nutrient Cycling Studies
			16.8.1 Nitrogen
			16.8.2 Phosphorus
		16.9 Microbiological Studies Using Rothamsted Long-Term Experiments
			16.9.1 Crop Disease Populations
			16.9.2 Soil Biodiversity
			16.9.3 Aerobic Soil as a Sink for Methane
			16.9.4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Soil
		16.10 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 17: Long-Term Field Experiments with Fertilizers in Romania: Their Relevance to Sustainable Agriculture
		17.1 Introduction
		17.2 Objectives
		17.3 Long-Term Field Experiments in Romania
			17.3.1 Experiment with NxP Fertilization
			17.3.2 Experiment with N P K Fertilization
			17.3.3 Experiment with Lime and Fertilizers
			17.3.4 Experiment with Organo-Mineral Fertilization
		17.4 Results and Discussion
		17.5 Proposals for Future Research
		Bibliography
	Chapter 18: The Beginnings of Long-Term Field Experiments on Crop Rotations at Balti
		18.1 In the Beginning: Needs and Objectives
		18.2 Establishing the Experiments
		18.3 The Selectia Long-Term Experiments in Operation
	Chapter 19: Fifty Years of Field Experiments with Crop Rotations and Continuous Cultures at the Selectia Research Institute for Field Crops
		19.1 Introduction
		19.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		19.3 Results and Discussion
			19.3.1 Soil Organic Matter Stocks
		19.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 20: Long-Term Field Experiments as a Foundation for Conserving and Enhancing Soil Fertility
		20.1 Introduction
		20.2 Experimental Sites and Methods
			20.2.1 Grigorievca: Experiments on Carbonate Chernozem
			20.2.2 Ivancea: Experiments on Leached Chernozem
			20.2.3 Ivancea: Experiments on Grey Soil
		20.3 Results and Discussion
		20.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 21: Productivity and Fertility of the Balti Chernozem Under Crop Rotation with Different Systems of Fertilization
		21.1 Introduction
		21.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		21.3 Results and Discussion
			21.3.1 Yield Response to Fertilization
			21.3.2 Changes in the Stocks of Soil Organic Matter
			21.3.3 Changes in Total Nitrogen
			21.3.4 Carbon Budget Under Different Systems of Fertilization
			21.3.5 Nitrogen Balance and Nitrogen-Use Efficiency
		21.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 22: Long-Term Field Experiment with Irrigation on the Balti Chernozem
		22.1 Introduction
		22.2 Experimental Site and Method
		22.3 Results and Discussion
			22.3.1 Winter Wheat
			22.3.2 Sugar Beet
			22.3.3 Changes in Stocks of Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen
		22.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 23: Quality of Soil Organic Matter Under Crop Rotations and Continuous Cultures
		23.1 Introduction
		23.2 Materials and Methods
		23.3 Results and Discussion
		23.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 24: Soil Organic Matter and Soil Microbial Biomass in the Balti Long-Term Experiments
		24.1 Introduction
		24.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		24.3 Results and Discussion
		24.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 25: Total and Labile Organic Matter in Typical Chernozem Under Crop Rotation, Continuous Cropping, Perennial Crops, and Fertilization
		25.1 Introduction
		25.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		25.3 Results and Discussion
		25.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 26: Primary Soil Tillage in Rotations of the Main Field Crops in Moldova
		26.1 Introduction
		26.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		26.3 Results and Discussion
			26.3.1 Influence of Tillage on Agro-physical, Agrochemical and Biological Indices of Soil Fertility
			26.3.2 Influence of Soil Tillage on Soil Organic Matter
			26.3.3 Effects of the Method of Tillage on Potential and Actual Weediness
			26.3.4 Effects of Tillage on Crop Yields
			26.3.5 Energy Efficiency
		26.4 Conclusions
	Chapter 27: Humus Dynamics and Efficiency of Crop Rotations on Calcareous and Common Chernozem
		27.1 Introduction
		27.2 Experimental Site and Method
		27.3 Results and Discussion
			27.3.1 Humus Dynamics
			27.3.2 Efficiency of Crop Rotations
		27.4 Conclusions
	Chapter 28: Soil Conservation Capability of Crops and Crop Rotations: Data from Long-Term Studies in Belarus
		28.1 Introduction
		28.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		28.3 Results and Discussion
			28.3.1 Assessment of Soil-Protective Capability
			28.3.2 Erosion-Protective Rotations
		28.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 29: Crop Yield and Quality Depending on Fertilization in Crop Rotation on Sod-Podzolic Soil
		29.1 Introduction
		29.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		29.3 Results and Discussion
			29.3.1 Dynamics of Agrochemical Indices
		29.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 30: Potassium Effects on Wheat Yield and Quality in Long-Term Experiments on Luvisol in Romania
		30.1 Introduction
		30.2 Experimental Site and Method
		30.3 Results and Discussion
			30.3.1 Effect of Potassium on Wheat Yield
			30.3.2 Values of Quality Indices
		30.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 31: Effect of Systematic Mineral Fertilization on Available Potassium in Pellic Vertisol
		31.1 Introduction
		31.2 Experimental Method
		31.3 Results and Discussion
		31.4 Conclusions
		References
Part III: Different Ways of Doing Things
	Chapter 32: Towards Sustainable, Self-Supporting Agriculture: Biological Nitrogen Factories as a Key for Future Cropping Systems
		32.1 Introduction
		32.2 Materials and Methods
			32.2.1 Experimental Design
			32.2.2 Nitrogen Inputs
			32.2.3 Soil and Weather Conditions
			32.2.4 Analysis and Statistics
		32.3 Results
			32.3.1 Productivity of a 2-Year Lucerne Crop: Dry Matter and Nitrogen Yield
			32.3.2 Residual Effect of Lucerne
				Residual Effect on the Grain and Nitrogen Yield of Winter Wheat
				Residual Effect on Nitrogen Uptake Over 4 Years
			32.3.3 Nitrogen Balance and Utilization from Different Sources
		32.4 Discussion
			32.4.1 Generic Character of Observations
			32.4.2 Nitrogen Self-Sufficient Cropping System
		References
	Chapter 33: Legumes as an Alternative Source of Nitrogen for Modern Agriculture
		33.1 Introduction
		33.2 Experimental Method
		33.3 Results and Discussion
			33.3.1 Perennial Legumes
			33.3.2 Annual Legumes
		33.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 34: Resource-Conserving Agriculture: Undersowing and Mixed Crops as Stepping Stones Towards a Solution
		34.1 Introduction and Objectives
		34.2 Field Research
		34.3 Selected Results and Discussion
			34.3.1 Republic of Moldova
			34.3.2 Switzerland
				Undersown Rape
				Weed Suppression
				Soil Cover
				Forage Value of Undersown Crops (Tables 34.3 and 34.4)
				Nitrogen Production from Undersown White Clover
			34.3.3 Field Peas and False Flax (Camelina sativa) as a Mixed Crop
		34.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 35: Rationale for Maintaining Humus in Arable Soils of Moldova
		35.1 Introduction
		35.2 Method of Calculation
		35.3 Results and Discussion
		35.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 36: Phyto-amelioration of Degraded Chernozem
		36.1 Introduction
		36.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		36.3 Results and Discussion
		36.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 37: Phyto-technology for Remediation of Chernozem in the South of Moldova
		37.1 Introduction
		37.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		37.3 Results and Discussion
		37.4 Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 38: Organic Manuring to Restore the Fertility of Eroded Soils
		38.1 Introduction
		38.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		38.3 Results and Discussion
		38.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 39: Structural Indices of Typical Chernozem Under Various Methods of Tillage
		39.1 Introduction
		39.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		39.3 Results and Discussion
		39.4 Conclusions
		Bibliography
	Chapter 40: Direct and Residual Effects of Phosphate-Enhanced Organic Fertilizers on Soil Fertility and Crop Production
		40.1 Introduction
		40.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		40.3 Results and Discussion
		40.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 41: Worm Compost to Improve Soil Fertility
		41.1 Introduction
		41.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		41.3 Results and Discussion
		41.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 42: Efficiency of Grass Strips and Sodded Waterways
		42.1 Introduction
		42.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		42.3 Results and Discussion
		42.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 43: Sown and Natural Grassland for Soil Protection and Productivity in the Forest Steppe of Ukraine
		43.1 Introduction
		43.2 Experimental Site and Methods
		43.3 Results and Discussion
		43.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 44: Perennial Grasses Creating Soil Structure and Raising Fertility
		44.1 Introduction
		44.2 Experimental Site and Methods
			44.2.1 Program
		44.3 Results
		44.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 45: Ecological Agriculture to Mitigate Soil Fatigue
		45.1 Introduction
		45.2 Materials and Methods
		45.3 Results and Discussion
		45.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 46: Mitigation of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) by Maize Varietal Selection
		46.1 Introduction
		46.2 Materials and Method
		46.3 Conclusions
		References
Part IV: Soil Policy and Communications to Decision Makers
	Chapter 47: Abating Climate Change and Feeding the World Through Soil Carbon Sequestration
		47.1 Introduction
		47.2 Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Quality
		47.3 Soil Carbon Pool and the Global Carbon Cycle
		47.4 Soil Carbon Sequestration
		47.5 Reducing Emissions from Agroecosystems
		47.6 Soil Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Food Insecurity
		47.7 Strategies to Mitigate Climate Change and Pathways to a Low-Carbon Economy
		47.8 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 48: Business Case for Green Water Credits
		48.1 Context: Water Scarcity on the International Agenda
		48.2 Concept of Operations
		48.3 Technical Aspects
		48.4 Operational Aspects
			48.4.1 Criteria for Intervention
			48.4.2 Who Are the Partners?
		48.5 Measures of Effectiveness
		48.6 Who Benefits?
			48.6.1 Costs and Benefits
		48.7 Measures of Effectiveness
		48.8 Funding a Green Water Credits Program
		References
	Chapter 49: European Commission´s Policy Initiatives Towards European and Global Soil Protection
		49.1 Introduction
		49.2 Towards Global Governance of Soil Resources
		49.3 Global Soil Partnership
			49.3.1 Composition and Governance
		49.4 Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 50: Scientific Evidence on the Contribution of Crop Rotation to More Sustainable Agriculture
		50.1 Context
		50.2 Ten Key Points from Long-Term Field Experiments
		References
Recommendations of the Symposium
	1 A World Heritage Site for Soil
	2 Soil Resolution
		2.1 Principles for Policies to Make the Best Use of Existing Knowledge
		2.2 New Research Thrusts
	3 Soil Resolution
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Soil as World
Heritage

David Dent Editor

Page 2

Soil as World Heritage

Page 244

22.3.3 Changes in Stocks of Soil Organic Carbon
and Total Nitrogen

The stock of soil organic matter decreased on all experimental plots (Table 22.10).

Under rain-fed conditions, the losses from the whole soil profile over 42 years were

24.9 tC/ha from unfertilized plots and 11.8 tC/ha from fertilized plots. Losses under

irrigation were 24.2 and 18.7 tC/ha from unfertilized and fertilized plots, respec-

tively. Irrigation made no difference to losses of soil organic matter from unfertil-

ized plots but increased the rate of loss fertilized plots.

The content of total nitrogen was lower under irrigation than in the rain-fed

plots. This was reflected in a wider C/N ratio, especially in the deeper soil layers

(Table 22.11), and was most evident in plots receiving farmyard manure as well as

mineral fertilizers. Moreover, irrigation increased the content of the labile fractions

of soil organic matter, especially in fertilized plots (Table 22.12).

Stocks of total nitrogen decreased over the 41 years of the experiment, especially

from irrigated plots with fertilization (Tables 22.13 and 22.14). Under rain-fed

conditions, losses of total nitrogen from the whole soil profile amounted to 2.95 t/ha

from fertilized plots and 4.41 t/ha from unfertilized plots. Under irrigation, the

losses were 4.47 from unfertilized plots and 5.59 t/ha from fertilized plots.

Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was calculated as the ratio of fertilizer nitrogen

taken up by the crop to the total amount of nitrogen applied as fertilizer (Olk et al.

1999). For winter wheat and sugar beet, the only crops to which fertilizer was

applied, nitrogen was lost not only from soil but also from the applied fertilizers.

NUE was 49 % for rain-fed winter wheat and 62 % for the irrigated crop; total

potential losses from rain-fed plots for the period 1973–2010 were 4 220 kgN/ha

(114 kgN/ha/year) under fertilization and almost as much from unfertilized plots.

Under irrigation, potential annual losses amounted to 176.9kgN/ha. These losses

y = -0,0191x2 + 75,323x - 74192; R2 = 0,5582
y = -0,0059x2 + 23,044x - 22549; R2 = 0,1844
y = -0,0309x2 + 122,36x - 120955; R2 = 0,572
y = -0,0177x2 + 70,1x - 69448; R2 = 0,1899

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Without irrigation fertilized
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Fig. 22.2 Sugar beet yields under irrigation and fertilization, 1968–2011

22 Long-Term Field Experiment with Irrigation on the Balti Chernozem 241

Page 245

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242 B.P. Boincean et al.

Page 488

R

Rampart, S., 92

Ramseier, H., 353�363

Recommendations, 172�175, 206, 322, 324,

491�496

Remediation measures, 385

Residual effect, 30, 331, 333�337, 340,

405�410

Resistance, 85, 87�90, 300, 318, 378, 391�393,

433, 437�440

Respiration induced by substratum, 31

Rogut, V., 61�68

Row crops, 49, 171�173, 176, 192, 193, 195,

199, 253, 254, 256, 257, 297, 298, 301,

366, 372, 406, 415, 486

Rowell, D.L., 18

Ruddiman, W.F., 450

Runoff plots, 416

Rusnac, G.T., 343�350

Russelle, P.M., 340

Rusu, A.L., 365�372

S

Safonov, A.F., 175

Schreiner, O., 431

Scorpan, V., 381�387

Senicovscaia, I., 48

Senikovskaya, I., 21�26

Sewage sludge, 13, 62, 132, 406�410

Shein, E.V., 83�90

Sipos, P., 310

Siuris, A., 389�393

Sod-podzolic soil/albeluvisol, 303�308

Sohi, S.P., 145

Soil

biota, 21�23, 25, 26, 83, 433, 434, 447

carbon, 270, 443�455

conservation capability, 295�301

contamination, 11, 73

erosion, 11, 17�19, 66, 102, 133, 145, 160,

295, 411, 415, 416, 418, 421, 453, 460,

467, 473

evolution, 73, 337, 407, 433

fatigue, 431�434

fertility, 10, 12�15, 18, 19, 46, 69, 70, 73,

161, 172, 176, 181, 183, 191, 192, 198,

199, 201�206, 213, 219, 229, 234, 236,

238, 242, 249, 267, 274�276, 283, 284,

288, 304, 350, 354, 366, 368, 369, 381,

390, 406, 407, 411�414, 421, 425, 431,

453, 454, 460, 461, 484, 485, 492, 493,

495

microbial biomass, 45, 261�265

nematodes, 37�42

organic carbon, 21, 23, 25, 29, 34, 52,

53, 138, 139, 193, 195, 213, 221,

222, 226, 229, 230, 241�249, 262,

268, 270, 444�446, 448, 454,

475, 485

organic matter, 15, 47, 53, 57�59, 65,

68, 70, 76, 83, 86, 87, 132, 136,

138�146, 179, 192�194, 198, 199,

205, 209, 210, 213, 220, 221, 229,

241, 245, 250�259, 261�265, 267,

268, 270, 276�279, 282, 331, 365,

373, 378, 387, 409, 410, 412, 413,

450, 451, 485, 486, 488, 492, 494

organic matter energy, 57�60

physical properties, 85, 89, 143�145, 299,

425

productivity, 18, 101�116, 160, 267

pro�le, 5, 58, 65, 77, 87, 194, 196, 197, 210,

213, 218, 219, 221, 223, 224, 229, 230,

241, 249, 250, 255, 259, 300, 325, 376,

399, 402, 485

quality, 10�11, 15, 21, 22, 26, 45, 46, 206,

251, 261, 262, 265, 373, 375, 381, 382,

387, 444�448, 452, 454, 481, 495

structural aggregates, 396

structural indices, 76�78, 80

structure, 11, 13, 15, 46, 143, 153, 173,

235, 252, 255, 276, 301, 354, 363,

373, 374, 377, 378, 381, 384�387,

395�397, 399, 411, 425�429,

446, 449

and water conservation, 10, 13, 17, 206,

295�301, 382, 493

water regime, 83, 399

Soukup, J., 125

Stability, 21, 22, 25, 26, 33, 87, 102, 132, 144,

145, 234, 270, 276, 301, 377, 378,

384�386, 392, 397, 399, 402, 411, 427,

447, 452, 472

Stadnic, S.S., 209�230

Standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration

index (SPEI), 120, 121, 123�126

Standardized precipitation index (SPI), 120,

121, 123�125

Steppe, 3�8, 12, 22, 180, 198, 268, 344, 375,

402, 421�423, 437, 439, 491

Stratulat, M.F., 283

Striganova, B.R., 22

Sugar beet, 13, 37�42, 47�49, 51, 104�106,

108�116, 168, 171�173, 176�179,

185�188, 190, 194, 198, 201, 210�212,

215, 217, 229, 233, 234, 238�244,

248�250, 262, 263, 268�270, 274, 277,

279, 280, 282, 331, 334, 344, 346, 366,

367, 369, 482, 484, 487

Index 501

Page 489

Sullivan, M.X., 431

Sustainability, 10, 25, 62, 131�133, 138,

141, 147, 159�161, 165, 168, 234,

235, 262, 265, 421, 487, 492, 493

Sustainable agriculture, 15, 159�168, 210, 363,

431, 479�488

Systems analysis, 395

T

Technosphere, 62

Thornthwaite, C.W., 121

Tillage, 13, 15, 52, 53, 58, 132, 133, 151, 154,

172, 211, 267, 269, 273�282, 297, 298,

344, 366, 381, 391, 395�403, 422, 450,

464, 488, 495

Timoshenko, A.G., 283

Toderas, I., 37�42

Tofan, E., 61�68, 395�403

Tonitto, C., 330

Trace elements, 69�74

Trasar-Cepeda, C., 51

Triboi, E., 329�341

Triboi-Blondel, A.-M., 329�341

Typical chernozem, 5�7, 21�26, 33,

46�53, 72, 73, 93, 176, 234, 262,

267�270, 274, 344, 373�376, 382,

395�403, 407, 412, 481, 491

U

Under-sowing, 353�363

Ungureanu, A.I., 233�250

Ursu, A.F., 3�8, 59

Ustinova, A., 295�301

V

Vakhnyak, V., 75�81

Vincente-Serrano, S.M., 120

Volosciuc, V., 431�434

Vronskih, M.D., 101�116

Vuscan, A., 309�319

W

Wallimann, I., 354

Water-soluble, 76, 77, 80, 247, 252�255, 258,

321, 322

Water-stability of soil aggregates, 399

Watts, C.W., 144

Western corn rootworm, 437�440

Wheat, 10, 30, 38, 47, 58, 104, 133, 162, 171,

176, 201, 210, 233, 252, 262, 267, 274,

284, 304, 309�319, 322, 331, 355, 382,

390, 392, 417, 418, 444, 481

Williams, V., 173

Winter vetch, 179, 180, 185, 188, 386, 387

Winter wheat, 10, 12, 13, 30, 47, 58, 59,

104�108, 110, 111, 114, 116, 134, 136,

141�143, 172, 173, 176�188, 190�195,

198, 201, 202, 211, 212, 215, 217, 229,

233, 235�241, 248�250, 252�254,

256�258, 262, 267�270, 274, 277, 280,

284, 310, 312, 331, 334, 344�350, 358,

360, 385, 386, 390, 417, 418, 481�484,

486, 487

Worm compost, 411�414

Y

Yield, 4, 10, 19, 38, 46, 57, 102, 131, 160, 172,

175, 201, 210, 233, 252, 267, 279, 296,

303�319, 329, 343, 356, 368, 379, 382,

391, 395, 406, 412, 422, 432, 438, 444,

467, 480

Z

Zagorchea, K.L., 283

Zaplitnyy, Y., 437�440

Zveaghintev, D.G., 268

502 Index

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