Download Soft Power and the UK's Influence - Evidence Volume 1 - Parliament PDF

TitleSoft Power and the UK's Influence - Evidence Volume 1 - Parliament
LanguageEnglish
File Size3.6 MB
Total Pages613
Table of Contents
                            SOFT POWER AND THE UK’S INFLUENCE COMMITTEE
Oral and written evidence – Volume 1
Contents
	Sir Antony Acland, Lord Hannay of Chiswick and Lord Jay of Ewelme – Oral evidence (QQ 292-309)
	Dr Rudolf Adam, Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany, H.E. Mr Keiichi Hayashi, Ambassador of Japan, H.E. Mr Roberto Jaguaribe, Ambassador of Brazil and H.E. Mr Kim Traavik, Ambassador of Norway – Oral evidence (QQ 187-199)
	Adam Smith International – Written evidence
	Indra Adnan, Soft Power Network – Written evidence
	All-Party Parliamentary Group on Global Health – Written evidence
	Professor Simon Anholt – Written evidence
	Professor Simon Anholt, Jonathan McClory and Agnès Poirier – Oral evidence (QQ 200-217)
	Dr Cristina Archetti, University of Salford – Written evidence
	ARM, Penspen Group Ltd, PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) and Shell – Oral evidence (QQ 218-235)
	Asia House – Written evidence
	Association of Commonwealth Universities – Written evidence
	BBC – Written evidence
	BBC – Supplementary written evidence
	BBC World Service, British Council and British Museum – Oral evidence (QQ 63-92)
	Nicholas Beadle CMG, RUSI and Government (Lt General Simon Mayall CB, Steve McCarthy, Ministry of Defence) – Oral evidence (QQ 42-62)
	Behavioural Dynamics Institute – Written evidence
	Dr Matt Beech and Dr Peter Munce, University of Hull – Written evidence
	Ian Birrell, Columnist and Foreign Correspondent, Jonathan Glennie, Overseas Development Institute, International Alert and Transparency International UK – Oral evidence (QQ 126-151)
	David Blackie – Written evidence
	BP – Written evidence
	British Academy – Written evidence
	British Council – Written evidence
	British Council, BBC World Service and British Museum – Oral evidence (QQ 63-92)
	British Council – Supplementary written evidence
	British Council – Further supplementary written evidence
	British Museum, British Council and BBC World Service – Oral evidence (QQ 63-92)
	British Museum – Supplementary written evidence
	Dr Robin Brown – Written evidence
	Centre for World Cinemas, University of Leeds and B: Film: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies – Written evidence
	Professor Michael Cox, London School of Economics (LSE), John Micklethwait, The Economist and Lord Williams of Baglan, Chatham House – Oral evidence (QQ 23-41)
	Wygene Chong – Written evidence
	Professor Andrew Coyle, International Centre for Prison Studies, University of Essex – Written evidence
	Commonwealth Business Council, Institute of Export and National Asian Business Association and Leicestershire Business Association – Oral evidence (QQ 93-115)
	Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA) – Written evidence
	Centre for European Reform, European Policy Forum and Open Europe – Oral evidence (QQ 165-175)
	Centre for Peace and Reconciliation Studies, Coventry University – Written evidence
	City of London Corporation – Written evidence
	Demos – Written evidence
	Richard Dowden, Royal Africa Society – Written evidence
	Durham Global Security Institute – Written evidence
	England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB), Lord Moynihan, former Chairman, British Olympic Association and the Premier League – Oral evidence (QQ 274-291)
	European Economics and Financial Centre – Written evidence
	European Policy Forum, Open Europe and Centre for European Reform – Oral evidence (QQ 165-175)
	Exporting Education UK (EdExUK) – Written evidence
	Exporting Education UK (EdExUK) – Supplementary written evidence
	Dr Ali Fisher – Written evidence
	Dr Iginio Gagliardone, University of Oxford – Written evidence
	Dr Jamie Gaskarth, University of Plymouth – Written evidence
	Roger Gifford, Lord of Mayor London – Oral evidence (QQ 236-245)
	Roger Gifford, Lord Mayor of London – Supplementary written evidence
	Professor Marie Gillespie and Dr Alban Webb, Open University – Written evidence
	Jonathan Glennie, Overseas Development Institute, International Alert, Transparency International UK and Ian Birrell, Columnist and Foreign Correspondent– Oral evidence (QQ 126-151)
	Government (Department for Business Innovation and Skills, Cabinet Office, Department for International Development, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Home Office, Ministry of Defence and UK Trade and Investment (UKTI)) – Written evidence
	Government (Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Department for International Development and Foreign and Commonwealth Office) – Oral evidence (QQ 1-22)
	Government (Department for International Development) – Supplementary written evidence
	Government (Foreign and Commonwealth Office) – Supplementary written evidence
	Government (Lt General Simon Mayall CB and Steve McCarthy, Ministry of Defence) and Nicholas Beadle CMG, RUSI – Oral evidence (QQ 42-62)
	Government (Foreign and Commonwealth Office), Baroness Prashar, H.E. Mr Carlos dos Santos, High Commissioner for the Republic of Mozambique – Oral evidence (QQ 152-164)
	Government (Foreign and Commonwealth Office) – Further supplementary written evidence
	Government (Mark Harper MP, Home Office) – Oral evidence (QQ 260-273)
	Government (Home Office) – Supplementary written evidence
	Government (Rt Hon Maria Miller MP, Department for Culture, Media and Sport and Michael Fallon MP, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills) – Oral evidence (QQ 329-342)
	Government (Michael Fallon MP, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills) – Supplementary written evidence
	Government (Rt Hon Hugo Swire MP, Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Dr Andrew Murrison, Ministry of Defence) – Oral evidence (Q368-383)
	Government (Justine Greening MP, Secretary of State, Department for International Development) – Supplementary written evidence
	Government – (Rt Hon Hugo Swire MP, Foreign and Commonwealth Office) – Supplementary written evidence
	‘Great Britain’ Campaign – Oral evidence (QQ 310-328)
	‘Great Britain’ Campaign – Supplementary written evidence
	Sir Jeremy Greenstock – Written evidence
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

SOFT POWER AND THE UK’S INFLUENCE COMMITTEE
Oral and written evidence – Volume 1

Contents
Sir Antony Acland, Lord Hannay of Chiswick and Lord Jay of Ewelme – Oral evidence (QQ
292-309) ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

Dr Rudolf Adam, Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany, H.E. Mr Keiichi Hayashi,
Ambassador of Japan, H.E. Mr Roberto Jaguaribe, Ambassador of Brazil and H.E. Mr Kim
Traavik, Ambassador of Norway – Oral evidence (QQ 187-199) ............................................... 23

Adam Smith International – Written evidence ................................................................................. 38

Indra Adnan, Soft Power Network – Written evidence ................................................................. 45

All-Party Parliamentary Group on Global Health – Written evidence ........................................ 57

Professor Simon Anholt – Written evidence .................................................................................... 66

Professor Simon Anholt, Jonathan McClory and Agnès Poirier – Oral evidence (QQ 200-
217) ............................................................................................................................................................. 68

Dr Cristina Archetti, University of Salford – Written evidence ................................................... 87

ARM, Penspen Group Ltd, PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) and Shell – Oral evidence (QQ
218-235) ..................................................................................................................................................... 95

Asia House – Written evidence ......................................................................................................... 113

Association of Commonwealth Universities – Written evidence .............................................. 115

BBC – Written evidence ...................................................................................................................... 122

BBC – Supplementary written evidence ........................................................................................... 132

BBC World Service, British Council and British Museum – Oral evidence (QQ 63-92) ...... 133

Nicholas Beadle CMG, RUSI and Government (Lt General Simon Mayall CB, Steve
McCarthy, Ministry of Defence) – Oral evidence (QQ 42-62) ................................................... 157

Behavioural Dynamics Institute – Written evidence...................................................................... 178

Dr Matt Beech and Dr Peter Munce, University of Hull – Written evidence ......................... 185

Ian Birrell, Columnist and Foreign Correspondent, Jonathan Glennie, Overseas Development
Institute, International Alert and Transparency International UK – Oral evidence (QQ 126-
151) ........................................................................................................................................................... 189

David Blackie – Written evidence ...................................................................................................... 217

BP – Written evidence .......................................................................................................................... 219

British Academy – Written evidence ................................................................................................ 221

British Council – Written evidence ................................................................................................... 226

British Council, BBC World Service and British Museum – Oral evidence (QQ 63-92) ...... 231

British Council – Supplementary written evidence ........................................................................ 232

British Council – Further supplementary written evidence ......................................................... 253

British Museum, British Council and BBC World Service – Oral evidence (QQ 63-92) ...... 256

Page 2

Sir Antony Acland, Lord Hannay of Chiswick and Lord Jay of Ewelme – Oral evidence (QQ
292-309)

2


British Museum – Supplementary written evidence ....................................................................... 257

Dr Robin Brown – Written evidence................................................................................................ 263

Centre for World Cinemas, University of Leeds and B: Film: The Birmingham Centre for
Film Studies – Written evidence ........................................................................................................ 269

Professor Michael Cox, London School of Economics (LSE), John Micklethwait, The
Economist and Lord Williams of Baglan, Chatham House – Oral evidence (QQ 23-41) ..... 272

Wygene Chong – Written evidence .................................................................................................. 295

Professor Andrew Coyle, International Centre for Prison Studies, University of Essex –
Written evidence ................................................................................................................................... 301

Commonwealth Business Council, Institute of Export and National Asian Business
Association and Leicestershire Business Association – Oral evidence (QQ 93-115) ............ 305

Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA) – Written evidence ................................... 321

Centre for European Reform, European Policy Forum and Open Europe – Oral evidence
(QQ 165-175) ......................................................................................................................................... 326

Centre for Peace and Reconciliation Studies, Coventry University – Written evidence ...... 338

City of London Corporation – Written evidence .......................................................................... 345

Demos – Written evidence ................................................................................................................. 350

Richard Dowden, Royal Africa Society – Written evidence ........................................................ 353

Durham Global Security Institute – Written evidence ................................................................. 355

England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB), Lord Moynihan, former Chairman, British Olympic
Association and the Premier League – Oral evidence (QQ 274-291) ....................................... 361

European Economics and Financial Centre – Written evidence ................................................. 380

European Policy Forum, Open Europe and Centre for European Reform – Oral evidence
(QQ 165-175) ......................................................................................................................................... 383

Exporting Education UK (EdExUK) – Written evidence .............................................................. 384

Exporting Education UK (EdExUK) – Supplementary written evidence ................................... 386

Dr Ali Fisher – Written evidence ....................................................................................................... 388

Dr Iginio Gagliardone, University of Oxford – Written evidence .............................................. 398

Dr Jamie Gaskarth, University of Plymouth – Written evidence ................................................ 401

Roger Gifford, Lord of Mayor London – Oral evidence (QQ 236-245) ................................... 406

Roger Gifford, Lord Mayor of London – Supplementary written evidence ............................. 417

Professor Marie Gillespie and Dr Alban Webb, Open University – Written evidence ......... 420

Jonathan Glennie, Overseas Development Institute, International Alert, Transparency
International UK and Ian Birrell, Columnist and Foreign Correspondent– Oral evidence (QQ
126-151) ................................................................................................................................................... 435

Government (Department for Business Innovation and Skills, Cabinet Office, Department for
International Development, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Home Office, Ministry of
Defence and UK Trade and Investment (UKTI)) – Written evidence....................................... 436

Page 306

Commonwealth Business Council, Institute of Export and National Asian Business
Association and Leicestershire Business Association – Oral evidence (QQ 93-115)

306


you would like to do that we want to hear from you today. That was my opening statement,
and now I would ask Mr Dholakia, as you asked, to make an opening statement.

Uday Dholakia: Thank you, Lord Chairman, my Lords. Soft power in terms of the British
Asian community is not a new phenomenon. It has been in existence within our culture for a
long time. It embraces human dignity, culture, media, religion, entertainment, arts, family and
commercial links. The invitation to a potential business colleague, be it an exporter or
importer, to come home and have a meal with the family essentially goes beyond just the
price and the contract. It is a soft-power engagement, based on a relationship on a long-term
basis, whether the business is transacted today, in five years’ time or on behalf of somebody
else or to help somebody else. In conclusion, my submission is very much that we have an
inside track into the commercial centre of gravity towards the east and as a country we
ought to engage with that inside track. Thank you.

Q94 The Chairman: Thank you very much. In a sense, it was a very valuable opening
statement that has really answered what is the first question to all three of you, which is
how you see the soft-power element in your work and the ambitions and goals of the
various members of your organisations. I should also have mentioned that Mr Maisey and Mr
Dholakia have sent through notes that we have. I am afraid it was rather late in the day, but
they are very useful and simple and short, which is the best thing of all, and we can probably
have questions built on those as well because they are in front of Members of the
Committee. Let me start with Peter Callaghan of the Commonwealth Business Council.
How do you respond to the question I put about the soft-power element in your work?

Peter Callaghan: I have long held the view that philosophies are much stronger than rules.
People are much more likely to do things for philosophical reasons than they will do by
following the rulebook. Another saying that I have is that leadership is not taken but it is
given. It is given as a result of followers being willing to follow you, so you cannot impose
leadership on people; people have to want to follow you as a leader.

I think that applies to what you are looking for in this soft power. The UK occupies a very
interesting position in terms of people aspiring to many of the values that Britain has and so
people are willingly following the leadership that is provided by the UK. You see that in our
language, education, sports and business; people willingly follow the values and the policies
and style of doing things that Britain has. I think Britain has soft power and it has always had
that. It occupies a unique position between Europe and the rest of the world.

One thing I would go back to is in the day of sailing ships Britain had a unique position that it
had many of the harbours where large ocean-going ships had to trans-ship into smaller ships
that went into the rest of Europe, and I think Britain is in a similar position today. It bridges
the gap between the European world and other parts of the world, whether that be Africa,
North America or Asia. The UK occupies a unique position, especially because of education.
A lot of people in these countries have been educated here or they have sent their children
or they have had special courses. I think that is a very important part of the soft-power
aspect of the UK.

The thing I would like to finish on is relationships—my colleague touched on this—and the
fact that business is all about building relationships. You do not do business with people you
do not know. You need to have time to build those relationships and from those
relationships comes an understanding of each other—not necessarily an acceptance but
certainly an understanding. The Commonwealth is an important way of building those
relationships very quickly because we have a common language and we have some common
history. So while the Commonwealth is not a super-weapon, so to speak, in this battle that

Page 307

Commonwealth Business Council, Institute of Export and National Asian Business
Association and Leicestershire Business Association – Oral evidence (QQ 93-115)

307


the Prime Minister talks about, it is nevertheless a very important enabling part of building
the relationships that are necessary for trade to be based on around the world. Thank you.

Q95 The Chairman: The clerk has just reminded me that I said outside that we had
already stripped down in this Committee. I believe it is the hottest day of the year so far,
and if any of you would like to take your jackets off, we would completely understand.
Thank you very much. We are going to come back to a number of the points you have
made, too, but could I just ask Mr Maisey if he would like to begin with the central point:
what his organisation does and how he sees this soft power dimension?

David Maisey: Thank you, Lord Chairman. I am representing the Institute of Export today
as a newly appointed director and trustee. I also own and manage a company, ICC Solutions
Ltd, and we supply and develop test tools for chip and PIN by way of a very large global
customer base. So I am actively engaged in export on a day-to-day basis with my
organisation.

Our view of soft power is it defines a nation’s brand image and influences how our
organisations and our products are perceived. There are a number of components of soft
power: government, education, culture and, very importantly, innovation. Certainly from my
experience, one of the most powerful things about UK business is our ability to be
innovative and deliver the highest levels of excellence in terms of solutions and customer
service. We are engaged in a relatively niche market but we work, as ICC Solutions, with all
of the payment associations and the major banks over the globe. They demand the best-
quality solutions. Our closest competitors are based in Europe, in France, Holland and
Belgium, yet we rise above these other organisations simply because of the British way of
doing business and how we excel in certain things.

There are some tangible components of soft power, notably, for example, the Queen’s
Awards for Enterprise. My organisation won two Queen’s Awards for Enterprise last year in
international trade and innovation, and I can tell you that these have been exceedingly well
received by our global client base, not just within the Commonwealth but outside the
Commonwealth as well. They have a massive impact on how our organisation has been
perceived. I think generally soft power is about excellence; it is about innovation and quality
and the British way of doing business.

Q96 The Chairman: Thank you very much indeed. The British way of doing business—
that is a very useful springboard phrase to develop. Would any Members of the Committee
like to come in at this stage?

I think what you have described is fine in general, but we have to try to work out how this is
going to be developed in the British interest. Let me start with a headline from today or
yesterday: the Olympics are said to have contributed mightily to actual deals and real
returns. Is that the sort of soft power that you have in mind? Do you think those figures are
right, incidentally, about getting £9.9 billion-worth of extra deals out of the Olympics?
Would any of you like to comment on that?

Uday Dholakia: I think that was something to celebrate, but the Olympics only comes
around after so many years. I was listening to the radio on the way down here, and I also, if
my memory serves me right, heard how many millions were put into the Olympic
redundancy packages. We live in the real-time values of Twitter, e-mails and blogs. While we
celebrate, the perception of what the Olympics did and did not do is mixed around the
world. While we have a very good reputation, and my colleague has touched on that, as a
result of the British way of doing business, my question is: what is the British way of doing

Page 612

Sir Jeremy Greenstock – Written evidence

612


the growing respect for those who take responsibility for their own development in a
meritocratic and egalitarian environment. Leading by example in the economic sphere
works, where attempting to do the same in the military or political sphere does not.

When it comes to the UK, the following points are important:

- economic health, not to say dynamism, through competing in a fair and law-abiding way for
globally available opportunities, becomes paramount;

- any reliance on attributes or privileges derived from the past decrease in effect with time;

- our connectedness to most parts of the world, through history, trade, membership of
institutions and good diplomacy, remains a strong advantage, as does our familiarity with the
increasing complexity, diversity and vulnerability of the digital universe;

- the attractiveness of the UK in cultural or presentational terms is increased by its
acceptance of an equal and meritocratic world, by consideration for other cultures and for
those in less advanced stages of development and by perceptions of the contributions the
UK makes to global problem-solving;

- where the UK is compelled to make choices, for instance in a regional crisis, its adherence
to the principles of international behaviour and its ability to win the backing of mainstream
international opinion become more important in a world in which legitimacy has a concrete
force.

We undoubtedly have a number of things running in our favour. The widespread use of the
English language, however much influenced by the cultural power of the United States, gives
us a distinct advantage. The example and longevity of our principal institutions, the
monarchy, Parliament, the law, the City and the best of our media, exercise an influence well
beyond the Commonwealth. Our capacity in international forums to help solve problems,
find compromises and negotiate texts is seen as constructive. Our general professional
competence is admired, though only against the background of widespread incompetence
elsewhere.

We also carry some handicaps. The most significant is our lack of robust economic health
and commercial dynamism. We gain surprisingly few image points for innovation and
technology, in spite of the reality of considerable capability in these fields. It may be the
marketing. We are also seen as relying on privilege, something that stems from our
continuing permanent membership of the UN Security Council, our role in NATO and the
Commonwealth and perhaps most significantly from our almost obsessive relationship with
the US. On this last point, while we should assign high priority to the quality of Anglo-
American relations, we should be aware enough of the occasional differences in the mindset
and values of our two peoples not to be afraid of taking a distinctive position when it reflects
our national interest and character better.

The importance of soft power lies not in its superiority to hard power, as though there was
a binary choice, but in its indispensability in 21st century geopolitics as a corollary of hard
power. For the reasons given above, relying primarily on hard power reduces the impact
and acceptability of a state's policies. But soft power, the capacity to persuade and attract, is
insufficient on its own to promote and defend national or group interests. In certain critical

Page 613

Sir Jeremy Greenstock – Written evidence

613


circumstances, it can too easily be ignored. The story of the EU in modern times illustrates
that.

It is the balanced combination of hard and soft power that is most effective. Speak
persuasively, but carry a big stick. The UK has been notable, at least before it began to
reduce its armed forces to too low a quantity, for creating as good a balance in that respect
for its size of population as any country. Our armed forces and our diplomatic skills are
equally professional. Our willingness to choose either dialogue or hard action gains respect,
at least when the choice is well judged by international norms. The BBC, the British
Council, the British arts world and UK sport, together with other aspects of our culture and
presentation, are world class when properly resourced.

I hope that the Committee will, above all, pay attention to the maintenance of this balance
and to the need for both sides of it to be adequately cared for.

17 September 2013

Similer Documents